Skip to main content

Full text of "The Geographical journal"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



Tbu Dimm w^wte^e ri ' bferanjt 




mLAND-SIANFORuawiiuK-VaWHSirY 



5<!1-' )>a-^^.-»v^ 



The 



Geographical Journal 



IVCLUDnO THZ PKOOUDUiaB OT Thb Botal Okakaphioai SOOIBTT, 




PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE COUNCIL. 
EDITED BY THE .SECRETARY. 



VOL. XXII.— Jui-r TO rrxEMBBB, lOOS. 



LONDON : 

THE BOYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 1, Sivilk How; 

ZDWABD 8TAHF0KD, 12. 13 *nd 14, Loho Acbb, W.C. 

1903, 



\ -*- 




vil 




ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. 



PATRON. 
HIS MAJESTY THE KING. 

VIOX-PATBON. 

HIS BOTAL HIGHNESS THE PRINCE OF WALES, E.G. 

COUNCIL. 

(SLSOTED MAT 18, 1903.) 

Preildent--Sir Olusnts B. Markwam, E.O.B., F.B.S., F.S.A. 

Vloe-Pre8ident8. 

Cblonel G. Earl Church. Admiral Sir P. Leopold McClimtock, 

Colonel Sir Thomas Hitngkrford Hol- K.C.B., D.C.L., P.B.S. 

DiCH, R.E., K.C.LE., C.B. SirGEORGBS.MACKBNziE,K.C.M.G.,C.B. 

Lord Lamingtox, G.C.M.Q. Field-Marshal Sir Henry W. Norman, 

G.C.B., G.C.M.G., CLE. 

Treasurer — ^Edward L. Somers Cooks. 



TroBtees — ^Bight Hon. Lord Aveburt, D.C.L., F.B.S. ; Lord Belhaven 

AMD StBNTON. 



Honorary Secretaries — Major Leonard Darwin, B.E. ; James F. Hughes. 
Foreign Seoretary— Sir John Eire, E.C.B., G.C.M.G., F.B.S. 

Members of Oonnoil. 
Admiral Sir Lewis A. Beaumont, Sir Harry H. Johnston, G.C.M.G., 



K.C.M.G. 



E.CB. 



Prof. T. G. BoNNEY, D.Sc., LL.D., j L. W. Lonostaff. 



F.B.S. 
Admiral Sir Jambs Bruce, E.C.M.G. 
J. Annan Bryce. 
Sir H. E. G. Bulwer, G.C.M.G. 
Prof. J. Norman Colub, F.B.S. 
Colonel J. Cbcil Dalton, B.A. 
Prof. R J. Garwood, F.G.S. 
Bight Hon. Sir George D. T. Goldib, 

K.C.M.G., F.R.S., D.C.L. 
D. G. Hogarth, M.A. 
Colonel D. A. Johnston, B.E. 



Howard Saunders, F.L.S. 

General J. H. M. Shaw Stewart, 

Xi.£., F.B.o.£l. 
H. Yates Thompson, J.P. 
Admiral Sir Bichard E. Tracey, 

K.C.B. 
Colonel J. K. Trotter, C.B., C.M.G., 

B.A. 
Colonel Charles Moore Watson, B.E., 

C.B., C.M.G. 
Commander David Wilbon-Barker, 

B.N.B., Pree. B.M.S., F.R.S.E. 



Seoretary and Bditor of Publicatione-^. Scott Ksltdi, LL.D. 

Idbrarian— Edward Heawood, M.A. 
Kap Cnrator. | Chief Clerk. 

B. A. Bketes, FJLA.B. | 8. J. Eyis. 

Bankers— Metsra. Cooks, Biddulph and Co., 43, Charing Cross. 



CONDITIONS OP FELLOWSHIP, Ac. 



Candidates for admiflsion into the Society must be proposed and 
seconded by Fellows, and it is necessary that the description and resi- 
dence of such Candidates should be clearly stated on their Certificates. 

It is provided by Chapter lY., § 1, of the Begnktions, that — 

'*Kwery Ordinarj Fellow shall, on his election, be required to pay £5 m his 
^'admieiion fee, and £2 aa hiB first annual rabsoription, or he may oompoond, 
^ either at his entrance by one payment of £85, or at any lubfleqaent period on the 
** following baiifl : — 

Fellowi of 20 years' standing and oyer £12 lOt. 

n 15 „ ^ and under 20 ... £16 

10 n „ „ 15 ... £20 

** And no Fellow shall be entitled to vote or to enjoy any other privilege of the 
** Society so long as he shall continue in arrear." 

All Subscriptions are payable in adyance, on the 1st of January in 
each year. 

The privileges of a Fellow include admission (with one Friend) to 
all ordinary Meetings of the Society, and the use of the Library and 
Map-room. Each Fellow is also entitled to receiye a copy of all the 
Society's periodical publications. The Oeographical Journal is forwarded, 
free of expense, to all Fellows whose addresses are known. 



Copies of the Year Book, Regulations, and Candidates' Certifloates may be had on 
applioation at the Society's House, 1. Savile Row* London, W. 



CONTENTS. 



Auihori are alone re$p(m$il>le for iheir reepeotive staiementf. 



No. 1. July, 



PAOK 



Address to the Royal Geographical Society, 1903. By Sir Clements R. 

Markham, k.cb., f.r.s., President 1 

The First Year's Work of the National Antarctic Expedition. By Sir 

Clements R. Markham, K.C.B., F.R.8., President (with Mip) 13 

National Antarctic Expedition : Report of the Commander (with Map) .. 20 
The Second Norwegian Polar Expedition in the Fram, lb 08-1002. By 

Captain Otto Sverdrup (with 10 Illustrations) 38 

Summary of Geological Results. By P. Schei (with G Illustratioas and 

Sketch-map) CG 

Admiralty Surveys during the year 1002 69 

Reviews : — 

Europe — Old London. Europe in the Sixteenth Century 70 

Asia — French Indo-China 72 

Africa — Map of the Mirchand Expedition across Africa 73 

Mathematical and Physical Geography — English and Irish Climates. 

General Climatology .74 

General — Encyclopaedia Britannica ., 76 

The Monthly Record 70 

Obituary 01 

Correspondence 92 

Meetings of the Royal Geographical Society 97 

Geographical Literature of the Month 102 

NewMapa 114 

Maps. 

Geological Sketch-map illustrating Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 

1898-1902 67 

Sketch-map of the National Antarctic Expedition 120 

No. 2. August. 

'i 
Earth-movements in the Bay of Naples. By R. T. Giinther, m.a., f.r.g.s., 

Fellow of Magdalen CoUegti, Oxford (with 11 Illustrations and Map) .. 121 
Geographical Distribution of Vegetation in Yorkshire. By Dr. William G. 

Smith, Yorkshire College, Leeds, and W. Munn Rankin, b.sc. (with 

Plates and Map) 149 

Through the Barren Ground of North- Eastern Canada to the Arctic Coast. 

By David T. Hanbury (with 9 Illustrations and Map) .. 178 



^ OOmBTSw 



FAGS 



Th« Twaiiifeologj azid Nom«nclAtixre of the Forms of Siib-oceanic Relief .. 1 9L 

Xcte OQ Map o£ 8oatiir>W«i( Cluiu» to accompaaj CmpUin Rjiier*s Paper .. 195 

The Germaii AuUrctic Expedicion 195 

EvKOPE—XorthrWest Europe. EOscorrc/ FAlmoath 204 

AftiA— Siberia " 206> 

AraiCA— Tripoli. Adveatxirai in British Ejst AiHca 207 

The Momhly Record 2<>S 

OhUaar^ 221 

Qee^nphical Literalore of the Moath 221 

Nivllaw 2» 



M4p of the Beceat and Ancieac Coeet-Ixnes of the Phk^neaa FkUd .. .. 23»> 

Mai^of QeufLcaphiod Di^tribotioa of Vegecafiioa la TorfcshireL Part IL .. 23»> 

Ma|^ of the Xorthem F^rt of the Dominioii of Canada 23»> 

Map of Soath-Werten Chiu 23d 



BuhTOMtrical Surre^^ of the Fceeh-waier Lochs of ScocIuuL CiL*ier che 
Pifeniim oi Sir John Murraf , k^^b^ and Laarence FtilLir, fjsjSwE. ( vicii 
13 nhiatzafewiBV Index Map^ and ILipe) 237 

Earth Mtfiemimas in the Bar id Xapittk Br B. T. GiiatiMr, x.a., F.aa^.:^, 

FeOov of M^pJnLn Coilese. Oxford with 6 IHaacnifiione) 26^ 

On S^hancal Mape and Beiietk Bj Fro£ Bissee Becins 29(> 

^taretur Sledge Tcaveiling. By :he PreBitent ^with II lUubCraciooa of 

Sln%e F.a^ of thd Z^ucriiwrsr Expedisiim> ^ .. .. ^ 29%^ 

On Sdim Xew Lakea and a LiCtie^knovn F^rt of Cdncral yewfanmilaatL 

B^ J« G. MHIaiay fj:.^ ^with Sheteh-canp and IHuatracion) 3I>> 

The ^|hth laCBraananal Geographhai Ointfieai ^ ^ 312 



LDon u Loffflica .. ••»•.. .. .. .. ^I^ 

ibKJk--JUBacxc Buaaa. Stbehn and Manchuria^. Sakhalin ^ 314 

AniBa — MutoGCQL The Congo Sfcace. Thn^xger. Xigsna 3l> 

AMmK^— The Siecna Xevadn 321 

MaxosxATZC^^ A^R> PsTSCJLL GsxhiB^j^ar — EToinciua af Bocmical 



521 

324: 

524 

:3S 

335- 

552 



ot Pare Ji CenoBL yi e w iouud lnnd ... :or 

oi uie Tjrkhan aai XirTunbar Eivezs . -2'^ 
of the BafihyxiHChcaL Sirvej a uie F SBah-va^er locae -j< S.vH.Anti. 

Placea L to VLL .. ^ t5o 



• • 



QOirrBNTS. vu 
No. 4. October. 

FAOX 

Ciliciay Tarros, and the Great Taunis Pass. By Prof. W. M. Bamsay (with 

9 Illustrations and Maps) 357 

A Scheme of Gkography. By Prof. W. M. Davis (with 3 Illustrations) .. 413 
A Journey across the Ny ika Plateau. By J. McGlounie, Head of the Scientific 

Department, BriUsh Central Africa Protectorate (with Sketch-map) .. 423 

Notes to accompany Map of the Yavary. By C. Satchell (with Map).. 437 
Terrestrial Msgnetism in its Relation to Geography. By Captain Ettrick W. 

Creak, G.B., B.N., F.BJi. (with 2 Maps) 438 

Reviews : — 

Asia — Khotan. India in Early Maps. Persia. Formopa 440 

The Monthly Record 454 

Geographical Literature of the Month 460 

NewMape 480 

Maps. 

Maps to illustrate the Paper on Cilicia, Tarsus, and the Great Taurus Pass .. 484 

Map of the River Yavary 484 

Maps to illustrate Paper on Terrestrial Magnetism in its Relation to 

Geography * 484 



No. 6. November, 

Journeys in Mongolia. By C. W. Campbell, c.m.g. (with 7 lilustralions. 

Sketch-map, and Map) .. 485 

Bathymetrical Survey of the Fresh-water Lochs of Scotland. Under the 
Direction of Sir John Murray, k.c.b., f.b.s., d.sc, etc., and Laurence 
Pullar, F.R.B.E. (with 2 Illustrations, Index Map, and 5 Plates) .. .. 521 

Dr. and Mrs. Workman in the Himalayas .. 541 

Greography at the British Association Meeting at South port 544 

Geographical Education at the British Association 549 

Reviews : — 
Africa — Uganda and the Upper Nile. We^t Africa. Early African 

Cartography 554 

General — Early Travel. A Geographical Year-book. The British 
Empire. Tropical Diseases. The Geography of Disease. Geographical 

Bibliography 556 

The Monthly Record 562 

Obituary 574 

COTrespondence 575 

Geographical Literature of the Month 577 

New Maps 691 

Maps. 

Sketch-map of Ealgan 487 

Index Map of the Tay Basin 522 

Map to illustrate Mr. C. W. Campbell's Route through Eastern Mongolia .. 600 
Maps of the Batbymetrical Survey of the Fresh-water Lochs of Scotland, 

Plates L to V COD 



▼iii OOMTKHTa. 



No. 6. December. 

PAOE 

Expodition to Caopjlicao Bolivia, 1901-1902. By Dr. John William Evans 

(with 8 lUufltrations and Map) 601 

Four Tears' Arctic Exploration, 1898-1902. By Commander R. E. Peary, 

U.8.H. (with 8 niustratlons and Map) 646 

Exploration of Fluvial Highways in Peru. By Sir Clements Markham, 

K.O.B., President B.G.8. (with Sketch-map) 672 

The Alaska Boundary. By Colonel Sir T. H. Holdich, k.c.h.o., k.c.i.b., c.b. 

(with Sketch-map) 674 

The Republic of Panamd. By Colonel G. E. Church (with Sketch-map) .. 676 

National Antarctic Expedition 686 

Reviews : — 

Africa — The Tawarek. Sierra Leone. Southern Angola 689 

Mathexatioal akd Phtsioal Geogbafht — Mediasval Cartography. 

Supan's Physiography 69^ 

UiSTOBicAL Geoorapht — ^Anciont Map of Asia Minor. Ancient Greek 

(Geography. Arab Descriptions of Egypt 695 

The Monthly Record .. 696 

Obituary 705 

Correspondence 707 

Meetings of the Royal Geographical Society 709 

Qeographical Literature of the Month 710 

New Maps 720 

Maps. 

Sketch-map of the Republic of Panama 679 

Sketch-map of Caupolican and Adjoining Portions of Northern Bolivia .. 72i 
Sketch-map to illustrate the North Polar Explorations of Commander R. E. 

Peary, uak 724 

Sketch-map of the Southern Affluents of the Bio Madre de Dios to illustrate 

the Paper by Sir Clements Markham, K.c.B 724 

Sketoh-map of the Boundary between British Columbia and Alaska .• 724 



' * 



> • •' 



.' •• 



I 



Th 



Geographical Journal. 



No. 1. JULY, 1903. Vol. XXH; 



ADDRESS TO THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 1908.* 

By Sir CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM, E.O.B., F.RS., PreBident. 

It ifl, I think, very satisfactory to find that the Society, year by year, 
continues to flourish and to increase the number of its members ; and 
that, in spite of the diminution of income caused by our large grant 
to the Antarctic Expedition, oor means of usefulness have not been 
materially reduced. I feel very strongly that our flourishing condition 
IB due, in no small measure, to the efficiency and excellence of the 
Society's staff; and, first and foremost, to the admirable way in which 
the Journal is edited by our Secretary. The new series has now reached 
its twentieth volume, covering the period from 1893 to 1903. In my 
anniversary address for 1 894, I was already able to record that it was 
quoted everywhere; that it was favourably noticed by the principal 
organs of the preps ; and, above all, that it was highly commended by 
the celebrated German geographer Baron von Richthofen, than whom 
there is no better judge. Since that time the Journal may truly be 
said to have improved from year to year. It is now the chief repository 
of geographical information from all parts of the world. It contains 
original maps, such as that of the Congo and those of the Eang- 
chenjunga, of the utmost value ; and the numerous illustrations have 
largely increased its popularity and usefulness. Such excellence could 
not be reached without oorresponding expenditure; but this is met, 
to some extent, by receipts from advertisements. The Society owes 
the high position held by our Journal to the ability and untiring 
labour of its accomplished Secretary, Dr. Scott Eeltie. As for his 
other work for the Society, there are few Fellows who have not 
personal knowledge and experience of his unfailing courtesy, his inde- 
fatigable industry, and his sound judgment in all matters relating to our 

•* Bead at the AnniverBary MeetiDg, May 18, 1903. 

No. L— July, 1908.] b 



• •- 



• • 






' ^« 



2 /'XQbRESS TO THE ROTAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETT. 1»03. 

t * » 

• 

worlr.«.''Tbe Oonnoil plaoes the highest value on the way in which the 

Sooi^ly^B bubiness is conducted by Dr. Eel tie ; and for myself personally 

I can (Bay witb truth that tbe President is relieyed of half bis labours, 

'aod of all his anxieties, by the perfect confidence he is able to place 

^..'••in the ability and zealous work of the Secretary. Dr. Keltic enters 

./\.' upon every new project for the advancement of geography and for the 

'-*.** increased usefulness of the Society's operations witb an amount of zeal 

and intelligence tbat cannot easily be surpassed. It is, however, only 

those who are daily working witb bim that can know the full extent 

of the good that be accomplishes. 

Tbe Society is, at tbe present time, very fortunate in having tbe 
services of such an excellent staff. In Mr. Heawood we have a librarian 
who possesses no ordinary knowledge of geographical literature, and 
who takes a keen interest in completing our library and in making it 
as useful and accessible as possible to tbe Fellows. Mr. Reeves has bad 
an experience of our map-room extending over a quarter of a century. 
His qualifications as curator are, therefore, unequalled. But it is for 
his BUCccFS as an instructor tbat tbe Society is most indebted to bim. 
Mr. Beeves combines a profound knowledge of bis subject witb rare 
gifts of exposition, and I bear on all bands that bis system of instruction 
gives tbe greatest satisfaction to those who benefit from it. The 
number of students has greatly increased. During tbe past year sixty- 
four students have passed tbrough Mr. Beeves' bands, and four have 
succeeded in obtaining tbe Society's diploma. Mr. Evis, our chief clerk 
and accountant, has now been in our service for thirty-seven years, and 
has held bis present post for twenty years. I have always looked upon 
him as a model of efficiency, and as one in whom tbe most complet.e 
reliance can be placed. 

Our service is liked, and members of our staff do not care to leave it. 
One of them has served us for upwards of fifty years. Tbe junior 
members of it are efficient and zealous, and all pull well together. I 
have been struck by this on several occasions. Quite recently, on tbe 
occasion of our Elizabethan Exhibition, all tbe arrangements were ably 
and admirably conducted, without a mistake, with excellent taste, and 
without a complaint. 

In my address last year I referred to tbe action taken by tbe Council, 
in resolving tbat there should be a Special Education Committee to deal 
witb communications from tbe London School Board and tbe Oxford 
and Cambridge Local Examination Board. This committee has con- 
sidered tbe subject of geographical education at several sittings, and 
has drawn up two syllabuses for tbe guidance of teachers of geography, 
one dealing witb elementary education, and tbe other witb secondary 
education. It is hoped tbat these syllabuses will be issued shortly, and 
that they will tend to place our science on a clear and satisfactory basis 
both in elementary and secondary schools. 



ADDnESS TO TRE ROYAL OKOOBAPHtCAL SOaETT, iSOn, 3 

In other directions during the past year evidenoee of the inoretieing 
intereet in geography as an educational eiibjeet have been manifest. 
Urxent inqniiiefl are received at the Society's rooms as lo where good 
geographical teachers can be found, or asking for guidance or advice 
H8 to methods and appliances, maps and text-books. It is to be hoped 
that ill the re-organization of education, whioh is on foot in this country, 
provision for the adequate training of teachers in geography will be 
made, as is the case with other subjects. More than one of our pubUo 
sohools is known to be equipping itself fur the more thorough teach- 
ing of geography by the purchase of orographical mapt>, and in other 
ways. It may further be noted, as a sign of the movement in progress, 
that & course of lectures on the teaching of geography was recently 
delivered in Leeds, at the instance of the West Riding County Council, 
and was attended by more than eight hundred experienced teachers 
from seoondsry and primary schools. 

The position of geography in the Universities continues to be hopeful. 
The arrangements for the school at Oxford are in all respects satisfaotory, 
and there at last wo see our long-continued efforts bearing fruit. At 
the regular courses, during the past year, there has been an attendance 
of nearly one hundred and fifty students. In addition, a most success- 
fnl vacation course has been held, which was followed by more than 
twenty teachers, nearly all graduates. A " certificale in geography" 
bu been established by the University to meet the needs of those who 
cannot spare the time required for a Diploma, There is now a distinct 
prospect of an important step forward being taken at Cambridge. On 
this I oaunot say more at present, but I am not without hope that before 
the close of the year geography at Cambridge will at Isst be on a satis- 
factory footing. The Reader at Cambridge. Mr. Yule Oldham, has, 
meanwhile, given courses of lectures on the geography of Europe, 
showing the inflnenoe of physical features on national development, 
which were attended by thirty students in the Michaelmas and forty- 
one in the Lent term, lie has also given lectures on the principles of 
physical geography, less nnmer^usly attended, and on the history of 
geographical discovery. Altogether he had over ninety attidente attend- 
ing his lectnres during last term. Mr. Yule Oldham has also organized 
fortnightly evening meetings, on the model of a German " Colloquium," 
at which original papers have been road bj- selected students. 

I was able to report to you last year that geography had been 
placed on a proper footing in the reconstituted University of London. 
Among other arrangements, it has been included in the optional 
subjects in the matriculation examination. The programme of the 
subjects for this examination was in every respect satisfactory, placing 
geography on a level worthy of a university. The first examina- 
tion baa been held under this programme, and the paper was a stiff 
one. The number of candidates was hixty-six, but the resnlt was not 



ADDRESS TO THE ROYAL GEOORAPHICAL SOCIETV. 1B03. 



1 



altogether eatiafactory, tbongh not Burprising on the firet begioning ; 
for the examinatioa made a demand on powers of obeervation and 
reasoning to which pupils in this country have not been aecuetomed. 
There is every reason to expect that, in time, both teachers and papils 
will rise to the standard. In the London University large olaeses have 
attended the geographical courses at the School of Eoonomice, one of 
them containing nearly twenty graduates. The first intermediate 
examination for the degree of B.So. in economies is about to take plaoe, 
with geography as one of the obligatory subjects. 

It will be remembered that in 1894 I introduced the plan of print- 
ing, with the general list of Fellowa, a list of those who have read 
papers, published books, or are known to have a special knowledge of 
any department of our science, which I called a List of Referees, 
because papers or queetions can be advantageously referred to them for 
report. This list has annually been corrected and revised. It was 
thought that it would be the ambition of younger Fellows to qualify 
themselves for inclusion in the list; and in other ways I hoped that 
the plan would have a tendency to draw the Fellows more together, 
and into nearer touch with the ("'ounoil. This has been the ease to 
some extent, but not to the extent I hoped. 

With a somewhat similar intention, I instituted the plan of having 
afternoon meetings in our map-room, for the reading and diseuseion of 
strictly ecientifio or technical papers at a time and place where there 
could be special audiences and full discussions. The afternoon meetings 
were oommenced in November, 1894, and twenty-three papers have 
since been read. Some of them, such as Prof. Riicker'a on terrestrial 
magnetism. Dr. Gregory's on the age of the Atlantio, Mr. Vaughan 
Cornish's on the formation of sand-dunes. Sir John Farquharson's on 
the Ordnance Survey, Mr. Bemacchi's on the great ice-barrier, and 
those by M. Elis6e Reelus, were important, and were followed by in- 
teresting disouseions. The plan proved to be useful and capable of 
further development, and I think that the time is now ripe for organiz- 
ing and systematizing these afternoon meetings with a view to the 
promotion of geographical research in various directions, under the 
supervision of those who would be best qualified to undertake such 
a task. 

From the commencement of our Society its Councils have main- 
tained that the field of geography embraces, not only expeditions for 
discovery and exploration by sea and land, but also research in various 
directions, both in the study and in the field. Any one looking back 
Uirough the volumes of the old Journal and Proceedings will find not a 
few papers dealing with investigations, as distinguished from explora- 
tion. Our traditions, therefore, authorize us to give special eneoorage- 
ment to geographical research, both in its purely scientific and in its 
practical aspeots. 




^^ ADDREaS TO THE ROYAL QEOaRAPHlCAL SOCIETY, 1903. 6 

Mainly through the coatiDtied activity of the Sooiety daring the 
lut twenty-tive years, a school of young geographers has grown up, 
who are oarryiog out researobee in varioiiB departmenta of our soienoe, 
and who are thus helping to raise the standard of geography in this 
country. It eeems the duty of the Society to do what it can to en- 
coorage work of this kind, aud to invite those who are taking part ia 
it to lay their results before the Society. Thia has, hitherto, been done 
to Bome extent at the afternoon meetiugs, and it is now only necessary 
to introduce a more organized procedure, so that there may be a regular 
supply of suitable papers. If the meetings are arranged at fixed dates, 
it will be possible to obtain an audience capable of discussing each 
aabject that ia brought forward. 

A permanent committee has now been appointed to deal with this 
department of the work of the Society, to be called the " Besearob 
Committee." It will consist of those Fellows, taken from the List of 
Kefereee, who are moat interested in, and best qualified to deal with, the 
subjects which are embraced in geographical research, as distinguished 
from exploration, in all its numerous branches. It ia intended that the 
committee shall be a large one, and shall include the more distinguished 
students and men of acience among our Fellows, iis well oa the members 
of our Council ex officio. The committee will meet for the discussion 
of anch results of investigation aa may be brought before them ; and 
tha Council may be able to set apart a moderate sum eaoh year for the 
pnrpoae of encouraging snoh researches among the younger geographical 
aspirants. 

Among the numerous lines that research may take, the following 
have been snggeated : — 

New methods of eurveying, mapping, or computing. 

Discussion of a definite problem of geomorphology {e.tj. analysis of 
a river system or a coast-HneJ. 

Disouaaion of a definite problem of hydrography (e.i/. circulation of 
water in a restricted sea area). 

DiaoUGsion of a definite problem of meteorology (e.g. modifications of 
general weather conditions by local features). 

Kegional studies {e.g. syntbeais of the geography of a county or of a 
natural unit sach as the Fens). 

Investigation of distrihattou (^e.g, of Gome crop in relation to natural 
facilities and access to markets ; of former forests in rela- 
tion to existing boundaries ; of village and town sites in a 
district). 

Mapping of distribution of plant assooiations in a given area, or of 
a human disease in relation to climate and soil. 

History of the map of some country (e.y. the British Isles). 

Investigation of evidence of physical ohanges within historiral times 
^^^ {e.g. the British coasts ; the desiccation of oontinentsj. 



1 



(i ADDBIiSS TO THE ROYAL OKOGBAPHICAL SOCIETV, 

Dieoussion of the relation of laud fuimij to military muvcmeutH in h 
seleoted area, or a chosen campaign. 

DisoQBsion of the relation of land forme to the diatribntioD of tuan ; 
to the distribution of animala in any area. 

Geographical conditione affecting the developniont and colonization 
of any given region. 

Complete inveatigatione from the geograjihical standpoint of a 
limited area of unexplored or partially explored territory. 

There is stilt ample room for exploratidn and expeditiooH of discovery. 
We have scarcely yet laid down the great lines of the world's geography, 
aud there is wurk for geneTdtions to come in filling in the delails, 
though future exploration must become more and more exact and 
scientific in its character. But we ought also to encourage research, 
for which exploration furnishes the raw material. By the plan now 
in eontejiplation, we shall develop the purpoBes of the List of Referees 
by constituting the Reaeurch Committee ; and we shall develop further 
the object of the afteiuoon meetings by promoting research, the results 
of which will place the meetings on a mote assured and regular system, 
by creating the necessity for their being more frequent and at fixed 
intervals. 

Turning from our own efforts for the advancement of geography, to 
the labours of our assooiatea and friends in the field during the past 
year, I would first refer to the expedition under our Vice-President, 
Sir '1' bom as Holdich, from which many interesting and important 
results may bo expected. Last year Sir Thomas went for a second 
time to the Fatagonian Andes in connection with the delimitation of 
boundaries between the Argentine Republic and Chile. We may expeot 
to have an account of the tcsnlts of his researches at one of our meetings 
next session. Our associate, Mr. Hanbury, has lately returned from 
an exploration along the arctic shores of North America, aud in the 
inhospitable regioa to the suuth. He has brought back much valuable 
material. The devastating eruptions in the Wesl Indies afforded an 
opportunity for investigating volcanic phenomena, of which excellent 
advantage was taken by Dr. Tempest Anderson and Dr. Flett. The 
results wore given to the Society during the present session. 

In Africa the explorers of all nations are as busy as ever. 1 may 
make special reference to the geodetic expedition led by Dr. Bubin, 
under the supervision of Sir David Gill, which is to carry the measure- 
ment of a meridian north from the Zambesi. Another important 
expedition in Africa was that of M. du Bourg de llozas, which has 
been doing admirable work in the Nile region, and was making its 
way westward to the Atlantic when its accomplished but unfortunate 
leader died. In Asia aud in Australia the work of exploration is being 
carried out with increasing activity, and with more and more attention 
tu scientific method. 



.IDDRESS TO THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 1903. ' 

Ooeanographj' is attracting increased attention. The latemational 
Oounoil for the investigation of fishery and other problems is enper- 
iatendiog excellent work in the North sea and the Atlantic. Prof. 
Agnaaiz may be said to have completed his many years of research of 
cor&l islands and coral reefs. The results are being jmblished in a 
series of handsome Tolumes, most creditable to the public spirit and 
soientifio knowledge of the accomplished professor. The committee 
appointed at the last laternatiunal Congress on the terminology and 
nomenclature of snb-oceanic forms met recently, and the results of their 
deliberations will donbtless be of service to students. 

In our own country the survey of the lakes of Sootland, carried out 
by the joint enterprise of Sir John Murray and Mr. Lawrence Pullar, 
has been making rapid progress ; and it is hoped that the first result, 
in the form of maps and reports, will be given Jn our Joumal in the 
course of a month or two. 

We now come to ihe two most memorable events of tlie past year, 
and of many past years, one in the far north, and the other in the far 
south. 

Captain Sverdrup, in completing our knowledge of ibe Parry 
archipelago, has also completed our general knowledge of Arolic 
geography. It is this completeness which is thedistinguishiug feature 
of his great achievement. In Naneen'a famous vessel the Fyam, he left 
Cbristiania in 1898, and continued his operations for no less than four 
years and a quarter. He had with him a party of a dozen resolute, 
capable, and able-bodied explorers, including three men of science, a 
naval officer, and a cavalry officer who was a good surveyor. Sverdrup 
is an experienced Arctic voyager, a thorough seaman, a man of great 
resolution, an excellent organizer, and a good comrade. His people 
worked well with him, and in barmony with each other to the end. The 
consequence was that he succeeded in completing a fine piece of 
geographical work, for which he and his gallant companions ideserve 
our highest commemlalion. 

Sverdrup's original object was the exploration of the northern 
■bores of Greenland, but very nnfavourable seasons prevented him from 
proceeding up Smith Kound.' lie, however, cleared up the question 
respecting Hayes Sound, which was still doubtful, and proved that it 



■ ■■dMi 



land whioh ie divided from Greenland b; Smith Sound rorniB a long luland, 
ji; u iteTeu nameii have been given to vuioas pnrta of it— 

1. North Lincoln. 5. Arthur Land. 

2. Eliesmere I^od. 6. Giinni'll Laod. 

3. King Ubcut Land. 7. Oronl Land. 

4. Schley Land, 
geographical Du(»Baity that, for purpoaes of description, there b1ii>uIJ be a Duoie 

ht Ibe whale islanil It waa Gnt dierovered by BufQn in ItilG, and llrot iiitmi<d Elliia- 
■m b)t Xnglefield in 185H. Its name ihould, therefore, be Eliesmere Inland. 




8 ADDRESS TO THE ROTAL OBOGRAPHICAL SOaETT, 1903. 

was a bay. His parties crossed the land to the westward by two 
routes. He then turned his attention to the region for which Jones 
Sound is the opening, where his great success awaited him. 

The northern coasts of the islands whose southern coasts were first 
seen by Sir Edward Parry in 1819 were discovered by Sherard Osbom 
and Eiohards in 1853, while Prince Patrick Island, the westernmost of 
all, was explored by McClintoch and Mecham in the same year. The 
northern coast of Ellesmere Island was discovered by the present 
Admiral Aldrich in 1876. There remained a wide gap between Prince 
Patrick Island and Aldrioh's furthest, which could be approached by Jones 
Sound. Owing to the light character of the ice on the northern shores 
of North Devon, Bathurst and Melville Islands, and to islands, which 
were named Findlay and North Cornwall, having been seen to the 
northward, we always assumed that there must be yet more land to 
the northward. Oo the northern coast of that land we expected that 
there would be heavy ice-pressure, similar to that seen on the north 
coast of Ellesmere Island and on the western coasts of Banks and 
Prince Patrick Islands. Thus the discovery of what is contained in 
this wide gap between Prince Patrick Island and Aldrich's furthest 
would complete our knowledge of the Parry Archipelago, the most 
interesting part of the Arctic Begions, and would complete our know- 
ledge of the line of mighty ice-pressure from the polar ocean, extend- 
ing from Point Barrow to the east coast of Greenland. 

This great geographical achievement has been done by Captain 
Sverdrup and his gallant companions. He has discovered both shores 
of Jones Sound westward of the furthest point reached by Sir Horatio 
Austin in 1851. He has discovered the whole of the western side of 
Ellesmere Island, with its numerous deep fjords, the shores of some of 
which are of great geological interest. His most northern point was 
within 40 miles of Aldrich's furthest. He discovered a long island 
separated by a strait from Ellesmere Island, which he named Axel 
Heiberg, after one of the munificent promoters of the expedition. 
His comrade, Gunnar Isachsen, discovered the two large islands which 
we assumed to exist north of Bathurst Island, extending westward 
beyond the meridian of the eastern coast of Melville Island. They were 
named the Eingnes Islands, after the two other promoters of the expedi- 
tion. The expected heavy ice was pressing on the northern coasts of 
the newly discovered lands. 

The discoveries were made by means of dogs over ice suitable for 
dog-sledging, and with abundant fresh food. 

The gap, which I had longed to see undertaken, has thus at length 
been filled up. On either side are the English discoveries with English 
name^, while wedged between them are the Norse discoveries and the 
Norse names iu the gap, names remindiug us of the old West Bygd and 
East Bygd of Greenland. This interlacing of Norwegian and English 



r 



ADDRESS TO THE ROTAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 1803. 9 

diaooveries, and of Norwegian and Eaglieh names, is emblematic of 
kindred origins, and of the oloae ties of friendship uniting the two 
nations. 

1 repeat that one of the great merits of the work of Sverdrnp and 
his gallant companions is it« thoroughness and completeness. It was 
no small pleasnre to me that it became my dnty to present Sverdrup 
with the royal medal, while his aooomplished comrade Isaohsen has 
received one of our awards. 

We are at last able to contemplate the vast Parry Archipelago as a 
whole. It is a region of great interest, from many points of view. 
Opposite to the west coast of Greenland, separated by Baffin's Bay and 
Smith Sound, there are three Islands of oonaiderable size — Baffin Island, 
North Devon Island, and Ellesmere Island. The eastern sides of these 
islands are composed of primitive rock, are glaoiated, and resemble 
Greenland in several respects. But to the westward there is a great 
change, where a vast area is covered by the Parry Archipelago, con- 
sisting of fourteen large islands, many small islands, and a peninsula. 
To the south there are three large islands separated by straits from the 
North American Continent, namely, Banks Island, Wollaston Island,* 
and King 'William Island. The Boothia Peninsula may be included. 
Then corae Prince of Wales and North Somerset Islands. Occupying a 
central position are North Devon, OornwalUs, Bathurst, Byam Martin, 
Melville, Eglinton, and Prince Patrick Islands. To the north are the 
Siugnes and Asel Heiberg Islands. 

These islands differ from the Greenland region in having no glaciers, 
There most be much less precipitation, and all the meteorological oon- 
ditions are of very special interest. Their geological formations are 
even more interesting. In some parts there are extensive Silurian beds 
very rich in fossils, then Carboniferous sandstones with coal, and lime- 
stones. The MesoEoio period is represented by Liassio Baurians and 
other fossils, and the Tertiary by a rich fossil flora iu the northern part 
of the area. One interesting problem is connected with the remains of 
trees — large trunks whioh have been found in Banks and Prince Patrick 
Islands, as well as in the western fjords of Ellesmere Island. Authori- 
ties differ respei'ting their origin: Sir Eoderick Murchiaon was inclined 
to the view that they were driftwood, others maintain that the trees 
grew in aitu at a comparatively recent period, while Mr. Sobei of the 
Sverdrnp Expedition thinks that the tree-trunks belong to the Tertiary 
period. There are many other problems in the geology and physical 
geography of the archipelago of great interest, especially those relating 
to the granite boulders far from their original sites, to the different levels 

* Thii ialond, like Ellcuui-re Islund. baa auffered fram a plethora of namea. One 
put ii mUed Prince Albert, BOotber Victoria, anothur Wolliutoa. A aaian for the 
«bole ialnnd ia a googriLpliical Deed, and it seems to be beat entitled to that at Wollosbiii 



10 ADDRESS TO THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 1903. 

of the land, to the cliaitioter ftnd depth of the ohanaelci, the ioe-moTe meats 
and onirents, and the position of the still water where the tides of the 
two oceans meet. The fauna and flora are dependent Urgely on the 
oharacter of the rook formations, and the amonnt of precipitation, as 
regards distribution, and this is another subject of study. Than there 
is the myBterious people who, at some remote period, traversed the whole 
arohipelago except the extreme outer western and northern shores, and 
left numerous vestiges. Here, too, are llie scenes of the most famous 
deeds of Arctic exploration. The greatest voyage with the aid of steam 
was made by the Alert under Sir George Nares ; for she alone has battled 
with the palteoorjstio ice, and thus wintered further north than any 
other ship ever has, or probably ever will, apart from the Fram drift- 
ing. But the greatest voyages of sailing ships among the ice of the 
Arctic RegiouB were undoubtedly those of I'arry in 1819-20, and Frank- 
lin in 1845-46. lo the Parry Archipelago, too, the greatest feats of 
Arctic sledge travelling have been perftirmed. Here UcCIintock and 
Mecham, without the aid of dogs, were away 105 and 94 days, and went 
over 1328 and 1163 miles respectively. ITere Meoham went over i:S3C 
miles at the rate of 20 miles a day. Snob work as this has never even 
been approached in any other part of the north, and I do not think that 
it ever will be. These journeys would have taken the explorers from Cape 
Fligely to the north pole and back with ease, and without the aid of dogs. 

Thus ihe Parry Archipelago, from many points of view, presents 
subjects for study of the greatest interest. Now that Sverdrup'a dis- 
ODvories have completed the work in the tield, the raw material is all 
oollected, and offers a splendid auliject for geographical research. 

Captain Peary has, in the face of extraordinary difficulties, succeeded 
in reaching the extreme northern point of Greenland, the most northern 
land in the world, in 83' 20', and even travelled for three days to the 
south oaht. This completes another important Arctic discovery, ISaron 
Toll is still engaged on his work of exploration to the nortli of Siberia. 

The whole problem of Arctic geography has now been solved. 
There ere many isolated pieces of work that I should like to see under- 
taken. One of them hae been entered upon by Captain Amundsen, who 
Is just about to commence his daring voyage, in a very small vessel, to 
the north magnetic pole, Onr l.'ounoil has had pleasure in subscribing 
to his fund. Others may be attempted in future years. But there are 
none which would justify the deepatoli of an expedition on a large scale. 

Wo will give our final attention to the Antarctic Eegions, and, 
before referring to our own great work— which, indeed, will require a 
separate address to the Fellows of the Society— we ranst turn to what 
is being done in the Weddell and Enderby Quadrants. 

I had the great pleasure of wishing Dr. Otto Nordenstiiild God- 
speed when he started on his expedition on October, 1901. The 
AulaTctii:, with that experienced polar navigator <'aptain Larsen iu 



i 



ADDRSSS TO THE BOYAL GEOGRAPHICAL S0CI£T7, 1903. H 

oommand, finally left Falmouth on October 26. She visited the Argen- 
tine magnetic obeervatory on Stat en Island on January 6, 1902, and 
sighted one of the South Shetland Islands on the 11th. From the 12th 
to the 2l8t of February, 1902, the Antarctic was engaged in landing 
Dr. Nordenskiold and a small party at the northern end of Graham 
Island at Admiralty Inlet, Snow Hill Land, south of Gockbum Island 
(Louis Philippe Land). Here he wintered, and intended to do some 
sledging work in the spring, but he was 250 miles north of the 
antarctic circle, by the coast. The Antarctic was back at the Falk- 
land Islands by March, and visited South Georgia in the winter. In 
February, 1908, it was expected that the ship, after returning to the 
winter quarters and taking Dr. Nordenskiold and his party on board, 
woold return to the Falkland Islands. But she has not appeared, and 
some anxiety is felt in consequence. I understood that it is intended 
to send out a relief ship. I most sincerely trust that all may yet be 
well with the gallant Swedish explorers. 

Mr. Bruce completed his arrangements for an expedition into the 
Weddell Quadrant last year. He purchased an old Norwegian whaler 
named the Heda, built in 1872, 139 feet long by 29, and of 355 tons 
burden, at Sandefjord. I had twice inspected her, and found that she 
would require very extensi've repairs before she could be made fit for 
ice-navigation. These, it is understood, she has received in the Clyde, 
and her name was changed to the Scotia. Captain Eobertson, an ex- 
perienced whaling captain, is in command, and Mr. Bruce is leader of 
the expedition. The scientiGc staff consists of Mr. Mossman, meteoro- 
logist ; Dr. Pirie, surgeon and geologist ; Mr. Rudmose Brown, botanist ; 
and Mr. Brown and Mr. Wilton, zoologists. They are well supplied 
with dredging-gear and deep-sea mounding apparatus. After a satis- 
factory voyage to the Falkland Islands, they left Port Stanley on January 
25, intending to reach the pack edge on the 30th western meridian, and 
follow, if possible, the track of Captain Weddell. This was not found 
possible by Sir James Boss, but seasons vary exceedingly. I am not 
aware of Mr. Bruce's grounds for expecting to find a comfortable harbour 
in that direction. But I have already expressed my views when I 
discussed the routes for Antarctic Expeditions. Weddell, on February 
20, 1823, went as far south as 74*^ 15' without meeting with the pack; 
but Dumont d'Urville was stopped on Weddell's meridian in 64^ S., and 
Boss in 65° 12' S., finding a dense impenetrable pack. My own impres- 
sion is that there is a landless ocean of great extent and depth in this 
direction. But the data on which an opinion can be formed are meagre, 
and I trust that I may be wrong. It would be a misfortune if Mr. 
Bruce had to winter in the open pack, where little useful work can be done. 
The German Expedition had the great advantage of having selected 
one of the two best routes for Antarctic discovery. The expedition left 
Kerguelan Island on January 81, 1902, but appears to have shaped a 



13 ADDRESS TO TBE ROYAL GEOORAPHICAL SOCIETr, 1903. ^ 

tHiuree tu the south-east. I have always thought that if the Gaust made 
fgr Kemp and Enderby Land (which are probably one) in about 60° K., a 
coast-liue would be found facing to the east, with navigable water, where 
great discoveries might be made. Kven if Dr. Drygalaki, after steering 
south-east, entered the paok away from the laud, I think it likely 
that there is a coaat-line not very far to the east. There are, in my 
opinion, very great possibilities in that direction, and 1 hope and believe 
that my friend IJrygalski and his gallant companions will return after 
having made important disooveries, if not this, then next year. As a 
necessary pieoaulion, I understand that, if no news is received, a relief 
ship will be sent oat to the Grerman Expedition next autumn. As re- 
gards magnetic observations, the Gauss is working in concert with the 
Discovery. Meteorological phenomena depend very much on local influ- 
ences, and the separating distance precludes concert in any other form 
save in the form of warm and cordial wishes fur the welfare of each. 

The work of our own expedition, the news of whioh may be said 
to be in oonrse of arrival, is so great a subject that it will necessitate 
separate treatment on another occasion. It will be remembered that 
the relief ship Morning was filled up with provisions, stores, and coals 
for the Discovery, and that a bouse was specially built on deck, and 
adapted for taking about a hundred carcases of sheep in ioe. Captain 
Colbeck left Lyttelton on December 6 last, entered the pack on the 
■26tb, and sighted Victoria Land on January 3. He encountered a 
gale of wind on the south side of the pack which lasted for six days, 
but he succeeded in reaching Cajw Grozier on the 18th. There he 
picked up a record which served as his guide, and on the L'3rd he 
found the Discovery in her winter quarters 500 miles further south than 
any one had ever wintered before. But 10 miles of 6xed ioe separated 
the two ships. Captain Scott writes in well-merited praise of the way 
in whioh the Morning was navigated. Mistakes might easily have been 
made, but Captain Colbeck made none. With skill and judgment he 
negotiated the ice, picked up the right dues, and, getting on the soeni, 
he successfully reached his goal. 

The relief ship proved to be a necessity. Owing to tbo bad tinned 
provisions, there had been threatenings of scurvy. The remedy was 
to recort to seal meat, of which there is abundance, as the only animal 
food to be eaten. The surgeon tells me that with this diet, and the 
fresh mutton brought by the Morning, the scurvy entirely disappeared 
and is not likely to return. But new and good provisions were urgently 
needed. Stores, provisions, and coals bad to be dragged on sledges, 
from one ship to the other, over miles of ice. At last the hard work 
was finished, the Discovery was left well supplied for another winter, 
and on March 3 the Morninij started on her return voyage, .^cott and 
hia officers had come down for a lust farewell. It must have been a 
touching scene. The weather-beaten, frost-soarred heroes, the first 




THE FIRST YEAR'S WORE OF TAB NATIONAL ANTARCTU.: EXPEDITION. 13 

{{Tflat Aoturctio travellers, atanding an the edge of that iiumorable ice 
which imprisoned their ship, with Mount Erebus for a baokground. 
One can almost hear the cheers and see the waving caps as the Mominij 
slowly moved away. Think of them now, eutering cheerfully apon a 
second winter ! Think of the terrible hardships and snfferingB they 
have gone through for Boieace, and for their ootintry'a credit ! Is there 
any tale of derring'doe BurpassiDg the story of those who have planted 
the oroas of St. George in 82"' 1 7' S. ? 

But, as I have already said, the news is too great, far too important, 
to be told in a portion of an anniversary aiidress. It is a very glorious 
record, and it needs suitable illustration and explanatory maps. All 
this I will endeavour to furnish at an evening meeting, when the grand 
results of tlieir eipedition must be placed in detail before the Fellows. 

The Morning must go south again next December. The funds must 
he provided. But a small sum is needed, about £12,noD. I will not 
contemplate the possibility of its being refused by the Government, 
for the Government is directly responsible for the safety of ihe seamen 
and marines who were invited to volunteer. Our relief ship must go 
on her pious errand once more, to snocour, not improbably to save, 
our countrymen. That England could fail in such a duty is anrely 
impossible. 



THE FIRST YEAR'S WORK OF THE NATIONAL ANTARCTIC 
EXPEDITION.' 

By Sir CLEMENTS R. MARKHAM. K.C.B.. P.R.8. 
Wk must all, I think, feel that this is a great occasion. We have 
received news of the splendid work done by our countrymen in the 
far south, and we are assembled to acquire some idea of the nature of 
that work, and of the general results. We ahall effect this object by 
means of Hr. Skelton's photographs, and of tlie best map we have been 
able to construct with the materials that have reached us. We do not 
intend to discuss or to describe the scienlilio results of this work. We 
have not the means. All that is reserved for the grand day when we 
welcome the return of Captain Scott and his fellow- explore re to this 
country. To-night should rather be devoted to an endeavour to under- 
ttand and to appreciate the high qualities, the indomitable energy, the 
strict sense of dniy, the courage and hardihood which enalded our 
coaDliyinen to make the extensive discoveries which are shown on the 
nap. They represent an achievement whioh is quite unsurpassed in 
my time. 



• Bead at the Royal Geogmphical Sooiaty, Jane 10. 1903. Map, p. 120. For note 




14 THE FIRST YIAK'S WORK OF THE NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

Before following the memorable voyage, I must aay a very few words 
on tbe Hubjeot of tho arrangemeDta for the expedition in this oonntry. 
When the two Hocietiea approached the Government with a view to 
obtaining assistimce in June, 16£i9, Mr. Balfour spoke in the strongest 
terrae of the importance of such an expedition, both from a Boientific and 
a national point of view, and he waa told that it would be necessary to 
hnild a ehip specially adapted for the service, among other reasons for 
tho sake of tho magnetic observntions. An estimate was submitted to 
him amounting to £100,000 if the expedition laated for three years, or 
£HO,0On if for two years. It was decided that the expedition Bhonld be 
for two years. Mr. Balfour {promised a parliamentary grant which 
amounted to £45,000. The public Bubscribed the other moioty, this 
Society giving £8000. The Digcovi-r;/ was launched, and has proved 
moat admirably adapted for the work. It has been said that she is the 
most expensive vessel that was ever built in this country for BcientiGo 
purposes. It is equally true tliat she is the cheapest. For she is the 
only vessel that waa ever built in this country for scientific purposes. 
She has been a great saccess, and she will be a great success even if she 
has (o be abandoned in the Antarctic ice. The famous voyage per- 
formed in her, the vast and important scientific results aohieved through 
her means, will remain for ever as the record of her success, even though 
the staunch old Difcowry leaves her ribs in the far south. But this will 
not be if human help, guided hy no ordinary ability and sliill, can avail. 
For if the ship is strong and adapted to her work, stiil stronger and still 
better are her crew. No more striking proof of this is needed than the 
way they have rallied ronnd their beloved oommander. Captain Scott's 
deeds speak for themselves, and he was Bujiportod by such ofScera as 
Armitage, itoyda, Skelton, Shackleton, and Barne ; by Eoettlitz, Wilson, 
Bernacchi, Hodgson, and Ferrar ; and by twenty-six seamen and marines, 
all good men and true. Alas that one of the best of all, the devototl 
and chivalrous Shackleton, is uo longer with them ! Tlie Admiralty has 
lent the men, without whom the work could not have been done ; but 
we must always remember that we owe this to ihe good offices of uur 
lamented associate, Admiral Sir Anthony Hoskins. We owe much more 
to his memory than even that. 

One word with regard to the management of the business of the 
expedition. Since December, 11*00, a Joint Finance Committee, appointeil 
by the Councils of the two Societies, of which I have been chairman, 
has transaoteil all the biisinese. The thiee other memljera are the 
treasnreTS of the two Societies and a distinguished official of the Treasury 
appointed with the uppruval of Mr. Balfour; these three husinesB men 
have conducted tho affairs of the expedition on business principles. 
Efficiency has been secured without waste or extravagance, and moat 
especial care was taken with regard lo the examination of the provinions 
by an expert under official supervision. The committee has worked 




'■*^ \\ 



THE FIBST TBAR'S WORK OF THE NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 15 

and is still working harmonionsly, and there has scarcely been a differ- 
ence of opinion among its members. As a test of its business capacity, 
we have the fact that the expedition is well within the estimate, and 
that the committee had a balance of £7000 to meet all further expendi- 
ture, if the two ships had returned this year in accordance with the 
instructions. Captain Scott sat on the committee from its commence- 
ment until the departure of the Discovery, 

Under such auspices the expedition left New Zealand on Christmas 
Eve, 1901, and entered the Antarctic ice. Her objects were to study 
the nature of Boss's great ice-barrier ; if possible, to discover land to the 
eastward ; to secure various scientific results during the voyage and in 
winter quarters; and from winter quarters to explore the volcanic 
region, and to make discoveries to the south and inland to the west. 
Most thoroughly and completely have the explorers carried out these 
instructionp. Their deeds have far exceeded all that I had hoped, or 
even conceived possible. Let us now follow their proceedings, and 
endeavour to get some notion of their surroundings with the help of 
Mr. Skelton's photographs. 

On reaching safe winter quarters, the great work of sledge- travelling 
was commenced with some autumn journeys. The severity of the 
weather was intense, both from low temperature, —42° to even —57° 
below zero, and from the furious gales ; but the journeys wore of great 
use, both for obtaining information respecting the lie of the land, and 
for the acquisition of experience. There was one fatal accident, which 
is admirably described by Captain Scott. 

" Mr. Barne reached the crest of the hills at about noon on March 11, 
and camped for lunch, during which meal the wind sprang up very 
suddenly, bringing a heavy drift; the temperature fell, and the party, 
not experienced in such conditions, suffered much from frost-bites and 
general disconifc^rt. In these circumstances, and imagining themselves 
closer to the ship than they actually were, they decided to leave the 
sledges and make for her. Soon after their start the gale increased, and 
they were enveloped in a whirl of drifting snow and entirely lost their 
bearings. Mr. Barne did his best to keep the party together, the more 
so when it became evident that the slope on which they stood was 
affording a less and less secure foothold. Before long, however, one of 
the men, Evans, slipped and disappeared from sight. After shouting 
and receiving no reply, Mr. Barne, cautioning the men to remain where 
they were, decided to follow, and very deliberately started to slide down 
the slope himself. He was firmly under the impression that the slope 
was one well known to us all close to the ship, and that after making 
certain he would be easily able to regain the summit and bring the men 
on. After waiting for some time, another of the men (Quartly) decided 
to follow Mr. Barne, and was immediately lost to sight. The experience 
of these three was identical : after the first start they were soon going 



IC THE FIRST VSAR'S WORK OP THE SATIOSAL ANTARCTIC EXPRDITIOH:^* 

at a s[ieed wliich left ihem absolutely no control of their movements, 
and this continued for some 400 or 500 yards, until tboy were suddenly 
biouglit up in a patch of soft snow within 15 feet of a sheer drop into 
the sea. 

" Meanwhile, of the party above, one. Hare, had decided to go back to 
the sledge to change his footgear, and the remaining five, after a long 
wait, proceeded along the elope, ae they supposed, towards the ship, led 
by an able seaman (Wild), Luckily, Wild had nails in his boots, for, 
after travelling some distance, he suddenly and without warning I'so 
thick was the snow) found himself within an ace of stopping over the 
cliff into the sea. He had the presence of mind to shout to the others 
to stop, which they were all able to do, escopt poor Vinoe, who missed 
his footing, shot past Wild, and was immediately lost to view. Vince 
was a thoroughly good man, always oheerfiil and bright, and popular 
throughout the ship. With great difficulty the remaining four men 
succeeded in retracing their steps, and eventually reached the crest of 
the hill, from whence, taking a more easterly course, they fell on some 
landmarks and found their way to the ship. Great credit is due to 
Wild for the manner in which he conducted and kept together the small 
parly. A large search party was immediately despatched on their return 
to the ship, and the siren was kept going. With some difficulty the 
search party succeoded in finding the sledges, and in the vicinity they 
found Mr. Barne, Evans, and Quartly half frozen and wholly dazed ; they 
did not know how they had again reached the summit of the hill. No 
trace was found of Hare or Vince. A further prolonged search was made 
on the following day, a roped party descending the slope with crampons, 
but without result. On the third day I got up steam ou the bare possi- 
bility of finding an ice-foot below the ice-cliff over which Vinoe had 
fallen, and whilst we wore jireparing to weigh, Hare was seen descending 
the hill opposite the ship; he was quickly brought on lioard, and found 
to be neither frost-bitten nor in any way hurt by his exposure ; he had 
turned to find the sledges, failed to do so, wandered aimlessly about, and 
finally lost consciousness ; thirty-six hours later he awoke, to find him- 
self buried in snow and only a trifle stiff; he imagined it to be the 
morning after the accident, and was astounded to learn that he had 
slept through a whole day. 

" On taking the ship around to the scene of the accident, we found on 
ioe-foot, and it was evident that Vince must have fallen directly into 
the aea from a cliff I.IO to 200 feet in height." 

When Captain Scott addressed the ship's company in a few words 
after service on the following Sunday, there was scarcely a dry eye. 
All mourned the loss of their comrade, George Vinoe, a cheerful and 
popular messmate, and an excellent seaman, 

The winter passed cheerfully. There were plenty of amusements; 
but there was also plenty of hard^work. Mr. Bemaoohi tended hia 



i 



^^Hk F1 



FIRST TEAR'S WORK OK THB NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 17 

magnetic iiistrumeute with KealouB oaro, and took regular ohHervations 
with tho olectrometer. The tempernture auil salinity of aea-water at 
varioua depths wore ascertained. Mr. Hodgson was indefatigable in 
all weathers, keeping holee open in the ice for bis neta and fish-traps. 
Dr. Wilson's work, as regirds vertobratoa, is oxcoodiugly valuable ; and 
I am aflsured that the biological collections are naost importatit, and will 
form line of the great features of the expedition. The meteorology is 
under the charge of Lieut. Boydfl, and nothing can exceed his care and 
diligenoo. A aeries of meteorological ubserratioDs for two years, in 
77° 50' 8., more than 500 miles further south than any ship has ever 
wintered before, will be raost valuable. 

As the sun began to return, the magnificent range of mountains to 
the westward began to appear in surpassing grandeur. The glow of 
the snn when it was still below the horizon just caught them, and tho 
sides faciuj; the north were lit up with a ptnkish-orango tint, the other 
sides being dark and shadowy. In September the early spring travelling 
commenced, when the cold was even more intense than in the autumn. 
ItoydH and Skelton were the chief explorers of the volcanic island on 
which Erebus and Terror rear their giant cones. With four men, they 
were away twenty-one days, with the thermometer always —40^, and 
oooe as low as —58". This cold is too intense for sledging, and in 
adflition they encountered a furious gale, which lasted for live days. 
In spite of tho weather, Skelton and two men found a way over tho 
big ice-ridges of the barrier down to the sea-edge, using crampons and 
iue-axes, and being roped together. A close examination was thus 
made of the position where tho barrier abuts upon the land at Cajie 
Crozier. In a subsequent journey Eoyds found the post cairn at this 
point, and ilejMJsitod a notice for the relief ship. 

There were several sledging journeys for short distaneea conducted 
by the Bcientilio staff, chiefly with the object of geological investiga- 
tions; but the great results were to be obtained from the southern and 
feetem parties. 

Captain Scott established » depot 60 miles to the south in a journey 

°f ten daja, from September 23 to October 4, when there was a heavy 

S*le, and tho thermometer fell tw — 31°. On November 1 he started 

"^th eighteen dogs, accompanied by Lieut. Shackleton and Dr. Wilson. 

A Bapporiing sledge under Lieut. Barne went as /ar as the first depot. 

"■t fixBt ftU went well, but after a fortnight the dogs gut weaker and 

''^aker, and a long tract of soft snow had to be crossed, which occupied 

"*eiu for thirty days, bringing tho sledges up in relays. Practically 

wq Jogg became useless, Tho explorers had to do all the work 

^"^mselves. But, nothing daunted, the gallant men pushed onwards, 

"Bhtoning the weight by loaving a depfit in 80" 30' S. 

They reached 32° IT S. On their return Lieut. Shaokleton broke 
■ blood-vessel, and was only just able, owing to his extraordinary 
No. L,r— July, 1903.] c 



18 THE FIRST YEAR'S WORK OF THE NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

pluok, to keep up with the sledge ; while Soott and Wilson, su£fering 
from snow-blindness and hunger, dragged the sledge back, 240 lbs. 
each, and reached the ship on February 4, after an absence of ninety- 
four days. 

I calculate that they must have gone over 981 statute miles. The 
story will be told by Scott himself — a story of heroic perseverance to 
obtain great results ; a story which is unmatched in polar annals. It 
will tell us, too, of new geographical facts and deductions of intense 
interest; of a new and hitherto unknown world in the far south, 
reached with such extreme difficulty — 

" Yet even here Britannia's flag has thrown 
Her shadow on the ioe, and hailed the land her own.*' 

The achievement of the great western party, dragging sledges over 
mountains and glaciers, with such leaders as Armitage and Shackleton, 
is only second to Scott's memorable journey. They were dragging 
240 lbs. per man; first over 29 miles of sea-ice, and then for 19 miles 
up a snow-filled valley to the foot of the mountains. They also had 
to work by relays. Crampons, blocks and tackles, ice-axes, and crow- 
bars were needed; and so they climbed the ice-slopes with loaded 
sledges, and travelled many miles over bare blue glacier amidst magni- 
ficent scenery, reaching an elevation of 9000 feet, at a distance of 142 
statute miles inland from the ship as the crow flies. They were fifty- 
three days away. 

The loss of the dogs was felt as a great calamity, because each dog 
was given in charge to a man, who became much attached to it. There 
are, however, several puppies. 

Another calamity was the loss of all the boats, which during the 
winter got frozen into a mass of solid ice. After hacking at this ice for 
months, it was found impossible to extricate the boats. 

But now all the travelling parties had returned, and the longed-for 
relief ship Morning hove in sight on the 23rd of last January. 

The meeting is acquainted with the history of the relief ship ; how 
she was bought, fitted out, equipped, and despatched last year by the 
Geographical Society, with funds subscribed almost entirely by our 
Fellows. We all know the great dangers of polar navigation, and that 
a ship in those regions may be in need of succour after the first winter. 
Consequently, annual communication has been the rule with all Govern- 
ment expeditions since the Franklin disaster. We were bound to follow 
this example ; and the necessity for our action has since been proved. 

The Morning, fitted up with provisions, including a good supply of 
frozen meat, and coals for the Discovery, left Lyttelton, N.Z., on 
December 6, and crossed the antarctic circle on Christmas Day. She is 
commanded by Captain Colbeck, a very able and capable ice-navigator, 
who has under him zealous officers and a good crew. In about 67° 40^ S., 



(tarctic expedition. 19 

an int^reBtJD); discovery woo mude uf a new Maud, of which several 
excellent photogTapLs were taken. A landing was effected, aud a survey 
was made ; tt was named tScott island. 



Outside the pack the Morning encountered a heavy south-east gale, 
bergs and heavy fioe pieces being a source of continual dauger, and the 
ship waa subjected to a most severe straining. At oue time she could 
show no oanvae. The season was very late, aad the navigation difficult. 
Bnt Captain Colbeck followed up his clue, found the reoord at Cape 
Crosier, and finally sighted the Discovtrt/'n masts. 

It was found that several miles of ice intervened between the two 
ships, and it was not long before it became clear that the ico was not 
likely to move during that reason. All hands at once went to work lo 
transfer stores and proTtsiouB on sledges, and before it became necessary 
to depart, the Morainif had supplied fourteen tons, aud twenty tons of 
ooal. But there was barely time. 

The arrival of the Momin/j was most providential, bnt she leaves the 
Discovery with only provisions to last until nest January, and eighty 
t«Qg of coal. 

In retnnuDg, the Jlforntn^ was in eome danger of being detained. 
She was beset, bnt was saved by her &kilful ice- navigation, aided by a 
strong Bonth-westerly gale. Her detention would have been a terrible 
calamity. She, however, returned safely to Lyttelton, N.Z., last March. 

Captain Colbeck deserves high commendation for the skill and ability 
with which he conducted a very arduous and diiScult voyage ; for his 
excellent judgment in finding the winter quarters of the Biteov.ry, his 
rapid transfer of stores, and the seamanlike qualities which enabled him 
to work his vessel tafely out of the ice under circumetances of no 
«rdinary difficulty. The officers worked under him with zeal aud 
iatelligenoe, and the conduct of the men was excellent throughout the 
'tyage. 

It will be seen that a second voyage of the Momimj is absolutely 
leceseary for the safety of our gallant countrymen. There are thirty- 
•svea souls in the Antarotio ice, consisting of five naval officers, one 
"Ificer of the naval reserve, five members of the scientific staff, twenty- 
'"Qr naval seamen and marines, and two other good men. We have 
* Italance of £7000. Only a small additional sum is needed, namely, 
*li3,000. Without it those heroes who have done so much for science 
"1^ their country's credit will be in grave peril. 

We must provide for wages for both ships ; wo must send out the 
•■^^ttns of blasting and forcing the Discoeeri/ out of her icy prison; we 
"^Vst repair the Momin<j, so terribly strained aud knocked about ; we 
"Omat store her with coals and provisiouB, 

There are diftionlties and dangers yet, but the chief dangers are 
fiuucial. Our gallant Colbeck aod his people will overcome the rest. 

o 2 



20 NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 

Meanwhile, the heroic Disooyeries, are still working for us at their 
numerous observations under increasing hardships caused by the small 
stock of coal. Thej have full faith in us, and that the needful fands will 
be found by us. Look once more at your maps. Look at their dis- 
coveries. Do not these men deserve well of their country ? Will not 
their country recognize their services ? I feel sure that it will, and that 
wo shall yet welcome them all here, after one of the most successful and 
glorious achievements that have ever adorned our geographical annals. 



NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE 

COMMANDER.* 

Undkr the title of ** Brief Summary of Proceedings," Captain Scott 
sends the following report addressed to the Presidents of the Royal and 
Royal (Geographical Societies. It is dated '' Diacoveryj Winter Quarters, 
February 2;i, 1903." 

As is known, the Discovery left Port Chalmers, New Zealand, on 
Christmas Eve, 1901, heavily laden. 

With a fair wind, we made good progress under sail alone until our 
arrival in the pack. 

On the evening of Janizary 1 we passed several table-topped bergs, and 
on the following day, in lat. 60^ 30', fell in with streams of loose field-ioe. 

l^lio antarctic circle was crossed early on the 4th, the pack remaining 
easy and the weather favourable, except for occasional thick fogs. 

On the Gth the pack l)ecame much heavier and our prepress conse- 
4UenUy slower ; later all traces of a swell disappeared, and we forced 
our way through rotten floes of very large area. 

We |>aiMod through several leads of open water on the 7th, and on 
the morning of the 8th crossed the southern edge of the pack in lat. 
70^ 2«N\ long. 173 ' 44', the edge being \vell defined, with a dear open sea 
Wvond, and soundings in 1480 fathoms. 

i)p|H)rtunitii'M wore takou before and after this to sound, dredge, and 
iako water MamploM, but owing to clo^noss to the coast and the thick 
|>aok whioh was UNUally AlH>ut us, much less of this work was possible 
Uiau I could havo wished. 

Wo arrivtHl at Oh|h> Adai^ on U\o ov^uiug of the 9th, having to foro^ 
tmr way thnni^h a lino of thick ^^ack in entering Robertson bay; after 
taking um>s:notio t)l)m>rvationm >\^toring slii^v and leaving a record, we 
wt>ighfHl anchor ugain at 3 ii.m. on the lOth, passing out dose under the 
land, whcix^ wt^ Invatuc involvoil iu a very heavy |iack running fast to 
the uoithwanl y^Hi nevoial ^^rv^undo^l Wni:^ After several hooiB of 
»tvug:gUn>;\ I wan glad to gt^t thnntgh thi$ into clearer water. 

Wo tun\o%\ down tho ^xyoii, |viuit8ing cutside the Fosseesion iala««^ fl^ 

« Map. ^ IdiV 



^^■tATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT 0? THE COMMANDER. 21 

but had now to fuco an increaeing S'liith-easterty wind and contiunal 
streams of pack passing to tbo northward. 

W« arrired off Coalman islaad on ttio night of the 12th, bnt as the 
wind had increaeed to half a galo and the glass waa falling, I decided 
tu make for 8helt«r niider the island ; we arrived there on the evening 
of the 13th, and on the following morning the wind had increased to a 
ftill gale. Except as regards the sea and pack, the island afforded little 
shelter; the wind swept down from the heights with terrific force, and 
th« ship was repeatedly driven to leeward, narrowly escaping collision 
witb several small bergs. 

On the l.ith the wind fell rapidly, and in the afternoon I waa able 
to place a record at Capo Wadworth, in the spot arranged. 

In the evening, in bright oalm weather, we were able to stand into 
an inlet in the ice-barrier in I^ady Newnes bay, and all hands were 
employed in killing and skinning seals for winter oonenmption ; wu 
left this inlet at 8 a.m. on the following day, but had to paus again to 
the northward of Coulman island to avoid the pack. 

We had now to make a ver}- long circuit to clear heavy pack, and 
arrived nff Wood bay on the night of the 17th. 

The bay ice was cracked, but had not moved out ; it was very thick 
and heavy, and consequently I abandoned the idea of leaving a record 
at this spot. 

At noon on the 18th we passed cjuse to Cape Washington in clear 
water, obtaioing as shallow a sounding as 8 fathoms. Prom this cape 
the absence of paok allowed us to trace the coast-line at a very easy 
distance, and to observe an<l sketch the monntains in the background. 
In about lat. 75° 30' an enormous Hoe of the inland ice descends into the 
Ma and extends for many miles to seaward. The ioe-mass, which must 
be afloat at its outer edge, closely resembles the Great Barrier and tJie 
barrier formation which entirely fills Lady Newnes bay. 

On the night of the 1 8th we entered a curious inlet at its northern 
junction with the land. Fr()m this point we were obliged to pass direct 
to the eastward, skirting ice-cliRs rising to 150 feet in height. 

At neon on the lilth we rounded the end of this ice-msss, but were 
anabte to again approach the land immediately, though at p.m. we 
Rgain turned in that direction. 

A blnff headland now observed to the south-west gave indication of 
a harbour, and nur course was shaped for it, but this necessitated pass- 
ing through streams of very heavy hard ice, and our progress waa there- 
fore sli.w, and it was not until 6 p.m. on the 20th that we entered a 
long inlet which gave promise of forming an excellent winter harbour. 

A landing waa effected, and some hours spent in exploring the inlet 
ud secorina specimens of rock, moss, etc. Leaving the harbour shortly 
after midni^t, we continued for some distanoe in dear water, but later 
tnixjuntered streams of loose ice, and liy the forenoon wore in thick paok 



22 NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE OOMMAKDER. 

with an uninterrupted sfcretoh of ioe before ns. We made snoh poor 
progress that at 8 p.m. (2l8t) I decided to turn to the eastward, more 
especially as I then fully thought I could traoe continuous land between 
Mount Erebus and the mainland. 

The weather since our departure from Ck>ulman island had remained 
wonderfully clear and bright. 

Passing south of Beaufort island, we arrived off Oape Orozier on the 
evening of the 22nd, and landed at the foot of Mount Terror, visiting 
the penguin rookery, placing our record and taking magnetic observa 
tions. Climbing a foothill to the height of 1350 feet, we here got our 
first view of the barrier. The shore party were re-embarked at 4.30, 
and we stood close around Cape Crozier. 

Until the 28th we continued to push close along the barrier edge in 
face of a steady south-easterly breeze and westerly set. 

On the 26th the wind increased to half a gale, and we stood off under 
sail; but the wind again fell in the morning, and we were able to close 
the ice. During this time soundings were taken three times daily, and the 
height and irregularities of the barrier edge observed as closely as possible. 

It is impossible to give details of this work until we have had time 
to plot it; but in general it may be remarked that the soundings re- 
mained fairly uniform at something over 300 fathoms until the night of 
the 29th, when 100 fathoms was obtained ; and the barrier edge is most 
irregular, varying from 30 feet to 215 feet, though long stretches of it 
appear to be of uniform height. On the 29th the barrier was observed 
to be very irregular in outline, and in the evening we ran into a sharp 
bend amongst many stranded and overturned bergs. Here we first 
obtained shallow soundings (100 fathoms), and observed that the barrier 
rose to the eastward in gradual snow-slopes to a height of 800 or 900 
feet, continuing to form a number of undulating hills, trending to the 
northward. From this time the fine clear weather we had had so far 
enjoyed deserted us, and a northerly breeze brought continual snowstorms, 
which prevented our seeing clearly for any considerable distance. On 
the morning of the 30th we were skirting the edge of low fast ice embayed 
between ice islands ; much pack lay in the ofiiDg. The soundings varied 
greatly, but several were between 70 and 100 fathoms. At four, a lift 
in the fog showed us high rising snow-slopes in the background, descend- 
ing gradually towards the sea until they fell away into heavy ridges 
and precipices 300 or 400 feet in height, from the base of which a gentle 
slope led to a barrier wall, capable of sending forth table-topped bergs. 
Though morally certain we were in the vicinity of land, the appearance 
of ice-formation is so deceptive in thick weather that I was glad when 
several dark patches loomed out of the mist and were quickly dis- 
tinguished as patches of bare rock. These patches stand at a height of 
2000 to 3000 feet, and are evidently the sharp spurs of hills which are 
otherwise completely snow-capped. 



i 



FATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITIOK: REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 23 

Daring the morning of the 3lBt we skirted along the edge of solid 
fast ice, and later were amongst several ice-islands; these are mostly 
dome-shaped on top, descending to ice-cliffa 5il to 60 feet in height; the 
wiandiagB close to being about 100 fathoms, it is impossible to know 
whether these are ioe-cappeil islands, ancient grounded bergs, or the 
remains of a receding barrier formation. Tbey undoubtedly prevent 
ths fast ice from breaking away to the coast'line. 

Very lai^e colonies of Emperor penguins were seen in this vicinity. 

During the night of the Iflst we became embayed amongst ice- 
islands and grounded bergs, almost completely oonaected by fast ice; 
in the bay the temperature fell, an<l yonng ice formed with eitraordinary 
rapidity. After looking fruitlessly for an outlet, we were forced to come 
ont through the narrow passage at which we had entered. I then made 
a dolour to the westward in hopes of finding an open lead, but aa we 
increased our distance from the laml we were faced in all directions by 
heavy pack. 

At this point, seeing the in advisability of wint«ring in these regions, 
and not knowing how late a date it would be possible to Und winter 
qnftrters in Victoria Land, I determined to tnni baok, though it 
is now evident we could have pursued onr exploration to a later date. 

On Febmary 3 we entered an inlet in tho barrier in lat. 78° 30', 
long. 196' 16'. It was wholly sheltered, and we were able to lay along- 
side an ioe-foot on to which wo could step from the ship's rail. The 
barrier here undulated in long wavesrunning approximately west-south- 
west and east-north-east J the ship lay in an inlet formed in the hollow 
of one of these undulations, and a long crack continued the inlet to the 
westward, Numerous seals lay about on the ice in tho vicinity of this 
crack. This night I despatched Lieut. Armitage with a small sledge 
party to explore the ridges, and prepared to Inflate our balloon. On the 
4th the balloon was inflated, and I was able to ascend to a height of 
700 feet, the wire attachment being unfortunately too heavy to allow 
of a higher ascent. The day was clear ; the alternate light and shade 
of many parallel lines of undulation could he seen to the sonthward, and 
nothing beyond. Shortly after noon Liont. Armitage returned, having 
travelled about !i miles to the south and traversed several of these 
undulations. After securing the carcaces of eighteen seals killed in 
the morning, we put to sea again at 7.30. A sounding taken in the 
inlet showed 315 fathoms, and it was noticeable that the ship neither 
rose nor fell in relation to the ice throughout our staj'. 

We returned along the barrier and rounded Cape Bird on the evening 
of tho 7th in heavy and continuous snowstorms. I now made for some 
ileep headlands in about lat. 77" 30', which we had ol>Berved on our way 
■nnth, and hoped to (ind the limits of a harbour similar to that which we 
had entered to the northward. 

The day was tine (8th), but when within 10 miles of the land we 



24 NATIONAL ANTARCTIC RXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 

were brought up by a heavy pack, and deoided to skirt this, making as 
mnch southing as possible. In the afternoon we passed close to an extra- 
ordinary d^&rt«-strewn and water-worn glacier snout, on which we landed. 
Proceeding as before, we now found ourselYes going about due east and 
towards the southern side of Mounts Erebus and Terror. Finally, in 
the evening we arrived at Hut point, securing the ship to the ice-foot. 

I give elsewhere a description of our winter quarters, with the present 
position of the ship, and a rough plan of the neighbourhood. 

Everything pointed tQ the desirability of this spot as winter quarters. 
The one year's ice was moving out rapidly, and showed absolutely no 
signs of pressure. Hut point would provide an additional safeguard 
against such a possibility ; suitable places were easily found for the huts, 
to communicate with the agreed position, for our record position at 
Mount Terror seemed (and proved) easy; the road to the southward 
appeared open, and the distance from the mainland was small enough to 
ensure an attempt at its exploration. 

No thought that the ice might not again move out this season entered 
any one's head, and, of course, was the less likely to do so as the open 
sea extended farther and farther beyond Cape Armitage. Personally, 
my fear was that some sledge party might be cut o£f by the ice moving 
out too quickly, and without warning, as it did last year. 

On February 1 1 wo commenced erecting the huts, but the task was 
much interrupted by strong south-easterly winds; whilst the amount 
of work on ship and shore prevented all ideas of despatching early 
sledge parties. 

On the 18th, three of the officers — Messrs. Shackleton, Wilson, and 
Farrar — crossed to the island, which lies about 15 miles south-south-east 
of the ship ; they returned on the 22nd, with considerable information 
as to the lie of the land. 

On the 24th we were able to land coal, oil, and provisions, and thui 
established a dei>6t in the event of the ship being driven off. The 
magnetic huts were erected, and the instruments in adjustment, in time 
for the term day observations of March 1. 

The work was now so far mlvanced that I proposed to take a sledge 
party round to Mount Terror, but, unfortunately, strained my leg whilsl 
exercising on ski, and was forced myself to abandon the project 

On Monday, March 3. the party started under the direction of Mr 
Koyds, and included Mr. Barne, Dr. Koettlitz, Mr. Skelton, and eight 
men. As they entered the eastern bay, the snow grew daily softer, aiid 
the work tinally so fatiguing, that Mr. Royds decided to push on wiit 
Dr. Koettlitz and Mr. Skelton on ski, sending the remainder of the 
party Ivjiok under Mr. l^rne. thev having no ski. 

Hy this time the ioo had brc^keu away well i>ast Cape Armitage, and 
it was nei^^essary for the n>tnming i^rties to cross the bills, rising to ao 
altitude of lOiX> fwt, to ixvioh the ship. 



w 



iTIOSAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OP THE COMMANDKIl. 25 

Mr. Barne reached the crest of the hills at about noon on Mrtroh n. 
and camped for lunch, during which meal the wind sprang up very 
sudJenly, bringing a heavy drift; the teniporatnre fell, and the 
party, not experienced in such cunditions, suffered much from frost- 
bitee and general diBCooifort. In these oircum stances, and imagining 
theniBelves closer to the ship than they actually were, they decided 
to leave the sledges and make for her. Soon after their start the galo 
increased, and they were enveloped in a whirl of drifting snow and 
entirely lost their bearings. Mr. Barne did his best to keep the party 
together, the more so when it became evident that the slope on which 
tbey stood was afTording a less and leas secure foothold. Before long, 
however, one of Ihe men, Evans, slipped and disappeared from sight. 
After shouting and receiving no reply, Mr. Barne, cautioning the men 
to remain where they were, decided to follow, and very deliberately 
§tart^ to slide down ttie slope himself. He was firmly under the 
impression that the slope was one well known to us all close to the ship, 
and that after making certain he would be easily able to regain the 
summit and bring the men on. After waiting for some time, another of 
the men (Quartly) decided to follow Mr. Barne, and was immediately 
lost to sight. The eiperienoe of tbeBe three was identical : after the 
Gi«t start they were soon going at a speed which left them absolutely no 
control of their movements, and this continued for some 400 or 500 yards, 
until they wore suddenly brought up in a patch of soft saow within 13 
feet of a sheer drop into the Bea. 

Meanwhile, of the party above, one. Hare, had decided to go back to 
the sledges to change his footgear, and Ihe remaining five, after a long 
wait, proceeded along the slope, as they Bup[>oeed, towards the ship, led 
by an able seaman (Wild). Luckily, Wild had nails in his boots, for, 
>fter travelling some distance, he suddenly and without warning (so 
tbick was the anow) found himself within an ace of stepping over the 
oUffinto the sea. He had the presence of mind to shout to the others 
to stop, which they were all able to do, except poor Vince, who missed 
his footing, shot past Wild, and was immediately lost to view. Vinoe 
was a tboroughJy good man, always cheerful and bright, and popular 
throughout the ship. With great difficulty the remaining four men 
BQCcoeded in retracing their steps, and eventually reached the crest of 
the hiU, from whence, taking a more easterly course, they fell on some 
kndmBrks and found their wa}' to the ship. Great credit is due to 
Wild for the manner in which he conducted and kept together the small 
party. A large search party was immediately despatched on their 
return to the ship, and the biren was kept going. With some difficulty 
tLe search party Hucceeded in finding Ihe sledges, and in the vioinity 
they found Mr. Barne, Evans, and Quartly half frozen and wholly dazed ; 
Lhey did not know how they had again I'eaohed the summit of the hill. 
No trace was founil of Hare or Vince. A further prolonged search was 




26 NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 

made on the following day, a roped party descending the slope with 
crampons, bnt without result. On the third day I got up steam on the 
bare possibility of finding an ice-foot below the ice-oliff over which Yince 
had fallen, and whilst we were preparing to weigh. Hare was seen 
descending the hill opposite the ship; he was quickly brought on 
board, and found to be neither frost-bitten nor in any way hurt by 
his exposure ; he had turned to find the sledges, failed to do so, wandered 
aimlessly about, and finally lost consciousness ; thirty-six hours later he 
awoke, to find himself buried in snow and only a trifle stiff; he imagined 
it to be the morning after the accident, and was astounded to learn that 
he had slept through a whole day. 

On taking the ship around to the scene of the accident, we found no 
ice-foot, and it was evident that Yince must have fallen directly into 
the sea from a cliff 150 to 200 feet in height 

Though Mr. Bame made an error in breaking camp in a snowstorm, 
it must be remembered in extenuation that he, in common with all, was 
inexperienced in the climatic conditions of these regions; that he 
imagined himself much closer to the ship than he was ; and that his 
party, expecting higher temperatures, were very ill provided with fur 
clothing, and would have been most uncomfortable in their tents. The 
event proved a lesson to all, and Mr. Bame has in his more recent ex- 
pedition taken exceptional and most praiseworthy care of his men. 

On March 20 Mr. Royds and the remaining officers returned to the 
ship ; they had failed to reach the spot for depositing the record, but 
chiefly because they had encountered very severe weather in the vicinity, 
and their provisions were too short to allow of delay. They were 
evidently very close to the spot^ and no doubt remained that we should 
be able to reach it in the spring. 

During the month of March ice repeatedly formed about the ship, 
but was constantly blown out ; that which formed immediately around 
her on Maroh 24 has remaineil, thongh for some time, I think, only 
because the ship hold it in. 

On April 1 Mr. Armitage and I started with a party of twelve men 
and the dogs to lay out a depict to the south-east. After crossing the 
new ice and rising to the barrier surfiice. the temperatures fell rapidly 
until the average was Wlow — 40^ : the dogs* coats were in very pooi 
ci^ndition, and we cimld get no work out of them ; the fur clothing 
pri'kved to be unsuitable* and the men, wholly unaccustomed to the con- 
ditionm suffewHl se\»n?ly. After thr^e days, therefore, the temperature 
having fallen to — 4$\ I deinded to turn backhand returned to the ship. 

Frv^m this time preivirations for the winter were pushed on, the 
winttvr awning >v«s spreail. and the ship made as snug as possible. 

The winter pass^xl very comfortably. The men remained cheerful 
thriMighvMit^ plenty of wv^rk was found for them out-of-doors, and a 
Tegular nnUine was maintaine^l ; the only drawback was the prevalenoe 



NATIOHAL ANTARCTIC ESPEDLTIOS; REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 27 

of a keen bat apparently purely local Bouth-east wind, which often 
made our eierciee unpleasant and not infrequently impossible. It was 
not until May 3 that a strong southerly gale brought the first heavy 
snowfall, allowing the docks and sides of the ship to be partially covered 
with anow ; this greatly improved our comfort below. The same gale 
blew the strait clear oF ico to within 200 yards of the ship. 

I fear I have not the time to relate all the incidents of the winter, 
but I would mention that officers and men did their best to continue all 
the scientific observations possible under the conditions. Mr. Hodgson 
was always out and about, keeping holes open in the ice for his nets 
and fish-traps, and, whatever the temperature, volunteers were always 
ready to assist him at the work. 

All the officers joined in taking the night meteorological observa- 
tions, thongh Mr. Eoyds alone took those between 10 a.m. and 10 p.m. 

Mr. Bernacohi tended his magnetic instmments with zealous care, 
and look regular observations with the electrometer. loe- measurements 
were taken as often as possible, and tidal observations regularly. Ex- 
periments were carried out to detetmiue the temperature and salinity 
of the ice at various depths. Auroral displays were infrequent and 
feeble, but were carefully observed when they occurred. 

We experienced our lowest temperatures in the spring, when also 
the wind became even more persistent and annoying. Every indication 
pointed lo the temperatures to the south and on the Barrier being far 
lo^er than those which obtained about the sheltered position of the ship. 

On September 2, I started with five officers and fifteen dogs to the 
northward to explore the bay towards Cape Bird and examine the islets 
wad glacier in it This short journey convinced me that it was jiossible 
to start the prearranged reconnaissance tripe, I returned on the 5tb, 
»nd on the 10th Mr. Royds, with Dr. Koettlitz and five men, proceeded 
to the south-west with a fortnight's provisions in an attempt to reaoh 
the mainland. 

On the nth, Mr. Armitage, with Mr. Ferrat and five men, started 
to the westward with the same intention. Approximately south-south- 
east of us lies a white snow-covered island, and south-south-west a 
black wind-swept one; a bold headland oouuected with the mainland 
cftn be seen beyond through the gap almost duo south of the ship. My 
own intention was to lay ont a depot in this direction. 

Mr. Hoyds returned to the ship on the 19th, having experienced 
very low temperatures and much wind ; from his report I learned that 
no clear water to the mainland was likely to be found in a south- 
western direction . 

I started with my party on the 17th, but at the first camp, about 
12 miles from the ship, encountered a heavy gale, which blew through- 
out the 18tb with a temperature below —40' (min. —51^); as our 
tleeping-hags were filled with ioe, and one of the party badly frost- 



28 NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 

bitten, I retnnied on the 19th, and again started on the 23rd with 
Mr. ShackletoD, the boatswain, and the dogs. 

We reached the north side of the cape in three days, but fonnd our 
further progress barred by heavy ice-npheavals, cracks, and crevasses, 
evidently the resalt of the barrier ice pressing up from the southward 
around the cape. Turning to the eastward, we had, in a bad light, to 
cross very disturbed ice with deep, lightly bridged crevasses ; into one 
of these the boatswain fell, and was only saved by his harness, which 
luckily held, though btranded. We arrived on the southern side of the 
cape on the 30th, and, selecting suitable leading marks, deposited the 
dep6t about 8 miles from the land and 60 miles south of the ship. 

From this point land coald be seen to the south-south-west, con- 
tinuing the outline of Victoria Land, but from this direction through 
south to the slopes of Mount Terror, bearing slightly to the eastward 
of north, an unbroken horizontal line indicated the continuance of the 
barrier surface. Returning outside the snow-covered island, and there- 
fore skirting the disturbed ice, we regained the ship in 2} days. On my 
return I learned that Mr. Armitage, after an arduous joorney, had arrived 
back on the 25th with his party in a more or less broken-down condition. 

The cause was undoubtedly scurvy, and, as undoubtedly, the disease 
was brought out by the severe work and exposure to which they had 
been subjected. 

The most severe cases were Mr. Ferrar, Cross, P.O., and Heald, A.B. 

A thorough examination of the ship's company showed that there 
was a taint of the disease in both officers and men. 

The following steps were taken : all tinned meats were discontinued, 
and only seal meat served out. 

An extra allowance of bottled fruit was issued, and lime-juice 
provided. 

The holds and storerooms were again thoroughly overhauled and 

disinfected. 

Under these conditions, to which must be added the gradual im- 
provement in the weather, and the inspiriting effect of the lengthening 
days, all symptoms quickly dieappeared. Mr. Ferrar, Cross, and Heald 
rapidly recovered. 

I realize that this outbreak of scurvy, such as it has been, is more 
than likely to be exaggerated by irresponsible persons, especially in 
view of the tales that may be told by or attributed to the men now being 
discharged from the ship. Whilst appreciating the gravity of the 
disease in this climate, I beg to assure you that the outbreak was in 
reality slight, as indicated by the rapidity with which it was thrown 
off. I doubt if its existence would have been discovered but for the 
severe work which brought it to light in Mr. Armitage's party. 

In consultation with the doctors, I can arrive at no satisfactory 
explanation of the cause of the outbreak. The tinned meats used in 



; ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: RETORT OK THE OOMMANPER. L'9 

le of excellent quality, aod every tin was examined by the 
8 use. For the greater part of the wiotor seal luo&t was 
issued three times, aud fresh mutton once a week. 
A j>oeeible cause may lie in the following facts :— 

(1) For a month before the commencement of sledging the supply of 

seal meat ran short : very few seals oame up on the ice, and 
the full ration could not be issued. 

(2) The cook, though quite capable of cooking well, served up the 

dinners, and especially the seal meat, in a moat unappetizing 
manner. 
1 fear it is not in my ability to throw more light ou what baa 
hkppened, but I bej^ to call your attention to the certainty of recorery 
which results from a liberal supply of teal meat. 

This was the more evident in conneLtion with the extended summer 
sledga joameyB : the disease again manifested itself in a slight degree, 
but was immediately dispelled on the return of tho men to the ship. 

There is absolutely no cause for ansiely should we be forced to 
spend another winter here. The men remaining are now in the most 
splendid health and condition, and we shall have no difficulty in laying 
in an ample supply of seal meat. We hare already shot a large number 
of Shua gulls, which we find excellent eating. 

Sir. Armitage, in his reoonnaitsanco, succeeded in reaching the surface 
of a glacier on the mainland, and continued to ascend it to a height of 
several hundred feet : he reported a good prospect of being able to 
continue on it to the inland ice. 

On October 4 Mr. Koyds, Mr. Skelton, and four men left the ship 
for Mount Terror, to renew the record previously left at the Penguin 
Kookery. 

The eastern slopes of Mount Terror are terribly wind-swept, and 
their surface is hare to the summit. On arrival at their foot the party 
encoantered a heavy gale, which blew oontinuously for five days, for 
the grenter part of which they were confined to their tents, round 
which the snow steadily accumulated, narrowing their space. Cooking 
was rarely possible. 

Mr. Royds sufiered severely from cramp, and in consequence when 
this gale ceased Mr. Skelton started with two men to find the record. 
This was successfully accomplished, and on the following day the same 
amall party, roped together, wearing crampons and carrying loe-aios. 
succeeded in descending to the sea ioo, where Mr, Skelton bad previously 
observed a large number of Emperor penguins. As a result of his 
uaterjiriae he was able to get eeveral epecimens of young Emperor 
penguins in down, and an excellent series of photographs and notes, 

Mr. Skelton deserves great credit for this discovery, the desoent on 
to the sea ioe being a very hazardous proceeding over tho very disturbe<l 
IBB ftt the place at which he made it. 





30 NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OP THE COMMANDER. 

Mr. Boyds returned to the ship on the 24th. Daring the first part 
of the journey he had experienced very low temperatures, one of which, 
—57°, is the lowest recorded on any of our journeys. 

By this time preparations for the southern trip were almost completed. 

On October 30 Mr. Bame started with eleyen men as a supporting 
party, with instructions to make for the depdt (A) which I had already 
established off the Southern cape. 

On November 2 I left the ship myself with Dr. Wilson and Mr. 
Shackleton and nineteen dogs. The dogs were in splendid condition, 
and, though loaded with 100 lbs. apiece, were so fresh that we were 
obliged to sit on the sledges to restrain them. We caught up Mr. 
Bame that night as he was starting on a night march, having been 
detained by bad weather. The weather continued very unsettled, and 
we did not reach the depdt till the 10th, and the supporting party 
joined us there on the following day, and we started due south in 
company on the 12th. The dogs were in such excellent condition that 
they far out-distanced the men, and we gradually increased their loads 
until on the third day they were dragging the whole of our own loads, 
and the supporting party, which I had intended carrying some way 
further, were no longer of use. On November 15, therefore, in lat. 
79° 15', I directed them to return to the ship, and we continued our 
journey alone. 

At this time we had high hopes of being able to explore to a con- 
siderable distance over the barrier, but within a very eliort time the 
aspect was completely changed. Almost at once the dogs began to 
show signs of weakening, and at first it was very difficult to discover 
the cause ; rest and increase of food made no improvement. We eventually 
discovered that it was the nature and not the amount of food that was 
at fault. Norwegian stock fish was the food selected and strongly 
recommended from its use in Greenland, where a team of twenty-three 
dogs had been worked on it for three years without the loss of a single 
animal. This being so, one can only conjecture that the fish deteriorated 
on its passage through the tropics : certainly its effect on our dogs was 
most disastrous. We continued to the southward, but were forced to do 
so by advancing half our load at a time; the surface became more 
difficult, and dogs failed so speedily that we were obliged to pull oar- 
selves to get even the half-load along. 

As we proceeded, we could distinguish new but distant land on onr 
right, continuing that which we had observed from dep6t (A) to the 
west-south-west, and it soon became evident that this land extended 
to the south approximately parallel to our course. 

We crossed the 80th parallel on November 27, when our progrees 
became so laborious that we could hope to do little without establishing 
a further depot, and the course was altered to south-west and later to 
west-south-west. 



I^^Tai 



'ATIONAL ANTABCriC EXPEDITION i REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 31 

It was Dot until December 1 6 (after twenty-nine dajB uf relay work) 
that we arrivod sufficiently close tu tlie Un<l to obtain good leading 
marks for our depot. Aa wo conld not rely on the dogs for our return, 
1 left here (depot B) three weeks' provisiouB, and proceeded to the aouth 
with the four weeks' which we had remaining. We lightened our load 
ID every way possible, Ciurryiug do dog food, and calculating our own 
food for something less than 2 Iba. per day per man. 

Depot B was approiim&ti^ly in lat. 80° 30', long. 162" E., about 7 
miles from a snow-covered headlancl, which formed the northern extreme 
of a mass of land with high and irregular ranges of mouutains in the 
baokground. To the north of this headland, between it and another 
mass of high laud, the barrier ran back through an apparent strait, 
behind which nothing could be aeon, though it is evident, from the 
disturbed state of the surface, that ice is pressing out through the strait. 
Another such strait exists at the farthest point we reashed, and 
another to the northward. 

We continued south along the coast-line until December 30, the 
■iirface often soft and sticky, and close to the land invariably so, the 
^ogs growing daily more feeble and sickly. 

We had now arrived in lat. 82° 17', long. Iij3° E., and were close to 
a cape which bounded the iiorlhern side of another apparent strait 
running in a north-west direction. To the west-south-west there was 
a range of magnificent mountains, and another range of great altitude 
lay to the south, close to the ooast-line, which continued as far as could 
l« seen in a direction south by east of our position. 

I fear it is impossible without a chart, and in the time at my 
disposal, to inform you of the many points of interest of this journey, 

I took as careful observations as I could for our positions, and of 
UiA bearings of the various land masses, the altitudes of the mountains, 
etc, but it will take a considerable time to work out and plot these 
obBerrations. Dr. Wilson has a moat excellent series of sketches of the 
Coast from many points of view, and Mr. Shackletun has some photo- 
gta'phs of interest. 

On December 31, we made an attempt to reach the land to secure 

>X>ck epecimens, though undoubtedly the rock is of the same volcanic 

nature as that to the northward. After proceeding about 4 miles on 

ski, we were confronted by an iiumoase chasm, a mile in width, and 

abont another mile from the cliffs. The chasm wae filled with huge 

irregular blocks of ice. With the aid of a rope and with much exertion 

Ye commenced to climb across and around these blocks. As we proceeded 

they became sharper and "newer " in outline, and much less snow lay 

aWut them. When within a few hundred yards of the other side, we 

hand that the inner boundary of the chasm cunaisted of a huge 

perpendicnUr ice-foot trench, resembling that we had seen both east 

Hdwwt bonndiog the lands and washed by the sea. A gentle snow-slope 




32 NATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OP THE COMMANDER. 

descended from the foot of the cliffs to the ioe-foot, and the blocks of ice 
that lay in the chasm bad evidently calved from if. As it was obviously 
impossible to climb this ice-wall, we were forced to return to camp. 

On January 1 we started back for depot B. The dogs were now 
utterly spent and practically useless from this point ; on the 9th, we 
unharnessed them, and, hoping to keep some alive, carried their food on 
onr sledges. The weather now became very thick, and the land was 
obscured ; the surface seemed to grow more difficalt, and we had most 
serious trouble in steering a coarse, our fickle guides being the sun, 
wind, and astrugi, or the tail end of a cloud : during these days, most 
of these, and sometimes all, failed us. On the 13th, we were forced to 
camp for this reason ; we had only two days' provisions left, but though 
we had been travelling for some time almost by dead reckoning, I knew 
we must be in the vicinity of the depot. I was therefore much relieved 
when at noon a slight clearance of the niist showed us the depdt flag 
about 2 miles to the northward. 

On returning to this depot, I hoped to be able to make another 
attempt to reach the land, and to carefully pilot the coast-line to the 
northward ; the former was rendered impossible, and the latter diffioolt, 
by the sudden breakdown of one of my companions, Mr. Shackleton. 
Before reaching dep6t B, it seemed to me he was feeling the strain of 
our recent work much more than Dr. Wilson or I were ; he suffered con- 
siderably from shortness of breath. 

When we left dep6t B on January 14, the congestion had greatly 
increased : he was breathing asthmatically and spitting up a considerable 
amount of blood. Becognizing the gravity of the case. Dr. Wilson and 
I decided we must push on at all costs, and keep Mr. Shackleton walk- 
ing on ski beside the sledges. This necessitated Dr. Wilson and I 
dragging 260 lbs. apiece, and I do not think we could have carried Mr. 
Shackleton as well. By this time oor dog team had dwindled to two — 
the other poor animals, growing too weak to even walk alongside the 
sledges, had been dispatched ; for the two (our best) we were carrying 
food, hoping to save them, but at this crisis I abandoned this idea, and 
they were killed. Relieved of all camp work and pulling, Mr. Shackle- 
ton made some progress towards recovery, and was able to keep up well 
until we reached depdt A on January 28, when he was again thrown 
back by a snowstorm, and caused us the gravest anxiety. On the 30th 
we were able to posh on once more, and arrived back at the ship on 
February 3. Mr. Shackleton has since practically recovered, but both 
the doctors agree that he ought not to risk further exposure, and, much 
as I regret parting with him, I do not think the health of an executive 
officer of this ship should be open to any doubt. I am, therefore, send- 
ing him home by the Momimj, 

On my return to the ship, I learnt that the programme for other 
gledge parties, which had been arranged before I started, had been 



NATIONAL ASTAECTJC EXPEDITIOM: REPORT OF THE COMMaNDBR. 33 

carried oat with some auooess and without accident. Mr. Roy da journeyed 
agaio to Capo Crozier on November 3, aocompanied by two men, to 
reviflit the Emperor peuguin rookery and make further observations. 
These objects he eatiefaotorily accomplifihed, and though the Emperor 
peuguins ha<.) left, he obtained more specimens of the yonng, and bad 
the good fortune to find an egg. The Robs sea, which had been cleared 
by the gale on his previous visit, was again frozen over when he arrived. 
The party again experienced very bad weather on the Terror slopeB, 
being tent-bound on the 7th and 8th, and again on the 11th and 12th. 
The Adelie penguins had returned to their rookery and started to lay 
eggs, a number of which were brought back to the ship; the party 
retorned in good health and condition on the 17th. 

Mr. Armitage started on his main western trip on November 29. 
He was accompanied by ilr. Skelton and ten men, with a supporting 
party, oonsisting of Dr. Koettlitz, Mr. Ferrar, and seven men, They 
proceeded towurdti the glacier previously ascended, reaching a line of 
"Bokers" which fringe its edge, extending for about 10 miles north and 
south, at 20 miles from the ship, ou December 2. 

The glacier descends between precipitous granite mountains. On 
December & they reached a point at which it turned abruptly to the 
louth, running behind the high range of mountains visible from the 
ship. They had now travelled 15 miles over the surface of the glacier, 
and ascended 3400 feet. Skirting the ice-clad foothills of the above 
range, they arrived at the summit of a pass, from which to the westward 
■ steep descent led to another glacier, which discharged its ice, after 
many windings, farther to the northward. 

They were now 53 miles from the ship and 4000 feet above sea-level. 
On the dth Dr. Eoettlitz and bis party returned, and Mr. Armitage, 
thinking the descent to the westward too steep, ascended a steep slope 
with the aid of tackles, intending to attempt crossing the mountains. 
With this idea they ascended another 1700 feet ; but they realized the 
task to bo impossible in the time at their disposal, and, returning once 
more to the pass, decided to attempt the descent to the glacier below. 
^Vith some difficulty, and considerable risk to the sledges, this was 
■ocomplished, and they arrived ou the glaoier at a point I'JOO feet below 
the pass. 

They proceeded to ascend the glacier in a northerly direction towards 
> range of remarkably bare granite mountains, runuing north-west and 
(onth-east. At the foot of these the glacier formed the junction of two 
llibntary glaciers ; choosing the right-hand one, the party proceeded in 
a north-westerly direction, having to croaa heavily orevasaed ice Where 
the inclination grew steeper. 

Mr. Armitage reports — 

" The surface of the glaoier was, generally, much cut up ; in parts 
like a plougheil field, in others like a cracked glass dome, through the 

Mo. I. — July, 1903.] d 





34 NATIONAL ANTARCnC EXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 

oraoks of wliich no bottom could be seen. On the way np the glacier 
we planted a line of sticks. During a period of twenty-three days the 
greatest movement shown was 3 feet 8 inches." 

This slow glacial movement is in keeping with other observations 
made in this vicinity. 

Mr. Armitage continues — 

" On January 2, at an altitude of 8000 feet, some of my men (six) 
had to be left behind, the rarefied atmosphere and exertion proving too 
much for them." 

Mr. Armitage, with Mr. Skelton and four men, still continued to 
ascend, until, having gained another 1000 feet in height, they found 
before them a smooth, open, snow-covered plain, over which they travelled 
for a short way. The farthest point reached was in lat. 77^^ 21' S., 
long. 167° 26' E. Observations showed a magnetic dip of 84° 24'. 

The snow surface was soft, with successive crusts 9 inches or 1 foot 
apart ; there were no sastrugi. 

Mr. Armitage thought he detected a slight descent in the plain to 
the westward, but of this he could not be certain. The whole horizon 
to the westward was unbroken and clear. 

On January 6 the party started to return, reuniting with the detached 
party on the same night. One of them, McFarlane, had to be carried 
on the sledge for most of the way back. 

On their return Mr. Armitage remarks, " We found running • becks * 
of water on the east side of the glacial valley, 7 feet wide and 9 inches 
deep. At level places large pools were formed, sometimes 1 mile in 
diameter. Bergschninds, 150 feet deep, were found at the base of the 
mountains ; huge ' erratics ' were visible on the surface of the glacier 
(one measured 30 feet by 19 feet by 12 feet)." To ascend to the 
summit of the pass, they had again to use tackles for the sledges. On 
the 17th they arrived abreast of the Eskers, and on the 19th reached 
the ship. 

This journey was, I think, a very fine one, and reflects great credit 
on Mr. Armitage. The sledges had often to be dragged up steep places 
one at a time, and, consequently, the distance traversed many times. 
Many dangerous crevasses had to be crossed. Mr. Armitage himself fell 
into one of these, and was only saved by his harness, after he had fallen 
some 15 feet; he received a severe shaking in consequence. 

As I have not had time to inquire closely into Mr. Bame's or 
Dr. Koettlitz's journeys, I have asked these officers to draw out a short 
summary of their work, which I attach hereto. 

It will, of course, be extremely difficult to follow the course and 
proceedings of the various sledge-parties without a proper chart, but 
this will take some time to construct. I am glad to be able to report 
that there is a considerable amount of data for its construction. 

H. F. Scott, Captain. 



■JONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 



^^^^H DUeormry, Winter Qnurtere, Febraar; 26, 1908. 

^^^^^KUARY OF SoiTTU-WEST StEIXiE Tflll', Dl^CEUBEIt 20, 1003, TO 

^^^^ January 30, 1903. 

Left Ditcoterij Ddcomber 20, 1902, with four seamen and one Btoker, 
, tvro tente, two sledges, and five weeks' proTisions (one week at depOt A), 

and one week's bag for southern party; total weight, 1148 Iba. 

' Arrived at depflt A, December lil, 1902 ; left depOt A, January 1, 1003. 

TraTelling towards Boulhern visible land, and altering oourae to 

Hoath to clear each suocessive rise of land as it appeared above the 

horizon. Passed two gaps, or straits, in the coast, beyond which (to 

westward) was an apparently flat horizon, land extending t« southward. 

On January 14, having been out fourteen days from depot A, we 

turned back, the weather having been very thick for the last two daya, 

and being very thick at the time, having got abreast of the southern 

of the two gaps we saw. 

Weather remained thick, with the exception of two days, when a 
short view of bits of the land was obtained, till the ^4th, when it 
cleared, and on the evening of which day we reaohed depot A. 
Beached the ship on January 30. 

On the way out, on December 28, we crossed the fresh track of a 
single Adelie penguin, travelling east, having apparently oome from 
between Mount Discovery and Black island ; * and on the way home we 
crossed the track of another one, a few miles further north, and going 
in about the same direction. 

Got rounds of angles and bearings nearly every day till January 15, 
when we had started back. After that date the weather was thick till 
the 26tb, 2Bth, and 29th, on which dates I got rounds of angles. 

The health of the party was good. Every one wore goggles all the 
time, and I did not have occasion for any medical treatment. 
^^^H Michael Barhe, lAml. R.N. 



Slkdob JoDKNEYa— Reginald Kovrtuiz. 



For the purpoee of invettigaling the rough old ice and tskcr-Uke lince of 
rock iUbriitBhich^ass to north from" Black'' and" Eroim islandt." 
SepteriAer 24, 1902.— Mr. Bemacohi, Mr. Daily, and I left on this 
date, courao direct for middle of " Brown island ; " reached " old ice " at 

* W\lfe island ii that described in ray joumey ai lying to tho lonth-eaat. 

Bladi Uland is tba vrind-swept one to the Buuth'Weit, 

Brown iiSand is anotber of bronnei baealtic rook eltoated at nbout tlie sumo diaUucu 
•unUt-weBt by weet. 

ifuttiit IHtamery ia a Tory conspicuoua iaulalcd conical 
in height, and pieMUting (lie eolno ngpeot in all directiona 
brtvceo Block oud Brown ialantlB, at a dislauce of Zi milea. 

Tht Bluff ia the temporary ubibd given to the conepiouo 



1irDil«d 



of Victoria Lacd before the sledging commenoed. 



in tain, noarlj 10,000 feet 
!t is viewed from the ship 



u cape to the aooth which 




36 NATIONAL ANTARCTIC SXPXDITION: REPORT OF THS OOMMANDIR. 

noon, and outskirts of rough '^ old ice " by 2.30 p.m. ; amyed at esker- 
like lines following day : 17 geograpliical miles — some of heaps of dSm$ 
160 feet high (by aneroid) ; ice so rough we were obliged to go south to 
''Blaok island," which was reached on 27th. Ascended north-west 
promontory of island on 29th; found a channel apparently existed 
between '* Brown island " and Mount Discovery, which is choked up 
with lines of rocky dSbris and broken ice, also that a channel separates 
these from " Black island." Saw that a glacier of some size oomes down 
from the mountains behind Mount Discovery, and it appears to be the 
source from which the eskers are derived. "Brown island" seemed 
inaccessible to a sledge party, owing to this side being surrounded by 
lines of rocky debria 3 to 5 miles from its base. Betumed to ship down 
newly found channel on west side of '* Black island " — which ends in 
the barrier to the southward, with several tide cracks running, at its 
apparent junction, from " Black island " towards the Bluff range — around 
south side of " Black island ; " and reached ship on October 2. 

2. Short sledge trip toErehushayt to ascertain whether an Emjperor penguin 

rookery existed anywhere there or not. 

November 3. — Mr. Skelton, Hare, and I left the ship on this date, 
reached glacier snout by 2 p.m. ; examined the marks placed upon it for 
ice-movement ; proceeded and camped on the north side of the outer and 
larger rocky razor-back island well in the bay. Walked to the spit of 
rooky laud to the north-east at the foot of the mountain; asoended 
150 feet and examined all round with binoculars; no signs of any 
rookery. On return journey explored that portion of inner bay north of 
glacier snout, and reached ship on evening of November 5. 

3. Betum journey of western supporting party. 

December 10. — Mr. Ferrar and I, with seven men, left the main 
party at '* Separation ridge" on above date, upon our return to the 
ship. 

On our march we occasionally separated and examined the hiUs on 
each side of our route. We found that those more inland were com- 
posed of granite rock, split and broken, as well as weather- or wind- 
worn into extraordinary shapes. The lower or more outer hills 
consisted of quartz, etc., with basaltic dykes cutting through them. 
The weather was too foggy to do much upon the sea and old ice in the 
bay. Reached ship on 18th. 

4. To attempt to reach and ascend " Brown island " and examine con- 
dition of things on western side. 

December 29. — Mr. Hodgson, Mr. Ferrar, and I left ship on this date, 
making our way towards centre of " Black island " in order to avoid 
the '* rough old ice " as much as possible ; reached that island after 
much difficulty, owing to the rough ice and water (due to thaw) on the 



SATIONAL ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION: REPORT OF THE COMMANDER. 37 

31 at; continued along the north shore of " Blaok island "past the north- 
western point, across the channel, to within 3 geographical miles of 
" Brown island ; " here the sledgea could go no further. Walked over 
the rongh iineB of rooky dibTU to the ialand, wading channelB in places ; 
ascended to summit, 2750 feet, which was found to be a volcanic cone, 
with crater. Saw that the glacier at the back of Mount Discovery was 
not the source of the eskei-like lines of rock dSbrin and ioe-worn bonlders, 
but that it passed away in a long tongue along the shore of the mainland 
towards the north ; also that a long deep bay existed between " Brown 
island" and the mainland, having Monnt Discovery and the plateau 
mountain at its head ; that the channel (?) between " Brown island " 
and Mount Discovery is choked with lines of heaped-up dibrU. 

1903. — 'Returned to ship roand the south of "Black island," and 
reached it January 8, 

6. To " Bluff," to a/crnd il and asce>-lain Ihe lie and general arrange- 
menl of the prtBimre ridgei, etc., as the ice patges that point. 

January 14. — Mr, Ferrar and I left ship; found going very heavy, so 
did not reach the " Bluff," though our course was direct for it, till the 
20th. Camped upon Iha outskirts of long eaker-like lines of rock dfhria 
and broken rough ice, which fringes this side of the mountain range 
for half a mile or more in extent. Weather now very stormy ; could 
not leave camp till the 23rd. Walked to the land over the debria, 
crossing two movement or shearing cracks along the base of the land ; 
ascended a ehoulder near the " Bluff" end to a height of 300 feet, and 
had a fair view; could go no further, as the weather continued bad, and 
looked KB though getting worse, so retnmed to camp ; left, on return 
jouraey, in a blizzard, used sledge-sail, and arrived at ship on 26th, 



Note oh tbg AoTAROTia BkbtcH'Kap, p. 120, — As the complete obarts shoir- 
iag the results of the Eurveys made by Captain Scott and the oSicEirB serving under 
him have not yet be«D received, the mnpof the antaiclic regione which accompanies 
this paper mnst be considered as only provisional. It baa b<:en prepared from all 
the informBtioQ at present available, including the report which Captain Scott has 
addresied to the presidents of the Royal Society sod the Royal Geographical 
Society. A rough sketch of the winter quarters of the Ditcovenj by Lient. Barne, 
and another of Erebus and Terror island by Lieut. Royde, have furnigbed the basiB 
for the enlarged inset plan, but tbe remainder of the new work has been drawn 
from letters and reports, in which are, however, given the latitadea aod longitudes 
of several positions. The track of the Morning bos been approximately laid down, 
Trom a preliminary chart on a small scale, by Lieut. Evans, and sent home by 
Captain Oolbeck. Lieut. Sbackleton has, since bis return, looked over a proof of 
the map and made several corrsctiocs, but until the complete charts, based upon 
Dom«rous observations and careful surveys, arrive, it is, of course, impossible to 
gife anything more than an approximate idea of the geogra]>hlcitl work of the 
flipedition. Upon the present map, the netvly discovered laud is shown in red, 
vbile the remainder of the coast-Hoe has been principally taken from the admiralty 
charts and other material. 



( 38 ) 



THE SECOND NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE 

"FRAM/' 1898-1 902.* 

By Captain OTTO SVERDBX7P. 

Upon learning that Messrs. Axel Heiberg and Bingnes Brothers were 
willing to defray the costs of a polar expedition under my guidance 
and direction, I petitioned the Norwegian Government to lend me the 
arctic vessel Fram, The Government at once placed her at my service, 
while the Storting generously granted 26,000 kroner (= £1445) for the 
renovation of the ship and the construction of a new saloon forward, 
two working-cabins, and six berths for the officers and scientific staff. 
The Fram was a first-rate boat before these alterations were made. P^. 
Nansen had asked Mr. Collin Archer to make her strong, and strong she 
unquestionably was. But now she was better than ever; and though 
she was not so severely tried on the second occasion as she was on the 
first, still she did not escape without two or three pretty sevete tussles. 
The original object of the expedition was to spend the winter in the 
arctic regions, and by means of sledge-expeditions carry out the scientific 
exploration of the north-west coast of Greenland. But in case the ice 
should prove unfavourable for this purpose, or we experienced di£Soulty 
in penetrating through Kane basin, the generous authors of the expedition 
gave me a perfectly free hand to turn my attention to other fields. Thus I 
was under no obligation to follow a predetermined and unalterable plan. 
The personnel of the expedition consisted of the following, in addition 
to myself: Captain Victor Baumann, second in command, who was 
appointed first lieutenant in the Norwegian navy in 1895. He had 
charge of the magnetic observations, having studied magnetism at 
Berlin and Wilbelmshafen. The '* mate " was Mr. Oluf Baanes, who 
had served as fisherman and seaman on the Coast of Norway all his 
life. The cartographer was Captain (Bitmester) Gunerins Ingvald 
Isachsen, a cavalry officer in the Norwegian army. The botanist was a 
Swede, Mr. H. G. Simmons, who had distinguished himself by a botanical 
expedition to the Faeroes. The zoologist was Mr. E. Bay, a Dane, who 
took part in Lieut. Byder's expedition to the east coast of Greenland 
in 1891. Dr. J. Svendsen, a native of Bergen, was the medical man of 
the party. The geologist was Mr. Per Schei ; and the chief engineer 
Mr. Karl Olsen, with Mr. Jacob Nodtvedt as his principal assistant 
The other members of the party consisted of Messrs. P. L. Henriksen, 
who accompanied Prof. Nansen in the Fram's first voyage ; L Fosheim, 
our hunter ; A. IT, Lindstrom, who acted as cook and steward ; S. Hassel, 
R. Stolz, and 0. Braskerud — the labt two and Fosheim acted as firemen. 



♦ Read at the Royal Geographical Society, April 27. Captain Sverdrup'a com- 
pleted map will be issued in a later number of the Journal ; in binding it should be 
inserted at the end of this number. 



THE SECOND NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE "FRAM," 1898-1909. 39 

We left ChristUnia on June 24, 1898, for the Danish colonies on the 
west coast of Greenland, where we took on board sixty-Bix dogs, which 
the Royal Greenland Trading rompany had kindly bought ready for 
119. On Angiist 7 we got set fast in the ioo of Melville bay, and were 
kept there until the 13th. After gettipg ont into open water again, 
we hardly saw any further trace of ioe. Watch after watch pneaed, 
and we still had the open soa in front of us, and I was beginning to 
calcnlate how many days we should need to go through Kennedy 
oluuinei and Robeson obannel. Unt I was reckoning without my host. 
The drift-ice was not so very far off after all, for we encountered it in 
great quantity in tho [nortbem end of Smith sound, \t lirat we tried 




to creep along by the coast of Greenland, but were stopped by the ice, 
which lay for a long ilistanoe to the north, close-packed and motionlew, 
absolutely impenetrable to any ship that ever was built. There was 
no help for it; wo bad to turn round and go back the same way we 
came. As bood as it was practicable, we crossed over to the west side 
of Smith sound, and made another attoiupt to penetrate northwards 
along the coast of Kllesmere Land; but wo were again stopped, on 
August 17, by the drift-ioe, close to the little island of Cocked Hat. 

It was still early in the year, and we hoped the ioe would loosen 
again, so that we might yet be able to push on farther north before the 
autumn came to an end. But we were doomed to die appointment. 
Day after day passed, and the ioe never inoved, and so oETeotually 



I 




40 THE SECOND NORWEOIAK POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE <« PRAM," 1898-1902. 

blocked our passage. Meanwhile the nights began to be oold, a warn- 
ing that winter was oomiDg, which suggested to ns the advisability of 
looking about for winter quarters. These we eventually found in a 
small sheltered cove in the northern part of Bice strait. At that 
time we were still uncertain whether Hayes sound really was a sound 
or only a large system of Qords, and as soon as the ice bore, which 
it did early, for the frost was very severe, we set about exploring the 
interior parts of Hayes sound. 

In the following spring we made two expeditions across EUesmere 
Land to its west coast. Bay and I, starting from the inner extremity 
of North fjord (Nord-fjord), travelled the whole way over bare ground, 
and came eventually to a large i^ord which penetrated due east. Un- 
fortunately the weather was not clear, and we were unable to see far; 
but what we did see distinctly suggested that we were standing at the 
head of a very large fjord, and that, further to the west, it sent off still 
larger side Qords to both north and south. But as we had been unable 
to transport overland a sufficient supply of food for ourselves and the 
dogs, it was entirely out of the question for us to think of pushing our 
investigations further. Meanwhile Isachsen and Braskerud started to 
cross the glaciated portion of EUesmere Land. Keeping the whole 
time to the inland ice, they came at length, near the west coast, to a 
broad belt of bare ground, which stretched right down to the sea» and 
prevented them from getting any nearer to it. They also saw a large 
fjord with some islands in it. 

In the year 1899 the ice was again extremely unfavourable in Eane 
basin, filling it entirely from side to side in a densely packed mass ; 
and in those waters, where the ice is almost wholly without movement, 
you have to exercise the very greatest care lest you get set fast in it. 
If you do, you will probably have to stay there the whole year, or 
perhaps even longer. In the condition in which the ice was that 
summer, if I had attempted to penetrate it, I should almost certainly 
have set the Fram fast, and that I did not wish to do at any price. 
For if we did get caught, we should use up during the winter such a 
large proportion of the dogs* food, that, should an opportunity offer in 
the following summer for pushing on north, we should be unable to do 
so. For the journey round the north coast of Greenland, and then 
down its east coast as far as Sabine island, would necessarily require 
a large number of dogs, and consequently large supplies of food — larger 
than we should then have at our command. As it was, we did get 
ice-bound several times ; but only in the outer fringes of the pack, so 
that there was no real danger, for we very soon drifted south down 
Smith sound, and so got free again. We made several attempts to 
penetrate northwards, but all ended the same way: we were carried 
down Smith sound, and so out into open water. 

Accordingly, on August 22, we decided to leave Smith sound and 



THS SECOND NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE " FKAM," 



?-i9oa, 41 



turn southwards into Jones sound. For it was by then in the highest 
degree donhtfal whether the ice would loosen euffioiently to allow of 
OUT getting further north, and if we remained in Smith sound, there 
was A riak of our being frozen in for another winter. On the other 
hand, we knew that there were several extensive stretchee of unexplored 
land lying north of the point where Inglefield turned back in 195'2, and 
thence np to Greely Qord. Belcher, for instance, saw land due north from 
Table island, which be called North Cornwall, Besides which, there 
were many reasons for sappoain^ there existed several islands or 
patches of land in the big bay between Prince Patrick island and Grant 
Land. In Jones aonnd we were overtaken by bad weather, with thick 




''^K- and were at last driven to anchor in a fjord which we called Havno 
(or Harbour) fjord. This, ao far as we were able to judge, was some- 
■wliere about the spot where Inglefield turned back in ]85-*, and whence 
Q-O believed the coast-line ran back in a northern direction. 

Kaxt spring we resolved to establish a dep6t as far west as we could 
E^ K> that it might serve as a base for future operations. We suo- 
'*o«ded in advancing some 60 odd miles west, but were unable to 
■penetrate farther, owing to there being open water as far in that 
diteotion aa we were able to see. At that point, then, we made our 
Q*p4t, and christened it Bjomeborg. On our way back we put into 
l^Mkns (Musk) fjord, to see if we could find any game, and were 
iDitimately able to bag twenty-six musk-oxen, which we conveyed in 




42 THE SSCOND NORWKOIAK POLAR KXPIDITION IN THS «FRAK," 1898-1902. 

the coarse of the ensning autumn the 75 miles which still remained to 
be traversed to reach the Fram, 

In the spring of 1900 we sledged west, nine of ns, each with his 
team of dogs. Of these fiye men were to travel ten days from Bjomeborg 
and then retnm. It tnmed ont that the coast, instead of trending to 
the north at Sir Inglis peak, continued west all the way to North Kent. 
It was terrible work forcing onr way along close to the coast nntil we 
got through Hell Gate, which is always kept open and free of ice by 
the powerful current which flows through it. To the north of this 
sound the coast inclined to the north-east, and we followed it as far as 
Big Bear cape (Store Bjomekap), which we at first took for an island, 
but which eventually proved to be a peninsula. We called the bay 
which opened to the west, Norwegian bay (Norskebugten). Owing to 
the mist, we were unable to see very far ahead, but once or twice, when 
the fog temporarily lifted, we perceived that the coast again turned 
west, and in the far distance formed the large promontory which we 
named Gape Sydvest. We thought the coast continued steadily on in 
the same direction, and suspected Cape Sydvest was on a large island, 
which was separated from King Oscar Land by a sound. King Oscar 
Land was the name we gave to the land going northwards &om 
Inglefield's northernmost point. 

On March 31 we reached the north side of Norskebugten, almosi 
immediately opposite Eureka sound. There we parted from, the five 
men who were to return to Bjdmeborg, and thence escort two others of oui 
party, namely, Schei and Henriksen, through Hell Gate to the north side 
of North Kent, whence they were to make an expedition to the Grahan 
islands, and after that explore the large fjords which lay to the north o: 
Norskebugten. After getting through the sound, the cold had becom< 
intense. Indeed, the morning our escort left us, we thought we woulc 
console ourselves for the parting with a drop of spirits. But though w< 
pulled and pulled at the brandy-flask, not a drop of the liquor could w< 
get. The spirit was frozen into a solid. However, we picked it out witl 
a piece of sharpened wood, and each man had a spoonful of frozen brandy 
The dram was intended to warm us, but I can't say that on this occasioi 
it had precisely that effect Although for some time the oold wa 
terrific, we suffered no harm, a circumstance I attributed principally in 
the fact that we were provided with double tents. After we got a littli 
better seasoned, and learnt how to take care of ourselves, we suoceedet 
in almost entirely avoiding the moisture which adheres to the clothe 
in those climates, and which has generally occasioned such discomfor 
to all previous arctic travellers. Owing to this cause, we were generall 
pretty comfortable on our sledge journeys. Continuing our route wesi 
towards Capo Sydvest, we had the same difficulty in making heaci 
way that we had had ever since we left the sound. It was as much a 
ever we could do to manage 7 or 8 miles in a day. Beyond Cape Sydvet 



THE SECOND NORWEGUN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE "FRAM," 1898-1903, 43 

the ooaBt turned toward§ the north-west, and the four of iia who 
were now left pushed on further, notwithstanding the monntainoaa 
oharaoter of the country, nntil on the morning of April 15, just as we 
wai« setting off for thft day's tramp, wo discovered fresh land due 
w«et. 

We agreed to separate, leaohsen and Hassel proceeding to explore 
the new land we saw to the west, while Fosheim and I continued onr 
sledge toyiT. The former, after exploring the new land, were to cross 
over the large bay which lay on the north side of Cape Lev-vel, where 
we separated ; for this bay e.\.tended, we saw, a long way to the east, 
and it was possible it might end in a sound that would bring us through 
to more easterly waters. But if they failed to discover any such sound. 




they wore to return the same way they went, and visit the large fjords 
which we perceived opening to the north of Norwegian bay, 

Fosheim and I contiuued, then, towards the north; but, the weather 
still proving bad, we made even shorter days' journeys then we bad 
counted upon. We were, however, allured on by the continual hope 
of reaching the uortbern extremity of the land, and finding there a 
Bonnd or fjord which would tiike us east into Greely fjord, or into the 
waters we had visited in the spring of 18!I9. TSut time after time we 
were disappointed, and on May 7 we were compelled to turn back in 
about 81^ N. lat. and 'Jo'' W. long., owing to our food and that of the 
dogs beginning to run low. The coast still continued to follow the 
t direction as far as we ooald see — that is, for some 15 miles or so 



I 




44 TBI 8E00KD NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE <«FEAM;' 1898-1903. 

ftirther north. On May 7 we set oat on onr return journey, and on 
Jnne 3 were onoe more on board, after an absenoe of seyenty-six days. 

On Jnne 19 Isaohsen and Hassel returned. They had made a 
thort visit to the new land westaway, and on their way back had 
asoertained that there was no sound stretching to the east from the 
large bay that lay north of Cape Ley-veL From Norskebugten they 
entered what they took to be a large i^ord running towards the north, 
and followed it up very nearly as far as 79^ N. lat., or, in fact, until they 
judged, as well as the incessant bad weather would let them, that they 
had reached the head of it. After that, in the same way, they travelled 
to the extremity of the large fjord which penetrated westwards. Then 
continuing soutii along the edge of the land that lay to the east, they 
passed, but did not enter, a little north of Bjomekap Land, another 
broad Qoid which pointed towards the south-east. 

Scbei and Henriksen returned from their journey to the Graham 
islands the day before we reached the ship, having been absent seventy- 
fire days. They too had entered the same large fjord that Isabhsen and 
Hassel had done, but had not gone further north than Bjomesnnd, 
in alxMit 78|° N. lat. On their return journey they crossed over Bjome- 
kap Land, and struck Norskebugten a little west of Store Bjdmekap. 

As 80on as the ice broke up, we steamed west and went up Oaidigan 
strait, and on Aug^ust 15 once more got fast in the ice off the north 
s1k«^ of Grinnell island, (not Orinncdl Land, of ooune). But, after 
drifting backwards and forwards for about a month, we oame free again, 
and steered to the head of Gaasef jorien (Goose Qord), and there pitdied 
owr winter quarters for the third winter. 

Onr dedge jonniejs of the spring preceding, especially after the 
resnHa we oblained from them had been embodied in map form, con- 
Tinesd v Mor» and more that there must be a fjord or sound oonneoting 
tlM^ nordien part of Korskebugten with Greely ^rd; and ii^ as we 
belieT«d« we now possMsed a ftdrly accurate knowledge of the wmter- 
w^i^ te Itrtt west of Bjdmekap Land as far north as lat. SI'' N^ it was 
t^^ilentbly (iMtain that the sound in question, supposing it really did 
exiit. mu$^ start Motiewheie further east^ We concluded, therefore, 
tkat it was in all probaHlitv a northern branch of the great Qoid wliibh 
went in a tMitlHeasteriy diiecdon from Bjdmekap Land — that is to 
•i^^ an ana of the Qiud whidi botii Isaclison^s and S^iei s parties bad 
Tiitt<ii t>te pn^Tiowi season. The piv>babilitT seemed to be that, after 
l><«i^ a l^tt^ w^ es»t^ it would tun north, and be somehow connected 
witli tb^ vnkl«nt whkh we had dixoxei^^ when we went OToriand west 
froaa Hj^^^m ft.'mi»d i^iinnir <^ar fir$:t year. And it al^o wemed probable 
i^mU ti* «a»e fi.'cd wv>uU proT>^ to be c^^nuel^tel witk Grselv Qord. 
T1)e<i^ |«vNhWa» ^ emati d^d a ^>hitiv\n at all cv^sta. acd I dMemdiied to 
tark^ tiiMa v^j^fiKll XTkibt I w:i$ doin^: ihi«. la^^ueA a»d Hassel 
j^rtmei %» te«Kim te tiie new land wh» kid diwsei^erid w^ Brtawa y, «nd to 



^BBBCOKD NORWEGIAN POLAR BXPEDITIOS IN THE ■■FRAM," 1898-1902. 46 

which we gave the nftmes of Etlef Ringnee Land and Amund Kingnes 
Land. Even before the autumn closed we attempted a reoounoitruig 
trip to the north, but were unable to surmount the difficulties incident 
to the constant bad weather, and the repeated breaking up of the ice. 
Afl far as we could see from Nordstrand, almost the whole area of 
XoTweglan bay was a bright blue sea. 

In the spring of I dul our first proceeding was to travel to Baumann 
fjord, and establish there a depdt, aud thence journey some dietanoe to 
the north. Both going and returning we entered the fjord which, on 
the south of Store (Great) Bjomekap, cut eastwards into the land, and, 
crossing over an iathmuB near its head, came to another broad fjord, whioh 




jenetrated first eaatwarda and then due north. At first, we were 
naturally disposed to think this was the sound we were in search of; 
"hot after driving up it for some days, we became convinced not only 
that it was a cul-de-sac, but also that it was impossible there should be 
a land passage from this fjord in the direction we had anticipated. 
There was no alternative : we had to turn and go back the same way 
we came. Heading our dogs towards the north-west in the direction 
of Storfjorden (Great fjord), we entered a long narrow rift or waterway, 
which struok off from the east aide of this Qord and led towards the north. 
But here again we were disappointed. It too was apparently a oul-de- 
MO, and terminated at the foot of a precipitous mountain wall, whioh 
it would be impossible to olimb. We called this Trold fjord, and 





46 THE S£(X>ND NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE **FRAM," 1898-1902. 

well it deserved its name ; it was an ugly plaoe, being shnt in on both 
sides by high and gloomy walls of rook, whioh wore a very threatening 
aspect. Here again there was manifestly no possibility of advancing 
Airther by land. However, as we had already come so far, we decided 
to pursue the ijord to its extremity. If fortune would only favour us* 
we might perchance hit upon a little glen or gap of some kind iliat 
would take us to the north. On we went then, and just as we were 
spinning round a projecting cape, suddenly the mountain wall opened 
like a doorway, and there, straight before us, was a valley which ran first 
to the east and then to the north. Wo had no hesitation in following 
up the valley, and after some difficulty we succeeded in striking a large 
fjord on the north side of the land. It was, we felt perfectly certain, 
ono of the waterways we had visited during our first spring, and so we 
pushed boldly on. We were two sledging parties travelling together, 
the intention being to separate as soon as it should appear expedient to 
do so. This, then, was the moment to do it Accordingly we parted 
company on May 4 near the Blaamanden. Whilst Fosheim and the 
mate travelled northwards towards Greely fjord, aloug the land that 
lay to the east, Schei and I stuck to Axel Heiberg Land, intending to 
push on as far as we could towards the north. We advanced as far 
as lat 80]^^ N. without change of direction ; then, however, the coast 
turned suddenly towards the west, and after we had proceeded some dis- 
tance fiothor, we came to ice which, especially as the vreather was at 
the same time so bad, we were unable to get over. Hence we were 
compelled to turn back long before we expected to have to do so. 

When the weather cleared up, we ascertained that there was a 
broad sea-ohannel running towards the north-west, and that Axel 
Heibeirg Land extended as far to the north as we were able to see. 
The northernmost point we reached was Smdrgrautberg. Looking 
hence, wt» perceived that Greely fjord penetrated Grinnell Land 
towards the north-east, and was confronted on the west by an im- 
posing mountain chain, which for almost the entire distance that 
>ft>^ could se^ descended perpendicularly into the ocean. There were 
also :^v^^ral fKvrvIs cutting into the land in a northerly direction. 
On the other hand« Heiberg Laud, so far as we were able to oom- 
wa&d a view of it^ was relatively low, scarce rising more than 1500 
to :\W^ f^i aK>To eea4evol« and between theee altitudes and the sea 
«ti^Mvhed A wide bolt of actual lowlands. Although Heiberg Land 
ImM v^t ex^ry promise of an abundance of game^ we were, as it 
ka{^f^M>e>.i *ull wi^Il supjxlicil with provisions : and a«L« I'^sideci, the season 
wiu» pe4i£r,4: v^. wv thv>ught we cv^uld employ our time to better advan- 
ta^ by expJortaji: mox^ thoivnigbly thv\s*? parts of the countzy which 
l^y to tise ;f«csftth of tw. l>i\ our w^y north w^ had scmnr^y giv^n our- 
M^ry« tisae to *$of axiywhex>?-~our one object had be^n to push on and 
iprt j^ ia; fcccth as we pMsiMy could. llo\^*^v*r, w^ w«re ooMWiMd 



TiiE SECOND SORWEGiAN POLAK EXPEDITION IN THE "FRAM," 




(oaabe) t 



not merely to detormine the boundaries of Hoiberg Land, we desired 
ftlso to explore it. It was penetrated by several large fjords from 
varioQS direotious, and it would not be without iuterent to explore these 
somewhat more closely. 

We started on our return journey on May 13. Immediately soutli 
of the BUamauden, the place, it will be remembered, where we aeparatod 
from OUT two compauions, Fosheim and the mate, but on the other aide 
of the fjord, the flat lowlands were cut in to by another large but narrow 
fjord-like inlet. It appeared to penetrate to a great distanoo, but bow 
far exactly wo were unable to see owing to the low elevation of the 
land. This was a point we wished to clear up ; besides, it would be 
interesting to examine the wide lowlands which stretched away from 
the inlet to the south and east. The west side of the inlet was, on the 
ODDtnry, shut in by high mountains, auiongat which I fancied for some 
time I oould perceive glaciers, though it turned out subsequently that 
I was mistaken. One night, whilst we were still in this neighbourhood, 
vre were suddenly attacked by a pack of abont a dozen wolves. Un- 
fortunately, our dogs were muzzled, to prevent them from gnawing 
their traces, so that they were unable to defend themselves, and came 
within an ace of being all worried to death. 

On ODT way south, we put in at several branch fjords, believing 
all the time that the channel wo were travelling down lay to the 
oast of the Storfjorden. Our surprise may, therefore, be imagined 
when we discovered, as we did eventually, that it was Storfjorden 
itaelf we were in. The identification was, however, undoubted, for 



48 THE SECOND MOEWEQUN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE "FRAM," 1898-1902. 

Sohei recognized again ttie epot where he had encamped the year 
before, close to Bjdraeeund. If only we had been aware of this 
when we started, we should have been enabled to obtain a very 
different idea of the lands whioh lie west and north of Greely ijord. 
The longest of these branch fjords, which we called Skaare Qord, ex- 
tended some 28 miles in a north-west direction. Whilst we were 
encamped at the head of this fjord, we were assailed in the middle of 
the night by a terriGo storm, which drove us to seek shelter in a sort 
of oaiion we had discovered on our way up the fjord. The wind wae 
so violent, it literally blew the sledges along the ice, and at saoh a pace 
that we had difficulty in preventing them from being overturned, while 
the snow fell so thick and fast that we were scarce able to see an inch 
before our noses. However, we luckily made the canon without mishap. 
Crossing the sandbank at its entrance, we proceeded a little vnj up 
the glen, and could readily have believed we were come into^parsdiae : 
it was perfectly still, not a breath of wind. 

After that we crossed the Hypeiite peninsula, and from thence 
rekohed the northern parts of Bjomekap Land, and then travelled south 
along this last. At two places in this district we found big aooumula' 
tions of fossils, and from Bjiirnekap we each took a big sledge load of 
rook specimens home with us. It was June 18 when we got back to the 
From. 

Isachseu and Hassel had reached the ship on Jane 7. The ohief 
reealts of their expedition to the lauds westaway were these: They 
■aoertained that they extended as far west as about 106" W. long., 




THE SBCOHD NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE " FRAM," 1898-1809. 49 

ftod aa far north aa approximately lat 79°. They were almost 
entirely of low elevation, barely being more than 500 feet above the 
levfll of the sea. The ooaste which fell away towards open water were 
80 low, it was sometimeB not at all eaay to distinguish where the land 
ended and the ooean began. 

In the mean time BauniaDD and Stoh had mapped Banmann fjonl. 

This Bummer we fully intended to return home, but in this we were 
deceived, for the ice never broke up in fiaase fiord tin (Goose fjord). Wo 
tried, of oonrse, to force our way ont by ramming, but the ice was too 
thick. Then we attempted to blast it with explosives, but with no better 
reeult. And even if we had succeeded in lireaking the ice, we should have 




been in no better position, for there was no room to posh it on one side 
ont of the way. After a month's hard work, we gave up the attempt on 
September l), having cut through about 9 miles in all, and there were 
Htill 5 or G miles before we could reach the open sea. This was a 
severe blow to us all. We had fully counted upon reaching home that 
antamo, and the only thing which prevented us was that paltry Ti miles 
of ioo, for that year Jones sound was freer from ice than wo had ever 
seen it before. However, it was no ase lamenting, so we set to work at 
oQoe to lay in a stock of meat to keep the dogs alive during the winter. 
Sinoe we were to stay another year amongst the arotic ice, we bail better 
torn the time to some good purpose. We could do nothing without the 
dogs. Bo we dragged a boat across the belt of ioe, and got her ready 
No. I.— Jdlv, 1003.] E 



50 THE SECOND NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE «< FRAH," 1898-1002. 

for hunting walms. We had another whale-boat lying at onr fourth 
oamp on the north side of the land. Fonr of ns therefore croflsed over- 
land from the head of the Qord, and sailed the seoond boat sonth through 
Hell Oate into Jones sonnd. Then we established a fishing-station at 
Maasefjeld, as we called the steep oape at the west side of Gk)06e 
Qord. As soon as we had finished onr preparations, we disoovered that 
the first boat's orew had done precisely the same thing, bnt that at 
the moment they were absent, having gone np the fjord with a boat- 
load of walrus-flesh. All the time we were engaged in catching walrus, 
there was, fortunately for us, a stiff breeze blowing from the north, 
which kept the i^ord open. But, the frosts setting in towards the end 
of September, we soon had to give over ; however, we had done very 
well, and had quite enough meat to last us through the winter. With 
the view of shortening the distance we should have to sledge the meat, 
we took it round to the outer isthmus, and there left it until the ice 
was strong enough for sledging. 

In the following spring, Baumann and two other men went to Beedhey 
island to find out if there was anything left of the large depdt whidi the 
English made there half a century ago. On his return he reported that 
the depdt was entirely destroyed, except for a few fragments of the 
house which the English built. The sloop Mary, whioh had been left 
there drawn up on land, was also entirely destroyed ; amongst other 
things, her mast had been sawn off. Isachsen and Bay explored and 
mapped the unknown parts of North Devon, and readhed the Fram 
again on May 22. Meanwhile Sohei and I proceeded up Eureka sound, 
and mapped those districts west of Oreely fjord which had not already 
been mapped, and were back again by June 16. In this expedition we 
were fortunately able to determine the northern boundaries of Axel 
Heiberg Land, as well as the previously unknown coasts that lay west 
of Greely Qord. The northern parts were appreciably lower than the 
districts in the south, and consisted of low rounded hills and ridges 
(aas) of gravel, with immense sandbanks stretching beyond a long way 
out to sea. These numerous eminences, with the broad shallow valleys 
between, gave the region the appearance of having been originally an 
archipelago, whioh had subsequently been raised above sea-level. 

The northern part of Axel Heiberg Land was not particulaiiy high, 
presumably, as I have already said, not much above 1500 feet. Never- 
theless, its coast fell for considerable distances vertically into the sea. 
Its northernmost point lay in 81° 20' N. lat., and its westernmost in 
about 05*^ long. 

From the farthest point north to whioh we advanced, namely 
Land's- Lok,*in about 81° 40' N. lat. and long. 94° W., we were un- 
able to see land in any quarter, either towards the north or towards 
the west. The now islands whioh we discovered would therefoie 
appear to form the natural termination of the polar archipelago that 



THE SECOND NORWEGIiN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE " FEAST." 1898-1902. 51 

lies north of the Amerioan continenf. Although I am not prepared to 
Basert there really does exist no land to the north or west of the point 
I have indicated, I have no hesitation in eaying I think it extremely 
unlikely that land will he diaoovored in those direotionB, for as far as 
ever we were able to see, there was nothing but sea, covered with ice 
of the UBual coarse arotio charaoler. It is true, the ioe waa forced up 
tgainat the land in pressure ridgea to an almost inconceivable height ; 
■till, that is not enough to justify the conclusion that there exists no 
land farther west, for the drift-ice can be forced up in this way without 
hftving an extraordinary amount of sea-room behind it. In fact, I have 
nowhere sctn such gigantic preseure-ridgea as those we encountered 




along the stratoh of ooast between Cape Sydvest and Cape Lev-vel, and 
those ridges were caused by proasure coming from the west and 
•on th- west, 

Dnring the whole course of the expedition we never saw anything 
that might be desorihed aa palffiocrystio ioe. The entire distance front 
Land's- Lob to SmSrgraiitherget was packed with old arotio ice 
vhich bad been subjected to great pressure. Its appearance sug- 
gested that, at any rate in the summer of 1901, the entire region 
bid been covered with ice, for the great ridges were all rounded 
off as they would bo if the ice had melted on the surface. The 
first year, too, that we visited that part of the coast the old ioe 
coveted every inoh of the distance between the filoamandon and the 



I 
I 





52 THE S£OOND NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE «<FRAM/* 1898«1902. 

Smiirgrautbergety and even extended beyond the latter for as far as we 
oonld see. Daring the autumn of 1900 the ice had been subjected 
to an immense pressure; in fact, from the sledge-traveller's point of 
view I never did see worse ice anywhere. It was quite dlear, how- 
ever, that open channels do exist in these waters. We had unmis- 
takable proofs of them during our trip from Land's-Lok to the northern 
part of Axel Ileiberg Land, for there one had run diagonally right 
across the fjord, and we travelled the whole way down it, until we 
readied the land, on new ice only one winter old, and actually followed 
it some distance further south, for it continued to run paraUel with the 
ooasi I feel pretty certain that in most years there is here a belt of 
open water running from north to south, for although the ice was 
extremely unfavourable in the previous summer, there had nevertheless 
been an open channel, for in many places we found ridges of new ice 
pressed up between the old. There was old ice also along the west coast 
of Ileiberg Land ; but mile after mile there had, during the preceding 
autumn, extended a narrow channel or lane of open water, for we 
observed there a good deal of new ice amongst the io^-ridges. We also 
euoouuterod very old arctic ice off the north side of Isadhsen's Land 
and KUef Uingnes's Land, where it was driven close in to the coast, and 
even upon it, in a series of parallel ridges of formidable dimenaionB. 

Throughout the whole of the long distance from BlaaQeldet to 
Iiaud*s-T4ok we did not obaerve the remotest sign of a glaoier, nor 
was there any indication of glacial formation on the other side of 
the sound until wo reached SkaareQord, and disoovered a glader- 
Umgue a little way up the glen. We subsequently found anotber 
glaoter^tongue in Ulve fjord, and others in a few plaoea between 
1Iy|MMrite ))eninsula .and Gape Sydvesi. I aoaroely tiiink that any 
r^J gl^^Mre were found on Axd Heiberg Land, any more than on 
the uewl^* disoi>v«ired islands westaway. On the other hand, a oon- 
atd«4raM0 part of King Oeoar Land is covered with glacial ioeu But 
tu uo )\)a^>> aliuig Uie actual coast did we find glacier-tongues reaoh- 
iu|;t down to the i^ea ; th^Mr^ was everywhere a broad belt of lowland 
btl^lwMai tJ\e glacial ic« and the watex« but Foeheim and the mate 
)ioI<kI \u\e lar|(<^ glaoier x^Mching dv^wn to the water in Canon Qord. 
i>u ib<^ «KmU\ of tho land the case w«Ss however, quite difierent, for 
IkeM^ th<^ inland ioo oap^Hvl larg« $ii>»t«hes of ciHmtir, while numerous 
gla\>ial anus d««iMauled into the ralleya^ though seldom fiur enough to 
r«<aoh into tho aotual tijiv^l*^ 

A\^\^<HMraiuv« !^(»«mu<sI to indicate that the pr^dpitatioD was Teiy 
eiMalU and I Mi^vi^ it \« wuMd^xaUy Vkss^ in the channels near Kireka 
«K^Mud aiul to th^ \H\rth \\f \i th^n. for example, on the west side of Axel 
U^W\>^ t4^\u\, xiih^^n^ it >x\'uM $kxu<4im^ w«ei to l« aoi laconaideKaUe. 
\%^ %'M^u lh<^r^ lit i» nolhiu^ Uk^ $\xfSct«ftt to f:aniik Bataial for 



THE SECOND NOSWEGIAS POLAR EXPEDITION IM THE " FRAM," 189B-1002. 53 

lu many parU of the newly discavereil landa there would appear to 
exist &n ftbundance of animal life, QBpeoially mnsk-oxea and smaller 
game, such as hares and ptarmigan, aa well as foxes and wolves. The 
larger animals keep principally to the inner parte of the Qords, beoaiue 
it is there thoy find moet readily each means of suetenance as they 
require; but there are also several parte of the coast which they 
frequent in large numbers. This is especially true of Bjomekap Land 
and Sohoi island. Iteindeer exist away to the west, but in scanty 
numbers. The only other district where we met with them was in 
Bjomekap Land, and, as a rule, their numbers decreased as we advanced 
north. On the west side of Axel Heiberg Land we agpin saw numerous 




traoes of reindeer, but no indioation of musk-oxen. All the same, I do 
Hot doubt that muak-oxon would bo found by proceeding a little way iip 
the fjords, for we had abundant evidence that animals of all kinds were 
plentifiil enough throughout the whole of the east coast of that laud. 
I got the impression that the reindeer are only summer visitors in those 
parte, and that they oome there in the spring from lands farther to the 
West, and return again in the autumn as soon as the ice is strong enough 
to bear thorn. But this is only a surmise ; I have no positive informa- 
tion bearing upon the point. Bears also were pretty numerous in certain 
looalilies, both in Jones sound and all the way along the coast of King 
Oaoar Land northwards from Eureka sound. But on the west side of 



I 




54 THE SECOND NOKWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE "FRAU," 1898-1903. 

Axel Heiberg Land we did not observe the alighteat trace of these 
animals north of Cape Sydvest. 

Almost everywhere we discovered the remains of Eskimo habitations, 
winter bouaes built of stone and whalebone, aa well aa traces of tents, 
meat cellars, and fos-traps. These occurred upon almost every head- 
laud along the soath and west coasts, and we also came across indica- 
tions of human beings having visited the inner parts of the fjords. In 
the course of our expedition overland from Norfjorden to Bay's fjord 
we several times observed the circular markings where tents had stood, 
proving that the Eskimo were well acquainted with that region, and 
had made good use of this short cut overland. On the east side of 
Axel Heiberg Land again we observed several indications of Eskimo 
having visited the region ; indeed, there were even tent-markings along 
the coast between Greely fjord and Land'a-Lok. On the other hand, 
we found no signs of even temporary occupation od the west side of 
Axel Heiberg Land. Curiously enough, at Bjorneborg there were, 
besides the usual Eskimo remains, two round towers built of stone. 
Presumably they were constructed by the Eskimo, although I confess 
I have never seen Btruotures similar to these that they have bailt 
anywhere else. 

With regard to the route which the Eskimo followed in their 
migrations into Greenland, it would, of course, be rash to say anything 
positive. Vet it is not improbable that the main stream follovfed a 
north-east direction across the Korth American archipelago, via the 
northern parts of North Devon, and thence north along the coast of 
King Oscar Laud, through Eureka sound, into Greely ^ord, then over- 
land to Archer fjord, and so on northwards to tho north-west coast of 
Greenland. Of course, this does not exclude the possibility that a 
smaller stream may have preferred to keep to the coast, and so gone 
right round Grant Land, and iu that way reached the north-west coast 
of Greenland, whence they would continue round its north coast, and 
BO push on down its oast coast. I should also be strongly inclined to 
suspect that a portion of them may have crossed overland from Bay's 
Qord to Hayes sound, and thence proceeded across Smith sound to the 
west ooast of Greenland, and so on further south. It must be left to 
the future to decide how far these points are capable of being cleared up 
by a scientific examination of the various objects of wood and bone 
which we discovered, besides the different remains and encampments, as 
also the solution of the age of the remains themselves. 

The scientific results of the expedition have, I venture to say, been 
of considerable value. Meteorological observations were taken every 
seoond hour, both in summer and in winter ; records were also made of 
the temperature of the sea and of the ice, aa well as of the tidal water. 
Magnetic observations were made at each of our several winter quarters. 
CoUeotiona of the greatest possible extent were made by the soieuti&o 




« 



THE SECOND NORWEGIAN POLAR EXPEDITION IN THE "FRASl," 1698-1902. 55 

etas', and they brought home with them rioh and valuable matoriolti for 
the study of the zoology, botaay, and geology of those new lands, parts 
of the arctic which had never before been visiteil, 

Stubborn and intractable though the ice was in Goose fjord in 1901, 
in the following year it proved juat as ready to serve us. By July 30 
we got out to the entrance of the Qord ; but had to return, because the 
prevailing east wind had packed the ice together in such vast massea 
ootside the fjord, that it was impossible for ns to get through. Be- 
•idea, a boat party who had gone off for the purpose of scraping the 
bottom of their boat, were not yet back on board. But on August 6 we 
said good-bye finally to Goose fjord, and on the 1 7th entered Godhavn 




irithout having met with the slightest hindrance fi-om the ice, either in 
Jones sound or in Melville bay. We left Godhavn on August 21, and 
reaohed Norway on September 19, 1902, after an absence of four and a 
(liUTter years. 



Before the reading of the paper, the PBEBmEsr said : Our meeting this evening 
^» ooe of coEHidBittbie importance. Wo are here to receive an account of some very 
imporuni arctic discoveries from the leader, the distinguiehed Norwegian seaman, 
C«ttMn Sverdrup. I am sure you will give him a very warm welcome this even- 
i^, Md also Mr. Schei, the geologist of the eipedition. Captain Sverdrup, as 
y™ lU know, has been well known to geographers for a cocsidernble number of 
SWs from hia work with his old frieud, Dr. Naaaen, and he now cornea back after 
WW ind a quarter years of very hard work, which he and his cowpanioris have 
^MBrfliolutely and admirably. As soon as we thoroughly understood what had 
t'Wii Bccomplisbecl, it was considered by ihe Council of our Societj that Sverdrup 




56 SUMMARY OF GEOLOGICAL RESULTS. 

had become worthy of our highest honour. (Addressing Caj^in Sverdrup) 
CsptuQ Sverdrup, on the part of the Council of the Boyal GKsograpbical Society, 
I am glad to be able to tell you that they have so highly appreoiated your work 
in the arctic regions that they have resolved to grant you the highest honour we 
have it in our power to give, and that is the Boyal Award. As you will not be 
able to be present at our anniversary meeting, the Council has desired me to 
place in your hands on this occasion the Patron's Medal of the Boyal (Geographical 
Society. 

Captain Svsbdbup : I thank you very much for presenting me with this medal, 
and I will ask you to read my paper. 

The PussiDKNT : Captain Sverdrup thinks that he has not sufficiently mastered 
our language for him to venture to read the paper to so large an assembly, and he 
has therefore requested me to do so for him. 

After Captain Sverdrup's paper, the President said : Mr. Schei, the geologist 
of the expedition, has also been so kind as to communicate a short paper on the 
geology with reference to the physical geography of the newly discovered countiy. 
I will now read Mr. Schei's paper. 



SUHHART OF GEOLOGICAL RESULTS. 

By P. SOSBI. 

Your Society has done me the great honour of asking me, through my 
chief. Captain Sverdrup, to give it an aooount of the scientifio work 
aooomplished by the expedition. This request I have all the greater 
pleasure in complying with, because your Society, and behind it the 
English people, have a dear right to early information about anything 
there is new to be known about the regions specially visited iby the 
Second Norwegian Expedition. For it is to both your Society, with its 
never-fidling interest in arctic exploration, and the English people, with 
their unparalleled generosity in raising the necessary funds, that one of 
the greatest and noblest undertakings in the field of geographical 
exploration during the nineteenth century was carried out — Sir John 
Franklin's Expedition for the discovery of the north-west passage and 
its sequel, the Franklin Search Expeditions. It is to these last that we 
owe whatever knowledge we possess of the Parry archipelago. At the 
same time, it is but proper to mention in this connection the last exploit 
in arctic exploration in particular, and of the scientific investigation of 
nature in general, which Englishmen have accomplished in that part d 
the world — I allude to the expedition under Sir George Nares's command 
in 1875-76, which brought home so many interesting collections and 
obeervations from the east side of Elleemere Land and Grinuell Land. 

The second expedition of the JFVani had the good fortune, undei 
the stress of oircumstauoes, to be forced to spend four years on the 
borders, that is to say, the regions lying between the parts explored bj 
the two great expeditions* 



SUMMARY OF GEOLOGICAL BESULTS. 



57 



Thanks to the more stationary nature of its operations, as well as to 
the advantage of being able to employ more modem appliances and 




methods, and above all to the use made of dogs in sleighing expeditions, 
the second Fram expedition has been enabled to collect on the whole a 



6a SUMMAKT OP OEOLOGICAL RESCTLTS. 




smauARr of geological eesults. 



1 




pretty Urge quantity of soientilic material. Indeed, of aucb an exten- 
Bive charaoter is it, that as yet a good deal of it has iiot been esamlned 
scientifically, some even has not been distributed for examination. All 
tliat can lie said here, therefore, ia that meteorological observations, 
emhraoing observations on the direclion of the wind and its velocity, the 
^nperatnra of the air, its pressure and its degree of humidity, as well 
*> the amount of cloud, were taken every second hour from September, 
1808,toAuguBt, 1899; from September. 1899, to August, 1900; and from 
September, 1900, to July, 1902, in the several winter quarters we 
*iiitered at. 

Observations were also taken of the tides at various periods, with 
"** object of determining the magnetio force, and pendulum observations. 
The Eoological collections, which were made by ]Hr. ISay, embrace a 
*'gfl number of preparations and specimens, araongat them 2000 pre- 
P^iaUoDB preserved in spirits. Of thesQ, the collections of the lower 
'Ornu of life, especially echinoderms and phankton, may be particularly 
^Uiglsd out for mention, both on account of their great variety and the 
special interest they inherently possess. 

The collections of plant life made by Mr. Simmons embrace no less 
tWi 60,000 examples. The collector has reserved to himself the study 
"' the phanerogams and alg;v, leaving the remainder to be taken in 
uind by various specialists. This great wealth of material may be 
'i^pflcted to yield, besides a host of individual facts, an almost complete 




I 



60 



SUMMARY OF GEOLOGICAL RESULTS. 



I 



survey of the botanical geography of that partioularly importaiit part of 
the world. 

Ab regards the goologioal results, here alone I am able to offer 
detailed information. My ooUections embrace specimens of Arcbeean 
rocks ^m Foulke Qord and th« south side of Hayes sound, as well an 
of the Cambrian and Silurian formations, which are developed to a great 
thickness in Bache peniusnla and on the north side of Princess Marie 
bay. A pretty complete oolleotion was made of the Silurian and 
Devonian formations whioh occur in the western part of Jones sound ; 
and they have furnished materials fur determining in considerable 
detail the order of the series in these two formations. Most of the 
localities examined in Goose fjord and Hell Gate were prolific in fossils. 
Here we have a series the several members of whioh yielded 16, 1 1, and 
22 species respectively on a first provisional eiamination, belonging 
apparently to the Wenkxjk and Ludlow divisiuns of the Upper Silurian ; 
while the members of the Devonian series have supplied 5o, 20, 13, 1 6, 
and so forth, species again on a preliminary survey. This takes no 
aocount of the remains of fishes, whioh have not yet been identified, 
though Frof. Traquair, of £dinbui^h, has kindly undertaken to examine 
them ; nor does it embrace, either, the specimens, abundant in numberSt 
but poor in species, of Upper Devonian plants which wore gathered in 
throe localities in Glooso Qord, and whioh Prof. Nathorst in Stookholm 
has iindertaken to report upon. 




SUMMART OF GEOLOGICAL RESULTS. 



01 



We alao bronght hi'^me an important ooUeotiou ot Upper Cnrbonifer 
ona fosaila from Big Bear capo (Sture Itjornekap). whiati havo gone into 
the hands of Prof. Tahemytoheff, of St. Petersburg. Hero are at leaat 
forty apeoies, some of them ropreaentei by several Bpectmens, and all of 
wpeoUl interest, owing to their resemblanoe to foieils from the Upper 
CarboniferoDB rooks found in the north of Europe, 

Great interest attaches also to the collection of specimens belonging 
to the Mesozoio deposits of Eureka sound. Thanks to Sir Leopold 
llcClintook, Vice- Admiral Sherard Osbom, and Sir Edwanl Belcher, we 
a/ready knew of the existence of a few Mesozoic fossils in the Parry 
'slaiids. Aly Mesozoic oolleotion contains, therefore, nothing new ; and 
9 at» nuiU Wd inoomplate, tiugr do not afford anything 




like materials for a complete summary. They do, hr)wever, pruve this 
— -that the Mesozoic deposits of King Oscar Land, Heiberg Land, and 
Grinnell Land are very widely distributed, as well as iwesessed <•{ 
greater intrinsic importance than the similar deposits in other parts of 
'he North American archipelago, since they puint, as do also the Car- 
'•onifertius fossils, to N^nrth European affinities rather than to American. 
A-t Cape Blue Monntaiu (Rlaafjeld) I picked up a black shale containing 
' Ilaonella, and both rock and ffasil are precisely similar to a rook and 
'*^««il from Spitzbergen, where Alpine Triaasic is knowu to eiist. 

Prof. Natborst says that the Tertiary plant remains which Mr 

'^^ninonBhasbrought home from Coal fjord (Kulfjord), in Raumann fjord, 

•*« in their several ways unparalleled. Out of two or three large pieces 

"' greyish-black clay ho has succeeded in washing <iut portions of stems 

*ith their adherent leaves, and has mounted them upon cardboard just 

*• 'hough they were pnrts of a dried plant which was plucked only the 

'^M day. Thus ho will be able to examine microscopically the 

"IniotDre of both the leaves and stem of plants which grew, it may be, a 

'BilliDn of years ago in a ]>art of the world where at the present day 



I 



62 SITMMART OP GCOLOOICAL RESULTS. ^M 

there does not exist a single tree, and which have for their nearest 
known cangenorB the giant tree of California, Sequoia, and the swamp 
oypresB, Taxodium, of Florida. 

In the light of these various fossil coUeotions, we are now in a 
position to interpret the history of this portion of the Earth's snrface 
dnring pretty long periods. 

In North Lincoln Land, and both northwards to Hayes sonnd and 
westwards as far as Harbour fjord, there exists an Archtoan formation 
bnilt np ont of granites of a peonliar character by ancient volcanic out- 
breaks, and over this there flowed in Cambrian times a aea, which has 
in part worn away the outlying Arcbman rocks. We have thick qnarte 
sandstones in Daohe peninsula and in Foulke fjord, and we have reports 
of still greater developments in loglefield golf, North Somerset, etc. 

In part the Cambrian sea wonld appear to have washed the feet of 
limestone mountain walls, whioh were formed and deposited long 
anterior in water; for interpolated between and lying upon the sand- 
stone in Bache peninsula and Jones sound tliero exist conglomerates of 
limestone and of calcareous sandstone hundreds of feet thick. After 
that the sea overflowed these localities, and deposited, in the Middle 
Silurian epoch, thick strata of limestone, at least 2000 feet deep, in, e.g.. 
Princess Marie bay and Jones sound. 

During the early portion of the Devonian epoch, the formations of 
the deeper seas were laid down in the form of black shales and lime- 
stones ; hut by the close of that epoch the coaals had approached nearer 
together, and In the quieter deeper reaches of the estuaries fish remains 
settled down, along with fragments of the plants which grew on tho 
adjacent shores, and both were buried in the argillaceous mud which 
DoUeoted amongst the sand and gravel along the shore. 

The richly fossiliferous limestone, with embedded flints, which exist§ 
at Big Bear cape, tells tts that at the close of the Carboniferous era the 
Bea was again predominant, although of the circumstances whioh existed 
immediately before and immediately after that epoch we know nothing. 
Ammonite mountain, in the northern part of Bear Cape Land, records 
that in Triaasic times the sea reached quite close np to that spot, for 
its sandstones and arenaceous limestones contain lamellibranchiates 
and an ammonite of that age. But abont the close of the Triassio 
epoch, or a little later, this part of the Earth's surface underwent 
tremendous ohauges. 

The Blaokwali (Soote Vaeg), in the north of Heiberg Land, shows 
that voloanio craters were already in existence there in Carboniferous 
times, and spouted out lava, which spread itself in broad streams over 
the layers of limestonel and flint. The existence of tuff strata inter- 
calated between the lava-beds shows, further, that the voloanio out- 
breaks were accompanied by showers of ashes. However, tho Carboni- 
ferous sea once more asserted its supremacy, and laid down fresh stnte 




SmmAST OF OEOLOGIOAL 1 



63 



of fiint and limeetone on the top of the tufis and lavae. But the volcanic 
^istnrliauces did not reaoh their onlmination until after the Triassic 
^eposite were all laid dnwn. The Earth's crust was split by gigantic 
^senree, and the several areas thus formed were dislocated both hori- 
sontally and vertically, but more particularly the latter. At the Bame 
-time volcanic matter bnrst up through these fissures and forced its way 
3n between the sedimentary fossiliferous rocks. In virtue of their 
^jTeater j>ower of resisting disintegration, these intrusive outflows now 
appear in the form of black strips and vertical walls, interpenetrating 
"the more yielding contours of the sandstone and limestone strata, Tbis 




I 



'^oloanio activity, as well as the most violent dielooations, seemed to 
liave been oonSned to the immediate vicinity of Eureka sound. 

Ellesmere Land and King Oscar Land have the contonrs of a table- 
land. The younger formations of North Lincoln Land are separated 
from the Archcean rocks. The level surface of the latter lies at the 
same elevation as the subsided sedimentary strata on tho west and the 
noith. Bnt at Eureka sound the plateaus have steep vertical sides, 
and have been disturbed by the eruptive outbreaks, imparting a more 
rugged aspect to the landscape, with sharper edges and isolated 
peaks. 

The Miocene sea deposited its clays and sands in the valleys and 
depressions of the dry land, which owed their existence to dislocation 
and erosiiin. It is in these deposits that we have found the splendidly 
ptenerved remains of former vegetation to which I have already alluded, 





u 



SUMMART OF OEOLOOIC'Ar. RESULTS. 



thOBfi allied to the giant Si'quoia of California and the Bwamp CTP^M^^H 
Florida. ^^B 

The youngeat evidences of marine action are the sands and olaya, 
with suh-fosBil remains of existing marine organisms, whioli were 
obeerved at an altitnde of 650 feet all round the coasto of EUesmere 
Land, The altitude to which that sea rose is indioated for the most 
part by the loose materials of the marine terraces, although traces of it 
are not wanting in the hard rock, namely, in the form of a flat shore 
formation, in,e.j„Baumann fjord and to the north of the Seventeenth of 
May hill (Syttendo Mai Hangea). The same phenomen<^n is exhibited 
in the foreland, wliich, to the breadth of 1 to 3 miles and to the height 
of 650 feet, encircles the plateau, especially in many localities in Enreka 
sound. It is also remarkably plain to see on Graham island. 

One of the principal features of these regions is, of conrse, their 
glaciation. North Lincoln Land ia, as we know, glaciated. The 
interior is covered by a more or less continuous sheet of ice, and from 
it big glaciers push themselvea down into the sea from Fram harbour in 
Jones sound right round to the inside of Hayes sound, although in the 
latter locality there are considerable areas entirely free from ioe. The 
same thing ia true in even a more extended sense in the districts bor- 
dering in Jonea sound. The glaciation becomes less pronounced as one 
advances west. First the glaciers retreat from the actual coast, and 
finally disappear altogether. The higher parts of the interior of King 
Oscar Land are, it is true, covered with ice, but it is so tb'n as to be 
unable to give off any glaciers. In the usual acceptation of the term 
this land is not " glaciated," and the same thing is true of the west of 
Grinnell Land and of the greater part of Heiberg Land. The only 
exception in the case of the last named is the south-east corner, where, 
however, scarce a single glacier reaches the sea. So far as I am able to 
judge, this reappearance of glaciation in the regions farther west ia due 
to the relatively greater precipitation, but principally to the configura- 
tion of the country. I fancy the wind drifts the snow together and 
deposits it on the short, steep slopes which are here found to exist, but 
nowhere else. You never find a thick ice-cap on the level heights or on 
the top of the plateau. 

From what is stated above, it will be inferred^what is, indeed, 
true — that in the summer extensive tracts of country are entirely free 
of both snow and ice. 

After examining the unglaciated parts of the region with the view 
to discovering whether they may possibly have been subjected to 
glaciation at some eailier period, I arrived at results of a negative 
oharaoter. I nowhere observed rochet motttonnief, neither did I observe 
stritB or scourings. Nay, further, I did not perceive any loose materials 
that could with any degree of likelihood be ascribed to the efi'eota of 
glacier ice. Moreover, in several places I noticed marine terraees at a 




SUMMART OF OEOLOGICAL RESULTS— DISCUSSION. 65 

gieat height above the sea, running immediately in front of the existing 
glaoiers, and in snch a position that it is scaroely conceivable they could 
have been formed with the sea at its corresponding elevation if there 
hA existed glaciation of even the same intensity as that which now 
obtains, to say nothing of a greater intensity. I believe I may venture 
to say, that in those regions the existing glaciation represents a 
maximum, such as has never been attained before, and if this conclusion 
should turn out to be sound, it is one^ I need hardly say, of considerable 
importance from the point of view of physical as well as of biological 
geography. 



After the reading of the Papers, the Pbesident said : We have present with us this 
evening several of our old English arctio officers, who all, I am sure, are delighted 
to welcome Captain Sverdrap, and I hope some of them will address the meetiog. 

Admiral Sir Leopold M*Clintock : I very gladly avail myself of this oppor- 
^ity of expressing my, not merely satisfactioD, but pleasure, at hearing the 
report of the expedition, and I desire heartily to compliment Captain Sverdrup 
^ipon the great success which has attended his efforts. His well-sustained energy 
for folly four years has brought about results which are of very great use to 
geographical knowledge. He entered a part of the arctic regions which we English 
pwple thought to be peculiarly our own. The Parry archipelago had been dis- 
covered by Sir Edward Parry. I may say a word or two before we leave the 
^VTj archipelago : its southern side was discovered by Parry eighty- three years 
^0, and exactly fifty years ago the northern part was discovered by our own sledge 
pttties when searching for Sir John Franklin. I am glad to notice that the Sverdrup 
methods of exploring by sledges were very similar to those we used in our own 
expeditions, but with this remarkable difference, that he was supplemented by dogs 
to draw the sledges ; we had to draw our own. We looked upon that part of the 
tfctic regions as so peculiarly our own that we spoke of it as if the Queen's writ 
^u free to run through it even to the north pole. But we can no longer make 
that boast ; Captain Sverdrup has been there, and he has discovered other lands 
^W north, so that we cannot look for any immediate increase to the British 
Empire in that direction. This evening must be given up altogether to geographical 
Betters, and I heartily congratulate Captain Sverdrup on his great success and 
^v^niderfol achievements, and I hope he may long live, and enjoy good health and 
*^ his honours and distinotions. 

Admiral Sir Yesst Hamilton : I have very little to add to what Sir Leopold 
^'Clintock has said of the admiration in which we hold Captain Sverdrup and his 
'ollowers for the way in which they performed their work. We may say of 
^Pt^n Sverdrup that he is the Captain Cook of arctic expeditions. He has 
^^t hack all his men but one. They possessed advantages which we did 
^^ posFess iu the way of dogs ; we had some, not many, but he has not descrihed 
'Qything with regard to the difficulties of dog-driving. We once had an admiral 
^^ years ago, and it was said of him that ** he was never known to swear, not 
^en at sea," but he was never known to drive a dog-sledge, or he probably would 
<ttve. In my earlier days we had not the advantage of being able to take photo- 
S^phs, and most of us were not of very big stature. But those photographs which 
• we hare seen on the screen make the members of the expedition look like giants, 
^e work that has been done by Captain Sverdrup has my great admiration, and 
I cannot speak of it too highly. One thing, it shows the enormous uncertainty of 
No. L— July, 1903.] f 



66 SUMMARY OF QEOLOGICAL RESULTS— DISCUSSION. 

ice-Davigation, for, after spending two years in a harbour, there were but 5 miles of 
ice between them and the open sea, and but for that 5 miles of ioe they would haye 
been able to get back one year earlier. Dogs were first introduced into the arctic 
regions by CSaptain Penny, who was in charge of an expedition by the Admiralty 
in 1850. One curious thing about these dogs was that they were divided amongst 
the two ships, but the men who fed the dogs on the one ship did not dare go near 
the others. They are a very peculiar race are Eskimo dogs, for if anything 
happens to the leader of a dog-sledge, he pitches into number two, and number 
two pitches into number three, and so it goes on to the end. It is a curious fact 
that in this room at present there are arctic nayigators representing various expe- 
ditions from 1847 up to the present time ^fifty-five years — and if we go back a 
little further, we may add Sir Joseph Hooker, who accompanied Sir James Ross in 
1837 in his antarctic expedition, so that we can trace back ice-navigation for sixty- 
five years, and I do not think there are many kinds of work that can go back so 
many years. I can certainly say, in the name of all arctic navigators, that we 
welcome Captain Sverdrup here most heartily, and congratulate him on the suc- 
cessful conclusion of that expedition. 

The Pbesidbkt : We now come to the arctic officers on the eastern side, and 
we will begin with Admiral Markham, who I hope will address the meeting. 

Admiral A. H. Mabkhah : Like my old friend. Sir Leopold M'Glintock, I am 
only too glad to avail myself of this opportunity of offering my congratulations 
personally, and I think I may also say in the name of the officers who served under 
Sir (George Nares, our congratulations on the excellent geographical work that has 
been performed by Captain Sverdrup during his recent expedition in the arctic 
regions. We were all very much pleased and very much relieved when we heard of 
the safe arrival of the Fram last September in Norway, after having been lost sight 
of to the world for something over four years, and the pleasure we then felt was 
enhanced when we heard of the excellent work that Captain Sverdrup had done in 
those regions — work which displayed that spirit of endurance, that spirit of pluck, 
and that determination which we were well assured, from our knowledge of what 
Captain Sverdrup had already done in the arctic regions, he possessed. Thoroughly 
realizing as I do the great difficulties he had to contend with, I can all the more 
appreciate and admire the skill, the energy, and the perseverance which he and 
his gallant followers displayed in overcoming those difficulties. Sir Leopold 
M'Clintock has taken us back fifty and eighty years, and I can remember almost 
as if it were yesterday the meetings that were held in this very theatre thirty 
years ago — meetings at which your President of to-day was the leading and guiding 
spirit ; meetings that were held with the object of the renewal of geographical ex- 
ploration in the arctic regions. I am sorry that there is not a north circumpolar 
map of that date hanging in juxtaposition to the one now in front of you, so that 
you would be able to see at a glance the large amount of geographical work that 
has been performed during the period that I have referred to. What was then 
almost a terra incognita^ as was shown by Captain Sverdrup just now on the screen 
in the region of Jones sound, has been explored, the coast-line has been delineated 
on your map, and now we have Captain Sverdrup coming back and giving us an 
account of his discoveries in a portion of that region which was a terra incognita in 
those days from Jones sound, along the west coast of EUesmere Land, until he 
almost joined hands with Aldrich's farthest on the north coast of Qrinnell Land. 
I am one of those who feel pretty sure that before many years have elapsed, such 
is the spirit of geographical enterprise in the present day, that we shall have a 
very fair knowledge of the conditions of land and ice and of sea in the polar regions. 
And I say polar regions in contradistinction to arctic regions, because we must not 



SUMMARY OF GEOLOGICAL 



-DISCUSSION 



67 



e supplemented by dogs, 
mre of the utility of that 



forget ftn expedition now '\a the far south that baa already done good work, and ve 
hope i> continuing to do good work, under tbe eommand of Captain Scott and bis 
brare aesodateB in tbe DUcovert/, an expedition whose dtspntch ie almost entirely 
due to the never-tiring energy of our PreBJdont, Sir Clements Markhain. There are 
one or two points on which I should like to ask for information, but our Piosldent 
hu toid na that Captain Sverdrup bas a very limited knowledge of our language, 
■lid perhaps it would not be fair to ask bim, but perbapa Mr. Schei would be 
■ble to answer one or two questions which I should like to put. We have seen 
Bome excellent illustrations from photographs on that screen. There were one or 
tiro of sledges. Sir Leopold At'Clinlock told us just now that theae sledgea w 
diSerent from those in use in bia time because they we 
But I saw a big wheel ou the screen, and I am not quite 
wheel, whether it was to guide the aledge or whether it 
power. There was another question 1 should like to put. I understand that 
Captftin Sverdrup never saw anything of what we called palte-'crrBtic ice. He 
alludes in his paper, in the neighbourhood of some place with a moat unpro- 
nounceable name, but which our President has just told ua hod something to do 
with butter and porridge, to the fact that there was some very heavy arctic ice 
near this place, and I should like if Mr. Schei could tell ua if he could estimate 
the thickness of that ice, because I have a shrewd auapioion that it was our old 
friend — or old enemy — of 1876, to which we gave the name of palajocrystic, on 
account of its very masaive character. In conclusion, I should like, in the name 
of the officers who served under Sir Qeorge Nares, to offer to Captain Sverdrup our 
warmest and sincere congratulations on the great and valuable geographical resulta 
be has brought home with him from this expedition. 

The Pbebibbnt : That wheel was a pedometer for meaeuring the route, and the 
toe it about 30 feet thick, 

Admiral Aldrich ; I am delighted to add my remarks to those of Admiral 

U&rkbam in aaying how sincerely I congratulate Captain Sverdrup on the aucceaa 

of bis expedition, and not only Captain Sverdrup but all those who went with bim. 

I think Admiral Markham haa pretty well thrashed out all the points. Up here 

w« ftU noticed the presence of that wheel, and the pedometer must have be«n a 

tioBfal thing on smooth ice. 1 can only wish that Captain Sverdrup had completed 

Uia gap between his exploration and the one which I made under Sir George Nares, 

-I t la » very little gap, and apparently on the map it is a very simple thing to do, 

"fcvut I have no doubt that along that coast some of that Ice wliich Admiral Mark- 

IkAm calls our enemy would be met with. It is just thereabout one would expect 

'^« find it, although I think, so for as I can remember, the ice along the coast was 

x^ot so heavy as It was in the neighbourhood of the north end of Smith sound ; yet, 

^k^ Captain Sverdrup thinks — and I think he has good reason for stating what h* 

'K.'binks — there is no land to the north of where he wa)>, we may sseume that for 

^M>me reason or another there must be something to ]>revent the formation of the 

Ikeavy ice on that part of the coast. One can scarcety see why it should not be 

^long the north-west coast. That remains among other interesting items lo be 

•iiscovered in the future. Whether any one will ever deem it worth while to go 

«:>nt and look I know not, but I firmly believe in my own mind that we were put 

On this Earth's surface to discover as much as wc can about it. And all 1 can 

«ay in regard to those who began and those who have continued and those who 

tomy in the future continue is, that one wishes that the same auoceas may attend 

their endeavours as baa attended Captain Sverdrup and bia followers. 

The pBKSiSKNT : Is there any one present who would address ua on the geology 
ol these regions ? 

r 2 



1 



* 



68 SUMMARY OF GEOLOGICAL RESULTS— PI SCUSSION. 

Prof. Garwood : In the sbaence of anybody worthier, I feel ll my duty to ex- 
preM the very great sdmiration I feel for th« excellent work which has been done 
hy Mr. Scbei and hia compaDiocs witli regard to the scientific portion of the 
Bipedition, eapecially with regard to the geology. At this meeting I cannot go 
into details aluiut what we have beard, and we have been told that only a portion of 
the datailB have been worked out. There are, however, one or two points to which 
1 should like to allude. It is very interesttng to me to hear that tho geological 
formatioDB mapped by Mr. Scbei arc very similar to tboge which occur in the island 
of Spitsbergen, and 1 can appreciate very much the very difficult work Mr. Schei 
must have bad in order to collect this material. After the two holiday tripe I 
made with Sir Martin Conway, which we made io the summer, I can appreciate 
the difficulties of obtaining collections of this kind. With regard to the details, 
lliere are one or two points 1 would like to call your attention to — one is the 
enormous widespread occurrence of marine rocks of upper carboniferous age. I did 
not quite gather whether these rocks are what are spoken of as Fermo-Carbonifer- 
ous, or whether they are the true carboniferous rocks of this country. On the east 
side of North America the former rocks do not occur, but from ^Spitsbergen spread 
right away into Russia and that part of the world. So that now we have evidence 
of an upper carboniferous sea occupying the present site of the Arctic ocean. Then 
with regard to old red sandstone formations, thoae occur right across from Spits- 
bergen, and the author mentioned many other forms and fossils of alpine marine 
trias with DamelUt roinelli quite different to the rocks of our own country, again 
proving an arctic sea at that period also. With regard to raised beaches, it is in- 
teresting to Bad that that part of the country shows changes of level, just like 
the island of Spitsbergen, Frana Josef Land, and other portions of the far north. 
In that connection the absence of a more extenaive glaciation in the past is very 
interesting indeed. We have heard a great deal lately about the cause of these 
raised benches. We have been told that the raised beaches are due to the melting 
away of the former ice-sheet which stretched further to the south than it does at 
the present day. Now that appears to be quite contrary lo the recent observations 
made by the author. If the ice is cow at its maximum, how do we account for 
the raised beaches'? That is an interesting point I should be glad to hear some- 
thing more about. There are many other minor details which we cannot enter into 
at this early stage, but I should like again to congratulate Mr. Schei on the very 
important work done by himself nnd com;>anionB in these regions. 

The Pbbsidbnt: I have no doubt Prof. Garwood regrets the want of time in 
discussing these questions. The whole subject of the northern archipelago is 
one of deepest interest. It is a homogeneous region io itself, geologically, meteoro- 
logically, and geographically, and if Captain Sverdrup could have remained here 
a little longer we might have had another and fuller discussion on the whole 
subject of the geography of these regions. I hope that may be possible at some 
future time. We now have to thank the authors of the papers. It is a very great 
pleasure, I am sure, to the people of this country that they should be colleagues, as 
it were, in arctic diacovery »rith our gallant Norwegian kinsmen. The Norsemen 

e the first arctic explorers on the east nod west of Greenland. There are those 
who believe, as I am inclined to do, that the great cairns discovered on Washington 
Irving Island are not wholly unconnected with the discoveries of the Norsemen. 
If that is the case, we must feel that Captain Sverdrup and his companions, when 
near that island in Hayes sound, were on their own land. I do not venture to say 
that the round towers mentioned up Jones sound had anything to do with the 
Normans ; but I do feel that we may rejoice in Snding that the Norwegian 
eiplorers have filled up this gap which we have long wished to have filled up 





ADHIRALTT SURTETS DITKINO THE TEAR 1903. 69 

more than if it had been GUed by sxplorera from any other country. I rejoice 
to »ee those naiaea which we used to study in the old m»ps now appearing «b a 
sort of wedge iwtween our eaatern and weBtcrn discoveries. It ia pleasant to read 
these old Norse names, for the moat part. 1 think, describing the character of 
the eountrj or of the cape or the bay, inatcad of coTering the whole map 
witli JoDGB and Drown and Robinson. I was very much struck, particularly 
on this point, that Captain Sverdrup has suggented such excellont names, describing 
the character of the country aod the capes and bnys. Captain Sverdrup and bis 
oompanions have aet quite an example in the admirable way in which tbcy have 
conducted their worit, and the friendly tone that haa existed throughout the expe- 
ditbn, and the way one has helped the other, and this, no doubt, is one of the 
reasons of their great success. 1 am sure now the meeting will wish me, by* 
unaoimoua vote, to express our warm tbanka to Captain Sverdrup for his admirable 
piper and to the beautiful illustrations, and to Mr. Hchei for hia most interesting 
It of the geology of the expedition. 



ADMIRALTY SURVEYS DURING THE YEAR 1902. 



era of the Admiralty, eight of Ui» 
Q-vessels, mSinned by 78 offioers and 
cal surreys on the humc and foreign 



LFnueb the orders of t!io Lords Commis! 
Uajesty's vessels, with three small hired st 
703 men, have been employed on bydrograpUia 

ItUiOOB. 

The following is a brief summary of the work accomplished, aa detailed in the 
report prepared fur presentation to Parliament: — 

Reports of 311j rocks and shoals which were dangerous to navigation have been 
Kc«ived at the Hydrographic Dopartment, and were notiSed to the public by 
Notices to Mariners; 1924 miles of coast have been cliait«d, and an area of 12,661 
miles hu been sounded. 

lo Ortat Britain, various resurveys wore made — at Portsmouth and Plymouth ; 
ia Borer bay, and in the Thames ealuaty. 

ITie river Yealm was surveyed, and a plan made of Wembury lay. 
King road, Bristol channel, was resounded. Great changes have taken place 
i*exe since the laat surveys in 1860. 

Loch Boag, a very fine harbour in Lewis, was reaurveyed, revealing a grtat 
t^^-^knj new rooks, 

A remarkable instance of a local m^netic focus was also found In East Loch 
^"^^^1 where the compass is much deOected. 

A snrrey of Moray firth was carried as far as Burgh head, on a scale of 1 
'•^^^kes to the mile. 

Kingstown harboar was resounded, and considerable changes found. 
Id Naw/oUBdland, the survey of the intricate hay of Exploits was continued, 
''**-'«i a phm of Peter arm was also made. 

In the China iecu, two ships were at work. The surveys of the East Lamma 
^**^Mub1 and the western approach to Hoog-Kong were finished. 

Kirs bay survey was continued, while plans were made of Long and Crooked 
"r^i^-bours; and the outer part of Tolo channel, left incomplete last year, was also 
■^^Mhed. 

^^ A oonsiderahle part of the north coast of the Britiali sphere of influence around 
^"ed hfti wei waa charted, and an area of the Yellow sea waa sounded. 

A complete survey of the Peiho river entrance and Taku Imr was made, for the 
P'l'pote of planning works for the improvement of the bar, 

A part of the approach to Amoy was e^iamioed, and several ri.>uky heads discovered. 



70 REVIEWS. 

In AuBtrdUuia^ the surreys of Poverty bay and the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, 
were proceeded with. A survey of Qisborne anchorage was also made. 

Bramble cove, Tasmania, was charted on a scale of 6 inches to the mile. 

In the Solomon islands, a running survey was made of Tsabel island, recently 
transferred to Great Britain by Germany, and quite unknown; plans were als9 
made of Vulavu, Tumibilli, Marioge, and Estrella anchorages, in the same islands 
Extensive banks were found on the eastern side of Tsabel. 

At Gavutu, a plan was made of Tulagl island, the residence of the commissioner. 

In all communications with the natives of Ysabel, they were found quiet and 
peaceable. The Solomon islanders do not generally bear this character, but a 
surveying vessel, not desiring to obtain anything from the natives, raises no 
suspicions, forms an excellent means of opening relations with them, and tends 
to friendly terms being maintained. 

In British Columbia, the main triangulation of the Vancouver island surveys 
was extended to Gape Commerell and Gape Gaution. 

Soundings over an area of 288 square miles were obtained in the approaches to 
the strait of Juan de Fuca. 

The survey of the ianer channels of Haro strait from Sydney to Active pass 
was completed. 

Broughton strait survey was finished. 

Beaver harbour was surveyed on a scale of 4 inches to the mile. While in 
Queen Gharlotte sound a plan was finished of Narwhitti bar. 

In the Mediterranean, the chart of Gibraltar was brought up to date, and a 
survey made of the east side of the rock. 

A chart was made of the Gulf of Kolokithia in Greece, embracing the coast 
from Gape Matapan to a point a few miles short of Gape Malea, including the 
Gervi channel and both shores of Gerigo island as far south as the Dragonera islets. 

Plans were also made of Gythion, Port Scutari, and Port Kaio. 

On the West Coast of Africa, the survey of Old Calabar river was in progress. 

The surveying ships maintidned by the Indian Government made some surveys 
in the Persian gulf and a chart of the Ghittagong river. 

In Bengal, Megna river was siuveyed. 'i'he Tenasserim coast was charted 
from Moulmein to Te river, and on the Arakan coast a harbour known as Gox's 
Bazaar was surveyed. 

During 1902 the Hydrographic Department has published 96 charts and plans, 
and 38 new plans have been added to the existing plates. 

The number of charts printed to meet demands has, during the year, amounted 
to 522,688. 



REVIEWS. 

EUROPE. 

Old London. 

* London before the Gonqucst.* By W. B. Lethaby. London : Macmillan. 1902. 

In spite of the profusion of existing literature on the antiquities of London, 
there has hitherto been no one work which has attempted to give a comprehensive 
general sketch of the topography and buildings of the city in its early years. This 
Mr. Lethaby supplies in the present volume, which is to be welcomed as presenting 
to the lay reader a clear summary of the results of antiquarian research, many of 



which &ia widely scattered iu the prooeediugs of learned bodiee. Tbo work, huw- 
erer, ia mora than a mere summary, for the author haa views of his own on many 
disputed points, and endeavourB to eliminate the mistaken views which, he holds. 
Lave gained ground of late years. Many of the conclusions of Mr. J. R. Oreen 
Kitd Mr. Loftie are in particular criticized as quilo devoid of fouodation. Aa a rule, 
ihe author's ideas are scuiiiblc and in accordance with the balance of evidftnce, 
though the ecantini^ss of this occasionally uakcs any coucluaion little more than 
a iDa[t«r of personal conviction. The stylo is aometiucs rather fragmentary, 
reodering it oot always easy to follow the drift of the writer's argument, but the 
book is none the less a useful conlributlun to out knowledge of Loudon before the 
ConquesL 

Ur. Lethahy begins with a brief discussion of the origin of London and its 
fortunes under the Bomsus and Sazous, and then treats iu tuiu of its main 
top<%raphical features— hydrography, roads and streets, walls, churches, elo. A 
few ouly of his conclusions cau here be touched upon. He is throughout a con- 
sistent advocate of the antiquity, whether of the city itself or of its main features, 
naay of which, he tbiokB, show a continuity of eiiatence from very early times. 
ile holds that Loudon existed btfure the Bomau occupation, and that the legends 
Telated by Geoffrey of Mouiuouth were based on real folk-lore, and were not puro 
iQTeQtions. The derivation of the name from a King Lud, though in accordance 
with tnditioD, cannot, however, bo accepted without further evidence. He believes 
iu the existence of a CiirJstian Church io London io British days, and places the 
eccnpation by the Saxons about 570, With regard to the lines of communication, 
he disnuases the idea of a ford at Westminster as a pure myth, showing that the 
memory of the former ferry at this part survives in Horseferry Roail. The great 
north aud south Ermiog Sti'eet, not referred to in the Antonine Itinerary, was, 
he ODQcIndes, the work of late Boman times. The west to east road, which 
followed tbe'prpsent course of Oxford Street, passed through the City and by the 
Mile End Itwid through Stratford, and did not, as has been held, take a more 
northerly course by Old Street, The original London Bridge was but little to the 
east of the existing structure, and its continuation north coincided exactly with 
tiie modern Gracechurch Street. Muck interesting information is also given 
rnpecling the citadel, the quays, the churches, " London Stone," and many other 

Snto which limits of space forbid us to enter, 
peare'i Europe. Unpublished Chapters of Fyncs Uorysoa's Itinerary.' i3y 
Chailes Hughes, London : Shertatt and Hu(-hoB. 1903. 
well-known 'Itinerary' of I'ynes Moryson, in which that acute observer 

Ht down the personal narrative of hie travels through the greater part of Europe, 
does not represent the whole literary activity of its writer. After the publication 
if the Itinerary iu 1617, Moryson set to work on a more systematic aocount of the 
TiriouE Bnropean countries, which was to set forth in outline the history, exiating 
Slate, reUgion, manners and cnstoma, etc., of the several states. The work seems 
Io have been completed by ltll9 or 1620; but though its author obtained the 
licence for its publication in 1626 from the then head of the State Paper Office, Sir 
Thomaa Wilson, ho for some reason or other nevtr carried out his intention, and 
the work has remained in manuscript to the present day. At an unknown date it 
became the property of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where it was lately ex- 
uniued by Mr. Charles Hughes, its present editor, who has done good service by 
tntking generally accessible such an interesting memorial of the state of Europe 
It ibe doM of Uie sixteenth c«nlury. The manuscript is in three baodwritings. 



EuBOPB IS THE Sixteenth Ca-fTDBY. 
Blpeare'i Europe. Unpublished Chapters of Fyncs Uorysoa's 




t ^ 



72 REVIEWa 

one being that of Moryaoii himself, the others those of assistants. Its substance 
is somewhat unequal in character, being in part made up of Moryson's own observa- 
tions, in part a compilation. In view of the great length of the manuscript, which 
would, if printed in full, have occupied some 1200 pages, Mr. Hughes has probably 
exercised a wise discretion in omitting much of the compiled information, the 
yalue of the work lying principally in the shrewd personal obeenrations of the 
writer on the men and manners of his time, in which respect the insight given is 
extremely valuable, if not uniqae. The careful account of Gtermany as it was in 
Moryson's day is perhaps the most valuable section, but the survey practically 
includes the whole of Europe, except Spain and Russia. The editor is careful to 
indicate where omissions occur, and his brief outlines of the subjects of the omitted 
sections will be useful to those who may be inclined to go to the original for 
further information. The work is produced in excellent style, and contains a 
sketch of Moryson^s career, as well as photographic reproductions of pages of the 
Itinerary and its supplement. 

ASIA. 

French Indo-Ghina. 

* Mission Pavie, Indo-Chine, 1879-1895. G^graphie et Voyages, IV. Voyages au 
Centre de TAnnam et du Laos, et dans lea regions sanvages de Test de I'lndo- 
Chine.' Par le Capitaine de Malglaive et par le Capitaine Bivi^re. Ditto, V. 
* Voyage dans le Haut Laos et sur lee Fronti^res de Chine et de Birmanie.' Par 
Pierre Lef^vre-Pontalis. Paris: Leroux. 1902. 

The monumental work which records the results of the untiring labours of M. 
Pavie and his coadjutors for the elucidation of the geography and ethnology of 
French Indo-China is brought a stage nearer completion by the issue of these two 
volumes, which contain the reports of three of the officers on M. Pavie^s staff, each 
preceded by an introduction from the hand of their chief. As was the case with 
former volumes, they embody a large amount of valuable material on some of the 
least-known parts of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, and are interspersed with carefully 
compiled maps, which will form an indispensable basis for the mapping of these 
countries. The report of Captain de Malglaive, which occupies the greater part of 
vol. iv. of the work, describes an important series of explorations carried out in 
1890 and 1891, mainly with the object of elucidating the best lines of communica- 
tion between the coast of Central Annam and the Mekong, across the difficult 
country of mountains and plateaus partly explored in the seventies by M. Harmand. 
During these journeys, the main results of which are summarized by M. Pavie on 
p. xxiii. of his introduction, he had five times crossed the water-parting, foar times 
carried a line of survey between the Mekong and the ocean, and discovered the 
ideal route into the heart of the country by the passage of Ai-Lao. His work also 
threw new light on the ethnographic relations of this region. The last part of the 
same volume is occupied by brief reports by Captain Riviere, an officer of much 
promise, who unfortunately succumbed to the effects of the climate before com- 
pleting his work, so that the complete memoirs which he would otherwise have 
prepared are not available. In 1890-1891, Captain Riviere had done good work in 
the upper Mekong basio, especially in the Tran-ninh district, south-east of Luang 
Prabang, and in 1894 he was attached to the mission for the examination of the 
upper Mekong region in conjunction with the English party under Sir J. G. Scott. 
He was a careful observer, and during the course of this expedition, on which he 
contracted his fatal illness, he had made some important astronomical determinations 
of position, while throughout his journeys he took many excellent photographs, 
which have been used to illustrate the various volumes of the series. 



RKVIBim.' 



Tbe fifth volume of the geographical memuire u occQpied hj the reports of 
H. Leldire-Pontalis, a youDg civilian attached to the " Miaist^re des AffaircB I'etran- 
gereB," who, when a student at the " ^cole des Lauguea OrientaleB," had already been 
attraoted to the study of French Indo-Cliina by a chance meeting with M. Pavie. 
Eventually appointed to the staff of the mieaion, be woa for a time personally 
atlkohed to M. Paris himself, keeping the record of bis journeys and closely 
aaBOCtated in all hia work. He was afterwards entrusted with independent work, 
for which his ectbusiastic study of the geogrnphy of French Indo-China bad 
pra-emiacntly fitted him, and the results of his labuurs, which include imporlant 
obBerrktioDB on the populations and sconomio possibilitieB of lbs regions traversed, 
•M given in the preaent volume. His eailier journeys were principally concerned, 
like ihosu oFCaptMQ BiviSre, with the upper Laos region, while, like that officer, 
be took part in the Anglo-French frontier commiaaion of 18[(4, exploring the middle 
«^l«y of the Nam Hu in euQJunctioD with Lieut. ThomaBain and Dr. Leferre. 



AFRICA. 

Map of tbe MABcuAnn Expbditiok acboss Afkica. 
'UiMioQ Harohand. Uaut-Oubangul — Bahr el Ohazel — Nil-Ethiopie-DJibouti 
t^^rte pnbliife suna les aospices da la Suci^te de Qeographie de Paria. DrsBi^e et 
■ICMinee par le Commaadant Buatier il'aprti les Iravauz topagraphiqaes ot astro- 
nfiuiqnea dei Offioiers de la Miasion Marchand et d'aprea lea itiaeraites des OfBt'iers du 
Uaat-Onbiui^i, de M. Faivre (Eipc'dition du Dedjaz Theasama), de lu Minion 
Bonfhampe, de la MiaEion Bbltego, et des anoieiii'voyageurs.' Scale 1 : 1,(H>0,00(> or 
15-7 artat, milee to an inch. 4 sheets. I'aria: Henry Uarrtre. 19U8, 

AJl the map?, showing the route of Commandant Marchaud's expedition across 
Africa, that have appeared bo far have been mere sketcheB, and a doal map, giving 
■ fae complete geographical results uf the journey, has, for some reason, been delayed 
■oiigerthan might have been anticipated. However, we have at last, published under 
^Qa auapicea of the tSuci^tede G^ographle of Paris, the complete map uf the oxpedi- 
**<"*, combined with tbe work of other explorers. This consists of four sheets, 
**cli measuring about 3x2] feet, and la drawn on tbe scale of 1 : 1,000,000. It 
"Etudes all the more important part of the journey from the Uhangi river through 
'*o Uahr-el-Gbazftl region to the White Nile, thence east through Abyssinia via 
*^*iU Ababa and Hairar to Jibuti, In addition to the route of the Maccband 
**P«<iition, an attempt has been made to show the routes and geographical results 
*** other eiplorers through the same region, and those of the Bonchamps, Faivre, 
^^ Sittego missions are laid down, as well as recent explorations ofFrench officers in 
^b« Upper Ubangi. But tbe map cannot ba taken as repreientiog the present state 
^i Our knowledge of this part of Africa, for in several districts it is surprisingly 
^'^^Oinplete and out of date, and districts which are now fairly well known are 
*'*i^Wn as almost unexplored, For instance, in the region to the north-east of X«ke 
^^fftnie and iLe chain of lakes aa far as Lake Zwui and tbe upper valtey of tbe 
***WMb, the important work by a most competent surveyor who accompanied iii, 
**■ J. Harrison's expeditions in 1899-1900 seems to have been entirely overlooked, 
** ^«U u that of other explorers in the same district. Then, again, the surveys of 
''* expedition under Major Austin from the Sobat to Lake Rudolf have not been 
^Wla^, and the country through which he pasaod from tbe upj)er Akobo to the 
I'wth-west end of the lake is shown as unexplored, although it is clearly laid down 
'" tile map pablishod in the Oeographical Juarnal for June, 1902, Major Gwynn's 
°*'^ul auTVey work haa also iKsn apparently overlooked. Other similar cases 




74 REVIEWS. 

might be pointed out, and it is to be regretted that better use was not made of the 
ayailable cartographical material for this region. 

As regards the route of the Marchand expedition, in many parts the country 
traversed was more or less known before, but a great deal of detailed information 
has been added, and positions of places which were only approximately laid down 
haye been more accurately determined. It would have been a great advantage, 
and saved further trouble and consulting reports, if a table giving particulars of the 
astronomical observations taken had been printed upon the map itself, for which 
there is ample space. The position of some important places as determined by 
the Marchand expedition differs from those hitherto accepted. For instance, 
Fashoda is moved in longitude about twenty-three minutes to the west of the 
position laid down on the War Office map as the result of careful observations, 
and which certainly cannot be in error by anything like this amount. Other 
places, which have been fairly accurately fixed for some time past, are here 
altered considerably. The map is clearly printed in colours, and shows the 
principal routes in rei, hills chalked in brown, and water blue. A plan of 
Fashoda is given as an inset. 

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

English and Ibish Climates. 

' The Climates and Baths of Great Britain and Ireland, being the Report of a Com- 
mitteo of the Royal Medical and Chirurgioal Society of London.* Vol. i. The Olimates 
of the South of England, and Uie chief Medicinal Springs of Great Britain. Vol. 11. 
The Climates of London and of the Central and Xortheni Portions of England, together 
with those of Wales and of Ireland. London : MacmiUan & Co., Ltd. 1895, 1902. 

Unfortunately, these important volumes deal only with the larger part, not the 
whole, of the British Isles, for, as is stated in the preface to the second volume , 
** the Climates of Scotland have been omitted, as the committee fdled to secure the 
necessary local co-operation.'' The necessary local co-operation, however, was 
obtained elsewhere in full measure, and the various localities are described by the 
authorities best fitted for the task. 

To a considerable extent, the volumes may be looked upon as a m an u al of 
medical geography for the southern parts of the British Isles. The standing of the 
authors secures that there is no " booming *'' of particular health-reeortSy and the 
statistics of climate, which are compiled mainly from the published summaries of 
the Royal Meteorological Society, are of great value as a basis of comparison. 
Besides climate, the subjects dealt with are mainly the mineral wells, water-supply, 
drainage, and the prevailing diseases of the locality ; but some authors go con- 
siderably beyond this. Particular reference may be made to & John Moore's 
description of Ireland, which, be^des being the longest article in the series (it 
comprises two hundred pages), is in some ways one of the best geographical 
accounts of the island with which we are acquainted. 

It is natural that diCFerent authors should handle the avidlable climatic 
statistics with varying degrees of skill, and the data themselves vary greatly in 
their completeness and trustworthiness. The description of South Wales by Dr. 
Theodore Williams in vol. ii. may be taken as an example of the best way of 
marshalling the available 6fu:t«. 

Medical men, being traiuevi to careful observation and reasoned deduction, could 
not £iul to notice how much the configuration of a district affects its climate and 
healthf^ne(«. Examines could be culled firam every article, but we are content to 
quote one frv^m Dr. W. M. Ord*« Introductory Remarks on the Climate of the South 



of Englaad in rol. i., because it is u general statement, and refers to a coraparativelf 
UQiform feature — tbe coBst-line. 

" As an QQtoome of this frequent change of substance in tLe seiuboro foUoffs 
Ihe remarkablB Tsriety in the outline of the cobbI already mentioned. This U, 
ade«d, much more tlian a mere variety of outline ; it consists aUu in rapidly 
aucceediug dirersities in tho elevation of tLe projections azid recessions, so that in 
a coast which looks in tbe main southward a rich aerioa of contrasts of aspect is 
obtuoed. Where a ridge comes down from high inland into the sea, its sbelTing 
sidea are fonod to embrace great dilTerences of climate within a small area. Wa 
may find one aide of a bay eiposed to east winds, with an air which is found to be 
Ionic and bracine, while on the other side, with a westerly or south-westerly aspect, 
the sun pours in on a beach lying at the foot of high cliffs with almost tropical 
warmth ; and one side of a headland may be so warm as to be held to be relaxing, 
while tbe other is cool and invigorating." 

The article on the Climate of London, by Dr. W. Ewart, presents many points 
of Bpedal interest, bearing particularly on the changes in natural conditions due to 
arlJGcial circumstances. The dryness of tbe soil under London produced by the 
constant drawing away of tbe underground water, and tbe covering of ao large an 
area of streets with an absolutely impervious paving, is credited with a considerable 
share in tbe healthiness of the town. The progressive desiccation of the soil and 
the increasing stringency of regulations against tbe emissian of smoke are assigned 
u reaions for the gradual diminution iu the number and intensity of the fogs. 

It is difficult to give a fair idea of a book which bas many of the advantages 
and defects of nn encycluptedia ; but that the book is valuable and a credit to the 
*Wiiet7 which baa produced it is, we think, made evident by the few instances we 
bave been able to cite. 

General Olihatoloov. 
' tianilbuok of Climatology.' By Dr. Julius Hann. Part i Geaeral Climatology. 
Tinnslntcd by Bobett do Courey Ward. New York: The Maomlllan Company: 
Ixtndon: Macmillan »c Co., Ltd. 1^3. 

Hann's 'Climatologie,' in Its latest three- volume edition, has taken its placu as 
^« kckuowledged authority on the subject, and it would be difficult to imagini: 
^hat the work could be superseded or displaced in the preeent generation. 

In the United Slates, climatology, which may be called geographical meteor- 
^logy, is systematically studied in universities and colleges, and Prof. Ward is 
charged with the subject at Harvard. With the immediate object of supplying bis 
^tndeota with a satisfactory text-book and the wilder purpose of affording tbe 
£!oglijlh-reading public an opporiunity of becoming acquainted with Hann's work, 
lie resolved to make the tranelatiun which is now before us. Any one who glances 
&t the pages crammed with statistica of the second part of the original book, 
Bpecial Climatology, will understand why Prof. Ward resolved to limit bis labours 
to the translation of Part i., General Climatology. This part makes a very sub- 
■tanttal volume, and it is admirably translated ; tbe only real improvement 
that we could suggest would be a liberal supply of diagrammatic illuatratious. 
X'Fof. Ward has brought the divisions and subdivisions of the text inta a form 
Which appeals more to the English reader than that which is adopted in tbe 
original, and there are certain additions, chieQy in tbe way of American instances. 
Which counterbalance certain omissions of Central European details. 

'While in general the references to recent publications are copious and up to 
date, we miss Dr. Herbertsun's important paper on the distribution of rainfall 
Otw the land, which is certainly a contribution to climatology aa distinct from 



76 REYIEWS. 

meteorology. We should have liked— aod we say it eyen at ihe risk of being 
considered iDsular — a somewhat fuller citation of illustrative instances from our 
British climates; for, like our weather, they comprise a considerable range of 
samples. 

The book has been very carefully revised, and we have noticed remarkably few 
slips ; perhaps the most serious is the ominous inclusion of Peklnfc in a table headed 
" Evaporation and Rainfall in Bussia,^^ The curious spelling Enisseysk occurs in 
one place, although Yeniseisk is given elsewhere. To take yet aaother example 
from Russia, we find Kaschkar decidedly unfamiliar ; it is obviously intended for 
Kctshgar, Since, however, the book deals, not with special climates, but merely 
with the general principles of climatology, uniformity in transliteration is not of 
essential importance. 

The book is divided into two parts — (i.) The Climatic Factors, such as tempe- 
rature, moisture, wind; (ii.) Solar Climate and the chief varieties of Physical 
Climate, which in turn is subdivided into three sections. There are— (1) Solar 
or Mathematic Climate, i.e. the theoretical climate zones of a sphere with homo- 
geneous surface ; (2) Physical Climate, including continental, marine, and moun- 
tain climates, the last being dealt with in a particularly full and interesting way ; 
and (3) Changes of Climate. The last section discourses of the geological and 
secular changes of climate which have unquestionably occurred, and it also deals 
with periodic changes. Sunspot and lunar cycles of climatic change are neither 
strongly affirmed nor wholly denied, but on the whole the various theories are 
branded with " faint praise.** Briickner's cycle of thirty-five years is more cordially 
received because it has been inductively arrived at from climatic fiicts, while most 
of the others have been deduced from the laws affecting the assumed controlling 
causes. 

The metric system and Centigrade scale are used throughout, and very full 
reduction tables are supplied for their conversion to our more familiar units. We 
note with some surprise that the translator has thought it necessary to give Fahren- 
heit equivalents to one-hundredth of a degree when the Centigrade values are only 
to one- tenth. As a tenth of a degree Fahrenheit has practically no meteorological 
and still less climatological importance, the nearest tenth would certainly have 
left an ample margin of safety. 

Prof. Ward deserves the hearty thanks of geographers, as well as of meteoro- 
logists, for placing this invaluable treatise in the hands of English-speaking 
students. H. R. M. 

GENERAL. 

ENOYOLOPiBOIA BrITANNIOA. 

' The New Volumes of the Encyclopsedia Britannica/ 9 vols, text, index vol., and 
vol. of maps. London : A. & C. Black, and the Times. 1902-1903. 

The supplement to the 9th edition of the Encyclopasdia Britannica, brought 
out under the auspices of the Tiinesy is now complete, and it may be of interest to 
glance briefly at those portions of the work which deal with geography and allied 
subjects. A casual inspection of the volumes is sufficient to show that among the 
many branches of knowledge of which the latest developments are here discussed 
and summarized, a decidedly large proportion has a bearing on geography in one or 
other of its aspects. Not only are the original articles of the 9th edition supple- 
mented by a statement of the changes which have taken place during the last 
quarter of a centiuy, but many places are to be met with in the alphabetical 
arrangementi which were not treated of at all^ independently, in the former work. 



REVIEWS. 77 

As regards the general method adopted, it was no doubt impossible, in a work of 
snch magnitude, in which so many different writers have taken part, to secure 
complete uniformity, the special character of the work as an annex to an older 
publication rendering it particularly difficult to adhere to a defioite plan through- 
out. Thus, while some of the writers have held to the original intention of making 
the new material merely complementary to the old, others have worked on more 
independent lines, with the result that their articles possess greater unity, though 
&t the cost of a certain amount of repetition of the information already given in the 
9th edition. 

Differences in the treatment of the several subjects naturally arise from other 

fCMons. In the case of the older and more settled countries, the chief attention is 

^Qoessarily devoted rather to the recent political developments and changes in 

statistical data, than to more purely geographical aspects, except in the cases 

where the writer of the article, by his recognized standing as a geographer, has 

^Q competent to construct his work on the scientific basis demanded by modem 

geographical notions. The rarity of such cases, of which the most striking 

examples are perhaps Prof. Davis^s admirable treatment of the geography of the 

^Qitcid States and North America, the late Dr. George Dawson's of Canada, and 

^n'nce Eropotkin's of the various divisions of Russian Asia, brings out once more 

^^e imperfect training which even our recognized authorities possess in the 

Piiociples of scientific, physical, geography, which ought properly to underly a 

^i^'t understanding of the human side of the subject. It is under the more 

fecetxtly developed branches of physical geography — oceanography, limnology, 

'^xnology, and the like — hardly recognized as independent subjects of study 

^^^xi the 9th edition appeared, that we find some of the articles of most scientific 

^^c The first two are admirably treated from a general point of view by 

^r- B. R. Mill, the third by Prof. Milne ; while Mr. H. N. Dickson's series of 

^^oles on the individual oceans are excellent summaries of the results of recent 

'®*^arch in each. Dr. Mill's article under the heading " Q-eography," which con- 

^xi8 a useful sketch of the development of geographical theory as well as of the 

^^^x-fio of modern discovery, should also be mentioned here, as well as those 

^^•cribing such special physical features as the Alps (from the competent pen of 

^^oT. Bonney), the Pyrenees, and the Himalayas. 

1*he volumes contain, however, a vast amount of valuable information on the 

descriptive and statistical sides of the subject, especially as regards those continents 

*^^ countries which have been first brought into special prominence within the 

™* twenty-five years. The various portions of the British Empire are very fully 

^^ult ivith, in many cases by men who have themselves taken part in the important 

^®^ta of which they have recently been the theatre. Sir Thomas Holdich, Sir 

^'^ Johnston, Sir Frederick Lugard, and Sir J. Q. Scott are only a few of the 

^^'^^I's who come under this category. Africa, in its general, physical, ethnological, 

^^tical, and economic aspects is the subject of an article which runs to thirty-eight 

'^ll^^ and its major physicid features are described under their individual headings ; 

^^Q the recent advance in the survey and exploration of Asia, South America, 

^^ the Polar Regions is also dealt with fiilly. Of special countries on which 

^HQi^^QQ has been focussed of late, Egypt is perhaps as thoroaghly treated as any, 

*^^ article (by various contributors), in which is recorded the striking advance 

^^e by that country under British tutelage, running to no less than thirty-three 

The articles dealing with the countries of Europe are, as already remarked, 
Wely statistical in character, but their value in a work of reference by no means 
^ers firom this, and, being all written by competent authorities, may be taken 



78 REVIEWS. 

as thoroughly trustworthy at the time of writing, though owing to delay in 
puhlioation some of the facts have since hecome out of date. In some cases 
{e.g, in that of Bulgaria, to which fourteen pages are devoted) the physical geo- 
graphy meets with more attention than in most, though, as hefore remarked, this 
is oertaioly not, broadly speaking, the strong side of the geographical article;. 
Lastly, mention should be made of the excellent index, which embraces the 
original as well as the supplementary volumes, and though a marvel of compression, 
does not suffer from this from the point of view of practical utility. 

In the editions of the work previous to the supplement excellent maps by British 
cartographers were published with the articles themselves, and for purposes of handy 
reference this was certainly a convenient arrangement ; but the publishers have 
now issued, as one of the new supplementary volumes, a general atlas, of 124 maps, 
and an index to about 250,000 place-names, constituting volume xxxiv. of the 
complete work. Many of the maps contain a great deal of information, and are 
especially full of names of places — a useful feature, while the copious index is 
most Eerviceable. 

The maps in this atlas are of American origin, being published by the American 
Century Go. Out of a total number of 124, which the atlas contains, 52 are devoted 
to the United States, 13 to the British Isles, and fewer to some of the important 
continental countries. 

The maps are printed in colours: hills brown, seas blue, railway lines red. 
Other colours are employed to show boundaries. The hill shading, which is in 
vertical hachures, is often very confused, and on some of the maps the confusion is 
considerably increased by place-names, which are often not only overcrowded, but 
badly written and awkwardly spaced. There are some remarkable instances of the 
lack of proper supervision in the spelling of place-names, such as that of Shering- 
ham in Norfolk, which is given both as " Sheringham " and '* Sherington ** on one 
map, and *' Sherringham " on another. The registration of the various colour 
stones is often unsatisfactory, and in some cases, such as that of the map of 
Northern India (No. 41), this leads to confusion both in boundaries and railways. 
No. 3 is a useful travel map of Central Europe, although on a small scale, and 
shows railways, steamship lines, and Alpine roads ; but such an important route 
as that to the Hook of Holland from Harwich is not indicated. 

On several of the maps red spots appear, and a note explains that these indicate 
"volcanoes active during the nineteenth century;" but in the map of Central 
Africa, the only really active volcano in that continent is not indicated. On the 
same map, the Uganda railway is shown as passing far to the north of the line it 
actually takes on approaching Victoria Nyanza. This northerly route, although 
originally surveyed, was subsequently changed to the southerly and shorter one. 
As might be expected, the maps of the United States are the most useful and 
satisfactory, being drawn on fairly large scales, and containing a large amount oi 
information. It should be stated that in some cases the atlas is supplemented by^ 
black and white maps in the text. 



\ 




THE MONTHLY RECORD. 

BUEOPE. 

TllB Ago of the SwiM Lake-ba>iu».— At the meeting of the Geolc^ical 
Society of Lnadon on April 2t> of the present year, Dr. Preller read a paper on 
" The Age of the Principul Lake-baains between the Jura and the Alpa," being 
the sequel to n paper read last year, in which the same author had shown that the 
principal Swiss lake-baeina could not have eiiated during or immedintely after the 
drat or Pliocene glaciatian of the Al):9, but had not dealt with the queation of 
tho particular period of their formatioD. Considering first the caae of the Ziirich 
Uke-Talley, be now showB that the deep-level )^Tel beda in the Limmat valley 
near and below Ziirich are esaentially fluviatile, umilar to the gravel carried by 
the river Sihl at the preaent day. They reat upon glacial clay of the second 
glftoiatioD, and are overlaid by the moraine bars and secondary products of the 
third glaciatioo, which are in turn overlaid by, and mixed with, the post-glociai 
alluvia of the Sthl. The author therefore holds that they were deposited by a 
river during the second inter-glacial period ; that the lowering of the valley floor 
was initiated in the course of the third glociation, probably when the glacier had 
already reached its maximum extcniiian ; that the zocnl subsidence continued 
throughout the retreat of the ice ; and that the Bimultaneoua formation of the 
lake-hatin should therefore be assigned to the end of the glacial period, after which 
the original basin was restricted to its present dimensions by post-glacial allavia. 
The lame arguments were alao shown t^ apply, in the main, to the origin and age 
of the Other principal zonal lake-basins, the position and depth of which, it ia held, 
point to the prolnbility that the bonding took place along several more or lees 
parallel lioea within the zone between the Alps and the Jura ; that it was by no 
meuia of aniform depth ; and that the Alps did not therefore subside as a rigid 
maaa, bat that the Konal bending along their edge merely extended locally for some 
diitADce from the deepest points of the lake-biBins along the floors of the principal 
Alpine rivet-valleys. In support of the above conclusions, which met with generdl 
«ccept«nce in the diacussion following the paper, the author also pointed to ihe 
difficulty in the way of believing that glaciers could ever till such extensive baains 
u those of the principal Alpine lakes. 

Settlementi on the Lower Hoielle-— Dr. W. Ademeit has contributed to 
tbe Fora^vngen xur dtvlschen Landfs- Jind Volkikunde, Bd, 14, Heft -1, an essay 
on eettleioents in the country lying on the letc bank of the Moselle above Reil, in 
the Wittlich hollow, and the Treves valley. He deecribes the configuration of the 
district, its geology, climate, and soil, and sketches its general history. The 
Influence of the river as a means of communication in early times is fhown by the 
^Celtic place-names, which constitute C5 per cent, of the whole. They occur in 
Sreat numbers along the river and the lower yalleys of its tributaries. The Roman 
C)«mes probably belong to the aixth to eighth centuries, aa they are derived from 
% U(e form of Latin. Their concentration in the Moaelle valley seems to indicate 
^li&t tbey are connected with the introduction of viticulture by the Romans. 
OeriDsn names are lees common, not becauae the ioimigrants were few, but becaute 
Uiey occupied old Keltic settlements. Those of the earlier period end in heim 
fcjid ingen, while those of a later immigration and of various forma are almost 
I the Wittlich hollow, indicating an extension of cultivation. Dr. 
Ademeit pointa out that in the Treves valley the settlements were generally at 
% distance from the river protected by the terraces from iioods, Sohweicb, situated 
Lf » mile from the Moselle, where the alluvium of the river meete the diluvium 




80 THE MONTHLY RIOORD. 

of the Wittlich hollow, owes its importance to the road from Ti^yes to Cohlentz, 
which, after crossing the river, passes through the town. Riol lies on a semi- 
circular flat which was formerly an island, and, like most other Tillages occupied in 
viticulture, was formerly in the possession of a monastery. The peninsulas attracted 
settlers, not only because their terraces afforded suitable ground for cultiyation, but 
still more because their isolated situation afforded protection. On the right bank, 
where the mountains fall more steeply to the peninsulas, the Tillages have all 
Keltic names except Detzem (ad decimum lapidem), 

Samland and iti Inhabitanta.-'Dr. R. Jankowsky has treated fully the 
geography, etc., of this district in a thesis written for the diploma of doctor at the 
Uniyersity of Eonigsberg. Samland has an area of somewhat less than 800 square 
miles, and is bounded by the Baltic, the Kurisches and Frisohes Haff, and the 
riyers Pregel and Deime. It is a land of ground moraines, and owes its form to the 
glacial period. The higher summits, however, are built up of northern sand. 
Erratic blocks are scattered about in large numbers, especially in the western part. 
The depth of the diluvial covering is very variable, being thinnest in the hiUy 
north-west, where the brooks have in some places cut their way down to the under- 
lying Tertiary deposits. These, too, have been raised as high as 65 feet above 
sea-level, and even the lower beds, among them the blue earth containing amber, 
rise in some points above the water. East Samland has a slight fall, and the 
defective drainage has needed artificial regulation. The west coast is high, and 
between Briisterort and the mouth of the Pregel extends the only continuous 
elevation, the Alkgebirge, which culminates in the Gkdtgruben at a height of 
330 feet. The Prussians, closely allied to the Lithuanians and Letts, drove out the 
German inhabitants during the great migrations before the present era, but in the 
fourteenth century Prussiuis and Germans were about equally numerous in Sam- 
land. In later times immigrants from Great Britain, France, and other countries 
flocked to Samland, and in 1706 was founded in Eonigsberg the ** Briiderschaft 
hochl5blicher Grossbritannischer Nation," which existed till 1800. Now all 
differences of nationality have disappeared. Sixty-five per cent, of the inhabitants 
are engaged in agriculture, growing cereals, beet-root, and fruit, and a large part of 
the land is laid down with grass. Fishing affords occupation to many, especially 
in the Haffs, where fish are plentiful ; and the collection of amber from the Haffs 
and a mine near Sassau has during the past twenty-five years yielded about 
£37,500 annually to the revenue. Eonigsberg, on the Pregel, and the junction of 
thirteen lines of railway, is an important strategical point as well as a commercial 
centre. Its most flourishing period was 1873-78, when the most important lines 
into Russia had been opened, and before the export of com from the Russian ports 
was fostered by preferential tariffs. 

The Horth-eastam Koorlandi of Kecklenbnrg.— Dr. A. Eaestner has 

fully investigated the Rostock, Gelbensand and Ribnitz heaths and Fischland, 
covering an area of about 33,000 acres near the coast of Mecklenburg. The 
surface of this district, with the exception of small isolated areas of boulder clay, 
is covered with sand, which was laid down in a lake when the inland ice was 
melting away. The thickness of the sand varies from 22 to 23 feet. It stands 
highest in the south-east, and thence falls more or less regularly to the coast, 
where it partly sinks under the surface of the sea, and it fills a shallow hollow in the 
boulder clay which underlies it in all parts. The margins of the sand region have 
also a regular fall from the south-western comer, and the stones strewn along them 
are bank deposits of a lake of glacier water. This fall may be explained by an 
unequal sinking of the coast region. The total absence of terraces indicates that 
the Mecklenburg-Pommeranian lake did not retire backwards. The sand of the 




THX UOHTHLT RSCOBD. 

north-western heath of Meckleoburg differs from that of the eoutb- western in beiog 
of finer grain, but its proportion of heavy minerals with a specific gra'ity of 
'J'STZ (s. g. of dolomiie) is about tbe tame. Dunaa are liai e: 
eouth-west. — Mill, o'ls tier Oiostlittri. Mtckltnburg. geol. LandaiinslaH, i 

The Auitriaa Feat-moon-— An ioterestjog acconnt of the peat-n 

Austria is given by Dr. W. Bars^h in the Deutsche Handschaii fur Geogmphie 

(Febnury, 1903). The writer begins by diecnssing tbe conditi 

the growth of peat — tbe presecce of tbe special pinnts of which it is composed, of 

a suitable sub-soil, and of water, which prevents decomposiii(>t) by screeniDg the 

pUots from tbe action of tlie air. Climate aieu has to be ruclcoD(!d with, in so far 

aa peat is only a product of temperate regions. Accordiog to minor variations in 

the conditions, tbe moors are divided ints two main clasees, high-level and low-level 

tnoort, these terms expreesiog not bo much difference in absolute altitude, as of 

sltitode relatively to the water-stratum. L)r. Bersch latuents tbe absence of 

prFcis« knowledge with reepect to the peat-moora of Austria, which, except in 

Salzburg and Bohemia, have not beeo studied as they deserve to he, considering 

their economic im]iortance. Tlio country may, however, be put down as well 

{■rovided vilh them, as they are widely distributed through the saveral provinces. 

Id Vorarlberg and Tirol they are well repreeeuted, larecly in the form of low-larel 

xnooTB, which in placos, especially in the Adige valley, lend themselves well to 

«xp1oitat)0Q for agricultural purposes, though the abuadauce of mineral ingredients 

renders tbe peat lesB suitable for fuel. la the other Alpine provinces hlgb-lovei 

snoon predaroinatc, SaUburg showing a particularly large area, and doing much to 

^sxpl<nt tbe moors both for fuel and peat-litter. Cuiinthia poBsesses tbe largest 

«soattnuouH moor in that of Laibach, which might be turned iuto good paature-luid, 

-^■ere not the inhabitants loo poor to take the necessary alepa to check the periodic 

tfjoods. Bohemia, the moors uf which have been the object of thorough invcstiga- 

4^ ion by Frof. Sitensky, is reckoned to possess an area of from 25,000 to 30,000 

SsectareB uf moorland. The well-known watering-places of Bohentia owe their 

.^ siiteoce to the abundance of mineral constituents in the moore. Galicia, with its 

x3.el<rork of rivers traversing an extensive plain, is formed by nature to be a moor- 

X^*od country, but more has been done here than in any other part of the empire 

«>a3 Jevelop the moors in an agricultural direction, tbe methods adopted being 

c fiorougbly scientific and systematic. The abundance of poor aud sandy soils in 

^?alicia has been of some iofluence in direcling attention to the utilisation of the 

CKaoort. 

Iht Lakes of the Eohe Tatra.~The Hohe Tatra is remarkable for the 

number of its high-level lake»i; no less than one hundred and seven are found 

f>«tw*en tbe elevations of 4000 and 7000 feet. The beat known of tbe small lakes 

"* tte " Meeraoge," the possesaion of which has recently been a subject of con- 

troveiBy between Austrii (Galicia) and Hungary. According to Prof. Partach, 

about half the lakes are true rock basins io the upper parts of the valleye; a 

''^*>»'ber of others are moralnic lakes. Their formation corresponds to the time of 

"^ ice-period glaciation of tbe Tatra. Griaainger's work in the Hohe Tatra (Oeo. 

''*'•<»-,, Sept. 1893, pp. 255-258) ioelnded only iaolaUd observations of depths and 

*^*»Jierature8in the lakes: the new survey of the group by the Miliiargeograpbische 

'^•titute in Vienna, employing photo- gram metric methods in the mountains, shows 

3* p(:sitions and outlines of all tbe lakes on the larie-scalo majt (1 : 25,000). 

'• Alffilhelm Halbfaaa is about to carry out a systematic investigation of the lakes 

"Hng this Bummer. The forms of their basins will be oscertained by a close 

~^*ork of soundings, and all the obssrvations approved in modern limnology will 

°* blade. As tbe lakes are oft?n enclossd on three sides by rock walla, with one 

1*0.1.— July, 1903.] o 



82 THE MONTHLT RIOOBa 

side open and exposed in different directions, exceptional opportanities will be 
afforded for disouBsing the influence of mountain '* shading " on temperature and 
fauna. 



The Great WaU of China.— Mr. C. E. D. Black, who, when in China, 
examined personally a section of the Great Wall to the' north of Shan-hai-kwan, 
contributes to the January number of the Calcutta Review a description of the wall 
(preceded by some notes on its history), based on the accounts of the various 
travellers who have touched it at some poiot or other of its lengthy course. It is 
useful to have the available information thus brought together, as few travellers 
have done more than describe the portion known to themselves personally, and the 
acconnts are therefore somewhat fragmentary. Mr. Black, who, like other travellers, 
has found much to impress the imagination in the Great Wall even as it exists at 
the present day, considers that its practical utility in the days in which it was 
constructed has been unduly depreciated by some writers. 

Hew Vegetation on Krakatao.— In Nature of March 26 last, Mr. W. 
Botting Hemsley gave a short note, based on an article by Dr. Penzig in the 
Annates du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg^ on the vegetation which has sprung 
up on Krakatao since the great eruption of 1883. The beginnings of a new vege- 
tation were visible at the time of the visit of Dr. Treub, some three years after 
the eruption, when the surface of the pumice-stone, lava, and ash was found 
to be covered with a slimy layer formed by microscopic algm, which, by their 
decomposing action, created a suitable substratum for ferns, of which a dozen 
species were already abundant; while a few individuals of fifteen species of 
flowering plants, most of which bad sprung from drift-seeds, were also observed. 
Dr. Penzig*s paper gives the results of the investigations of a party of botanists 
who visited the island in 1897. They show that sixty-two species of vascular 
plants were then observed on Krakatao and the two neighbouring islets, no 
fewer than fifty being flowering plants. Of the latter, the seeds of 7*54 per 
cent, were possibly carried by birds, 32*07 per cent, were probably wind-borne, and 
60*39 per cent, were almost certainly cast up by the sea-waves. Strangely enough^ 
no additional species of fern seems to have established itself between 1886 and 1897. 
The strand belt is naturally the most abundant in species, and, after passing this, 
dense thickets of Phragmites, Saccbarum and Gymnothrix were encountered, 
the interior and higher parts being less covered with vegetation, ferns here pre- 
ponderating. Apart from ferns, the species most probably wind-bDrne include 
eight composites, six grasses, and four orchids, one of the last-named being con- 
spicuous and relatively frequent among the flowering plants. As Mr. Hemsley 
remarks, it is an interesting question how far these facts throw light on the origin 
of the vegetation of much more remote islands, Krakatao being only 20 miles 
distant from Java and Sumatra. 

AFBIOA. 

The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan in 1902.— Lord Cromer's recently issued 
report for 1902, on Egypt and the Sudan, gives, on the whole, a hopeful view of 
the prospects of the latter, and the progress made towards its development since 
the overthrow of the Dervishes. On his last (third) visit to the Sudan, Lord 
Cromer saw reason to think, not only that the country had b^un to move, bnt 
that it was moving even more rapidly than could have been expected. The prime 
requisite is the outlay of capital on a large scale, especially for the improvement of 
the present very defective means of communication ; and, though it is not easy at 
first sight to imacpne from whence it can be forthcoming, the hope is exiHressed 



L 



THB MONTHLY RECORD. 83 

that moDBj in (airly Adeqaate quantUiM m&j in course of tima be provided bjr 
the EgypcioD Exchequer, without adding to the taxatiou at prcBoot in force, Tbe 
6«t object to which such capital muat bo devoted is the Suakim-Rerber railway, 
which IB regarded as nbsoluUly easeDtial to ths well-beioi^ of the Sudan. Further 
developments may be afterwards desirable, especially in the way of improving the 
means of access to Kassala, EI Obeid, and the Ghezireh, or country betwesQ the 
Blna and While Kilea. These muat take the precedence of any scheme for a rail- 
way to Uganda, the necessity or practicability of which has yet to be shown. 
Tfllegnipbic commuuicatioQ may in time be eitendsd to Gondokoro,* ia Uganda 
territory, though extension in other directions is possibly more required. River 
trkoapoTt baa already been considerably developed under the directioQ Mr. Bond, s.h,, 
•leuiwn Don communioating monthly with Q-undokoro and Meshra-er-Rak (or 
Wau), with GoE Abu Guma weekly, and with ItoMires forlniglitly, so Igng as tbe 
Hue Nile is open to navigatioQ. The numbar of sailing boats south of Khartum 
is iDcreasing, and a few steamers and Hteam-bargas have been placed ou (he Blue 
md Wbite Niles by an English oominny. Goad progress has l>een made with the 
ttirraya uuder Colonel Talbot's direction, and Mr. Brown baa sent in an eihaustive 
report on the Sudan forests, from which it appears that stepa ore urgently needed 
to prevent the forest fires now so (irevalent. The proapocts of a rubber supply 
from the southern provinces are good. The possibilities of cotton -growing are dealt 
with in a separate report, but the construction of the Berber railway must precede 
an; deSulte measures to this end. Of the individual reports of the Mudirs on their 
(Mvoral provinoes, that by Colonel 8pnrkes on the Bihr-el-Ghazal gives valuable 
infcM'malion on the present relationa of the native tribes, etc. Owing lo the 
conataot raids of the Dinkas in the north and the Niam-Nlams in the south, the 
smaller tribes have been broken uj>, and their country is now an uninhabited 
^rildemes*. Those living with the Dinkas (virtually as slaves) are, however, 
x~eassembliog in the vicinity of the Goveminent posia, and ait they are far more 
vjaeful members of society ilian the Dinkas, this ia an advantage. They supply 
K3)oat of the grain, and all the available carriers, labourers, etc. The Dinkaa have 
^Hooepted the Government as a necessary evil, but the Niam-Nlams are well- 
wdiapoced and progresaive. Colonel Sparkes thinks tliat if they could be induced to 
~K)«oomfl owners of Books and herds, cannibalism would die out among them. The 
;^iimber of the Dinkas is put down as half a million at most, and that of the 
■ II mailer tribes at liXI,O00 all told. Malarial fever is very prevalent, and Europeans 
^^re eapecially liable to the black-water type. 

A^coltore in Brltiah Eait Africa.— Mr. A. Whyte, the well-known head 

^c=>f the Botanical Department in the Uganda Protectorate, was lately entrusted with 

^^ miation in iho coast-bnds of British East Africa, with a view tu examining and 

;^c— eporliag on their agricultural capabilities. His raport, handed in in January last, 

-^baa since been presented to Parliament, and includes a narrative of the joumeye 

~^«-JDdertakea in pursuance of bis commission, and a summary of tlie main coaciusions 

^^l which he has arrived. They agree in the main with those put forward by Mr. 

~^. A, Fitzgerald in his work on the East African ooasl-lands, to which reference 

r^ t mods by Mr. Whyte for detailed information on the agricultural eiperiments ao 

*« made. Mr. Whyte regards the coast of East Africa between the Equator and 

"^^ S. as compamble in many ways to Ceylon, and thinks that this atmlogy may 

^bdp to a conclusion aa to the agiicultural capabilities of the former. The coco-nut 

^Mlm finds aa equally congenial home on the coasts of both countries, and in view 

^3t tbe slight probability of the supply exceeding the demand, he looks forward to 

* Tbe most loutUern budaneae post, Honj^nlla, is about 20 miles from dondokoro. 



84 THI UOMTHLT BICOBD. 

the crMtion on the East African coast of a vast forest of palms as producli»e and 
lirofitable aa they bava proved in Geyloa. Other producte, cultivated in conjunction, 
might pay the expenses of weeding, while, by means of a cheap central tramway, 
the produce oonld be conveyed to the various bays, riven, and It^oons for ihip- 
ment. Rubber, Mr. Whyte thinks, will rank next as the most suiUbta and 
profitable product. The Landolpliia Kiriii is very generally diatributad in the 
fjret.ts, and its growth could be increased to any extent by cultivation; while the 
large tracts of strong black soil in the back-country seem most suitable for 
the Central American Caiiiltoa, and the flooded tmeta on the Sabaki, Tana, and in 
Witu, for the Para rubber {Hevta). The market is very encouraging, and there is 
no prospect of the supply exceeding, or even keeping pvM with, the demand. 
Lastly, the cultivation of indigo is an industry for which Mr, Whyte anUdpatea a 
great future in East Africa. 

The LOWBT Babi Vftlley.— Mr. Stanley P. Hyatt, contributiona from whom 
on Eastern Mashonaland and on the Sabi river as a waterway have already 
appeared in the Juurvul, sends us a further note on the country watered by the 
lower Sabi, which t«lla within the sphere of action of the Mozambique Company. 
The junction of the Lundi and Sabi rivers, on the Aoglo-Fortuguese frontier, 
marks, ho says, the beginning of a complete change in the nature of the country, 
the dry and stony buah-vcldt of the llhodeusn side giving place to the dense 
UTtea forest of the Portuguese territory, capable of producing every variety of 
tropical product. The lower Sabi Sows through a comparatively shallow valley, 
the general characteristics of which continue almost unchanged throughout. In 
the neighbourhood of the river is a belt of Urge mimosa thorns, alternating with 
palm Ecrub or Krasa-covered vleis. As the ground rises these give place to Mopani 
scrub, and this again to a veritable forest, containing much fine timber, and 
};raduAl1y forming an almost impenetrable jungle on the upper slopes of the valley. 
Some of the tree; reach a diameter of 8 or t) feet, and a clear height of 150 feet 
without branches. One c\irlouB tree consists of a large number of small trunks, 
which in the course of time merge into a. single stem. Near the river the soil is 
of a black, muddy nature, extremely fertile and easily tilled. This gives place to 
red sand, and ultimately, in the creat of the ridge, to rich yellow loam. The only 
rock ii grey or bright red sandstone, but this is of rare occurrence. The chief 
wealth of the Sabi valley conaista la the indiarubbsr creeper, which is indigenous 
on the north bank, whilst an the south it only requires planting. Cotton ia found 
wild ihronghout the country. So fertile does the land appear to be that the 
BiitlTH raise crop after crop without impoverishing the ground, the principal 
pain eolllvated being the mpundi, or white Kaffir corn, though much arrowroot 
k |ni«n> ^"^ ^^ castor-oil plant Sourishes everywhere. The bulk of the natives 
if tht Mblw gwi stock, though the chiefs are invariably of true Shangaan 
The niiTi h;i\i' moatly been to work at Johannesburg at 

r lives, .ind. Uiui; poor in cattle, now pay for their wives in 

( Incentive tu eiich •.[iiployment. They are extremely industrious, 
. >^^ courtesy to the white ruan farms a refreehing contrast to the insolence 
aiMdtt d( the Datives oC the Bridsh colonies, liatween the Sabi valley and 
tbt Omm^ i« * "mailer valley druned by a large sand-river, said to lose 
t Mildjr pUn some &0 ntiles from the coast. Its only inhabitaDtB are 
I ..'■n ol the luweiit type, who appear to carry on a relcDtlesB war with 

ilii ■ Tha Mhloogwi and Shangaaoa are all armed with the long bow 

jf^fl, -fl™»». ifaa bow bebg frequently 7 feet in length, but so stiff that 

llig pK '"nerally ipeaking, the Sabi valley ie not rich in game, the 

Snt rigli ' '"" '"oat. Elephants are plentiful south of the 



THK UONTHLT RECORD. 

river, and the Hjali antelope is coaslantlf h«ard broekiag through the jungle, 
though telilom seen, Tbcro are aomo buGalo, aod conscquentty euiDe amount of 
tsetse fly, (hough Ihia is disappearing. 

Tli« Chevalier Expedition to tlie Sourcei of the Shari. -The Paris 

Geographical Society has received a commuDicatioD from M. Chevalier, dated 
Sdelle, ttecemher 25, 1903, which gives some acconnt of the results of the ei]jedi- 
tioD. and ia printed in the May number of Zii QiographU, together with a some- 
what later letter to Dr. Hamy sent for com munioa lion to the AcademU dis 
Jiiaeriptions it Belles Lsltres, which contributed to the funds of the expedition. 
The expedition has added much to our knowledge of the country of Dar Banda, 
IQ tho more restricted aense of the term as applied to the country traverted by the 
beadstreams of the Shari, which has lung been a raiding-grouod of the Arabs from 
the north. The eastern port of this rogioa forms the statu of the Sultan Uohammed 
cB Sonsai ben Abaeber, with an area of some 50,000 square kilometres, and iti 
capital at Xdelle, in 8° 25' 5" N. The country ttaversed by the expedition ia an 
iinmeiise plateau compoaed of ferruginous sandstauea aud conglomerates, with it 
general sititude of from 1500 to 2000 feet, from the surface of wliich rooky masses, 
ICDown as kagas \a the Banda tongue, riae here and there to an additional height 
of 160 to 3W feet. They are geoerally destitute of arborescent vegetation, and are 
compoMd of sandstones (cither horizontal or Inclined), or more fre<iuanlly of granitic 
boeses. They have aupplied points of refuge from the Arabs for the pagan Id- 
habitants, though some that were formerly inhabileil are now abandoned. The 
Talleya of the maiQ streams, and large areas besides, are entirely dealituto d' 
inhabitants. The country is badly supplied with water. The raost important 
straam crossed — the Kukuru^waa 20 yards wide and i feet deep on December li ; 
tbe Bamingi was rather smaller, and tho Bangoran quite a small stream, while 
their tributaricB are at this time either dry or reduced to nn insignificant thread 
of water. Vcgetitba is naturally scanty, a ' ' 
include tbe Amioiieiasiia leiocarpus, "Kirite' 
arc all characlerialic of the Western Sudan, 
deleb palm (BonmHs) seem entirely absent. 
eharacierizB the more northern regions, are 
vegetation of the more southern streams is 



■' (iJus 



fw), "Nolo" {Farkia), etc., 
usly enough, the baobab and 
he nrboreacent Amei'is, which 
lady frequent, aud the gallery 
t to be seen. M. Chevalier has visiled, 
bonie 30 miles lo the south-east of Ndelle, tbe apparent meeting-point of the thrto 
great basins of tbe Sbarj, Congo, and Nile. The Bakaka atream, which flowed 
hence towards Datfur, falls Into tbe Wadi Eaboaaa, but it is aomewbat uncertain 
whether this is connected at high water with the Bahr-el-Arab, and so with the 
Nile, or whether it forms a closed basin. Near the source of tbe Bakaka is the t^Uo 
of Mbelle, an old Krej city now in ruins situated on the caravan route between 
Dar Sila (VVailai) and the Ubangi sultanates. The streams io this locality are 
bordered with rich gallery forests some 100 yards wide, in which a wild coffee 
ihrub producing a berry of excellent flavour was fouod. M. Chevalier suggests 
that it may have been from this region that coScs wa^ flrat imported into Europe. 
ibtelligeoce waa obtained of a large lake on the borders of Daifur, called Mamuro 
by the Arabs (probably representing tho Wed Mamum of Potsgos), which M. 
Clievaliarhopei to visit. Three pagan tribes^the Karas.Oulla Homer, and Fongoro 
— dwell on its banks, but the Arabs pasture tbeir docks there in the dry season. 
Another new lake is also reported to tbe west of Lake Iro. M. Chevalier says 
that the B*nda people had its origin on tbe plateau at the junction of the three 
gnat nver-buins, in the escarpments of which are caverns, which in the slave- 
hunting days served as refuges to the Bandas, thou^'h their inbabitauts are now 
exterminated. 




^6 THE MONTHLY BIOORD. 

The French on the Lower Niger.— In acoordAooe with the conTention of 

1898, the British Gbyemment has leased to the French two enclaves on the Niger, 
one at the mouth of the Forcados river, which will be named Toutee, and the 
other at the foot of the Bussa rapid?, which will be called the endaye d'Arenberg. 
The Bussa rapids extend over a distance of about 60 miles, those of Uru, Patassi, 
and Garafiri being the most difficult. The flotilla of the lower Niger, under the 
supervision of Captain Lenfant, has navigated the rapids in all seasons except at 
the height of the dry season, and as the most practicable channels have been dis- 
covered, the task has become less difficult. The cost of carriage to Sorbo Haussa 
has been reduced to about £28 per ton, whereas by the route Dakar — Eaye^ — 
Timbuktu it is more than double. Captain Lenfant believes that the Benue 
may be advantageously used as a route to the Shari. The Mayo-Kebi, affluent 
of the Benue, flows from the lacustrine depression of Tombnri, separated from 
the Shari by marshes some 15 miles in extent, which are flooded in the rainy 
season. The cost of transport by this route to Lake Chad would, according to 
Captain Lenfant, not exceed £19 per ton, and the time of transit would be reduced 
by two months. Sketch-maps of the rapids are published in La O^ographte^ 
No. 1, 1903. 

The LoangO-Cabinda Frontier. — The frontier between the Portuguese 
province of Cabinda and the French Congo was delimited in 1901. On the whole, 
the line follows pretty closely the watershed between the rivers Chiloango and 
Lo^me from Massab^, but certain sections are determined by parallels and 
meridians. Thus from the watershed to the confluence of the rivers Bilisi aod 
Luali, the boundary follows the parallel of 4? 34' 24"*o S., and then passes along 
the latter river to its source, so as to leave the fertile district of Chimp^^e in 
French territory. In exchange France cedes to Portugal the region between 
the meridian of lO"" 30' (12° 50' 15" £.of Greenwich) and the crest of the elevations 
that bound Mayombe. The extreme eastern point is at the village of M'Bamba, on 
the Chiloango, in lat. 4° 38' S. and 10° 40' E. long. (13° 0' 15" from Greenwich). 
The region traversed by the commission may be divided into 6ve zones. Near 
the coast the country is flat, and the Loeme winds sluggishly amidst papyrus. 
The soil is sand and clay, and the vegetation consists of tall grass and woods in the 
hollows. The next zone is more diversified, the vegetation is of higher growth, 
and the population denser. Then in Mayome is a zone of forest and hilly country 
where the rivers flow over bars of schists and granite ; the vegetable earth b of 
small depth, but the vegetation is abundant, and the natives are strong and 
healthy. In the third zone are clay-slates and schists of several kinds, and here 
the forest attains its greatest luxuriance. Quartzites, quartose sandstones, and 
laterite from the land of the fourth zone ; the forest is less dense, grass only grow- 
ing on the laterite. East of the Franco-Portuguese frontier is the plain of the 
YangalaF, extending from the Chiloanga to the Kwilu, which seems to be the 
ancient bed of a large river. The surface is covered with laterite, and in the rainy 
aeaaon the whole country is inundated. Beyond the plain the land rises again, 
and a region of sand and limestone stretches to the copper district of Minduli. 
Fonnerly the ore was extracted by the natives, but is apparently neglected at 
))retent.— £<i Ot\Hft>t}^iey Na 1, 1903. 

ICadagasoar in 1901.— M. Grandidier publishes in La Geographies No. 1, 
\S^\ a summary of General Gallieni's report. The commerce of the island in 
liX)l was of Uie value of 55 million francs (£2,200,000) as against 51 million 
(,£2,040.000) in 1900. Of this sum £I,9t>0,000 represents trade with France and 
h«»r colonies. The value of tlie importa was £1,840,000, and of the exports only 
£300,000. The most im|>ortaut import is cotton goods, which in 1901 were of 



^^^^^^^^ THE UONTHLT RECORD. 8? 

the yalue of £480,000, or S60.nOO more than in ibe preceding year. The sale of 
cotton goods is generally regarded as a criterion of tha prosj^erlty <t( the aatires. 
Lftrge etccks may, indeed, bave been accumulated in the year in question with a 
Tietr to a demand in the future, but, at any rate, the lojal merchants must bave 
futh in tho pfogreaa of tha island. Rice occupies the atcand (ilnee among the 
impart!, though Hadagaecar ousht to be an exporting country. The scarcity of roads 
to carry off the surplus cropa discourages this euliivatioD, and in lliOl locusts 
caused enormous loss. Progress, howevar, has been made since 1896, and it is 
hoped that Hndagaaear will soon yield enough rice for the local demand. The 
exports in ISIOl showed a dimiuution of ihe value of fully £00,000. Tlie chief 
artictea are gold, rnphia fibre, and cattle. The value of the gold exported vim teaa 
by £12,000, and that of raphia by £3400, owing to the fall in the price, for the 
quAOtity exported waa larger. There w.^s a lively demand for cattle in Ruunion, 
Uauritius, and, above all, Sjuth Africa, but the native graziers asked such ex- 
travagant prices that the result waa a diaiinution of £13,TuO in the value of the 
cattle exported. Shipping has much increased, and inland transport has made 
good progreas. Native cultivation has been extended, and the number of cattle 
has risen, so that there are now at least 1,000,000 head in Madagascar. The 
tnining industry has remained Hlationary. In 1901 provisional titles were granted 
to emigrants for 369 concessions, bringing the number aiooe 18!lo up to 1GT4, 
which cover an area of 33,'>,112 acres. There are, heaides these, thirty-seven 
conceesions of more than 10,000 hectares (24,710 acres) each. 

AKEBIOA. 
Tbe Sflward Fenimiila, Alaska.— In consequence of the discovery of gold 
in the Kome district, and the rajiid development of miniag, the United States 
Geological Survey sent out a patty in I90O under Mr. Alfred E. Brooks toesamina 
(he Bouthern part of Ibe peninsula. The IGlst and 108th meridians bound the 
peninsula approximately on the east and west, while Cape Dirby, the moxt southern 
point, lies a little south of C, t° 30', and Cape Espeuberg on the north is just within 
the arctic circle. The area of the peninsula is about 5n,(X)0 square miles. Its 
western shore is skirted by a low plain with lagoons and sand-pit', while in the 
«ulem half the coast is bold and rocky. The interior ia occupied by uplanda 800 
to ZGOO feet in height, surmounted by isolated peaks and knoba which rise 1500 to 
2000 feat higher. In the suuthero half of the peninsula is a fairly well-defined 
range divided into three groups^the Eigliiaik.BendelebeD. aud Darby muuntalna. 
The first run about 40 miles from near Cape Woolley to the flat valley of the 
Knugamepa river; they are rugged, and culminate ic Mouot Osbom at a height 
of 4700 feet. The Bendelebea mountains extend for 50 miles between the Kruzga- 
mepa sad the Kuzitrin, are leas rugged, and take their name from the highest peak, 
shout 3500 feet. The Darby mountains, 40 miles long, run northwards from Cape 
Darby, and have rounded summits not more than -000 feet high. 'Ihe York 
mountains, which run northwards from the cape of the same name, have been little 
explored [ they are rugged like the Kigluaik, and contain peaks rising to 2500 feet. 
The most striking features of the topography are the broad flat-bottomed valleys, 
Bach as the basins of the upper Fiah river, the up)ier Ku/itrin. and the lowland 
through which Hjw the Kruzgamepa and upper Niukluk. Mr. W. C.Mendenhall, 
who ascended the west fork of Koyiik river to a distance of 130 miles from the 
coast, reports that the hills north of the upj«r Koyuk are not more than 1200 or 
1300 feet high. The first rapids met with were 113^ miles up the river. The 
oldest rocks of the peninsula are highly crystalline limeatoues and schists, tirat 
DOlioed in the Kigluaik mountaics, among which granite and gneiasoid rocks 




88 THE MONTHLY RECORD. 

occur abundantly. The type rook of the Kuzitrin series is a graphitic quartz- 
Bcbist ; the beds are, perhaps, 2000 to 3000 feet thick. The Nome series is made 
up of limestone, graphitic mica and calcareous fchists, and at one locality show a 
minimum thickness of 5000 to 6000 feet. If certain fossils discovered north of 
Port Clarence belong to the Nome series, its lower beds are of Lower Ordovician 
age, while the other two series may be Cambrian or pre-Cambrian. On the Fish 
river beds, probably of the Nome Eerles, contained Mesozoic fossils. Greenstone is 
widely distributed. Gold has been found along the coast near Nome, and at several 
points on the rivers inland. The output of placer gold for the year 1900 has been 
estimated at £984,690. 

The Anitriail Expedition to BrasiL— A preliminary report has been 
received from the leader of the second expedition sent out to Brazil by the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Yienns. After landing at Pernambuco, two excursions 
were made by rail to the neighbourhood of Berberibe and Pas d'Alho, which gave 
a foretaste of the enormous wealth of bird-life in those tropical regionp. A similar 
impression was made by excursions round Bahia, to Cabula, Rio Vermelho, the 
neighbourhood of Barra near the Bahia lighthouse, and even on the outermost slopes, 
covered with vegetation, between the east of the town and the sea. Here was 
first seen the Wistiti {Uapale Jacchus), which is peculiar to Bahia and Pernam« 
buco. On the journey to the Rio Sao Francisco extensive ornithological collections 
were made ; a week was spent at Joazeiro, on the right bank of the great river. 
An imposing representative of the bird world here is the Nandu, or Ema (^Rhea 
macrorhyncha). The characteristic mammals of this region are the armadillo 
{Dasypus\ pouched rat, and anteater. Fish are abundant in the river^ but there 
are not many species. The Pira (Conarhynchus conirastris), with a long curved 
tube-shaped snout, and Pacri (3/^/e/es), with a shark's mouth, are remarkable, 
being of larger size than most of the others. Hofrath Steindachner expects a 
particularly rich yield of fishes characteristic of the region from the stay at Barra, 
where the Rio Grande flows into the Sao Francisco. Lacertilians are represented in 
the neighbourhood of Joazeiro by eight or nine species, including a very delicate 
dark- striped Scincoid with a blood- red tail. Most of the small variegated or dark- 
coloured snakes of this region are said to Ve poisonou«. The Ema mentioned 
above is greatly valued as a destroyer of snakes, and is kept on the haciendas. The 
kites do their utmost in destroying animal ** undesirables,** and enjoy the greatest 
favour all over the country. The whole binl-Ufe of the Joazeiro district resembles 
that of the Amazon region more closely then that of southern BraziL In the 
middle of March the desolate solitudes of the bush were explored, starting from the 
railway at Camahyba, and a nearly complete collection of the birds, consisting of 
some fifty specimens was made. The most characteristic representatives are five 
species of pii^eons and two of i>arrots. 

Expedition to the Central Andes of Bolivia.— Prof. Steinmann, of Frei- 

buzg, and two of his follow-geologists of the same University (Baron Bistram and 
l>r. H. Hoek), will start in August for Buenos Ay res, en route for the Bolivian 
Anders which will be reached v»ii Jujuy, Tarij;\, Sucre, and Cochabamba. After 
a prolonged stay in the mountidns the travellers will probably work their way to 
Anto£agasta rm La Pai. The outfit is of the most modern description, and Dr. 
Hc«k is one of the most callable Qermau mountaineers. 

poLan nmoHs. 

Aretie Szpeditiont.— Captain Roald Amundsen, whose pn>jected expedition 
lo the northern magnetic pi^le has been fully described in the JournaJ^ sailed from 
Chrisslania on »lune lOv He ho|>es, if jiossible, to return through Bering Strait^ 



TH£ MONTHLT KKCORD. 



89 



thus once more accomplishing the not tU- we bI passage. The Ziegler exptditiun of 
the preaent year, uiid«r the leodarahip of Mr. A. Fiala, made il Goal start froui 
TroniBoe on June 27, intendiog, however, to call at Archangel before reaching 
Fraoa Josef Lmd. 

The Oerman Antarctic Expedition: Return of the "Qanis."— Telegraphic 
information was received oo Juae 'J Chat the O'iuts, with all wuU on board, had 
anived at Durban m roist.: for Cape Town. From the aoanty details yet made 
public, it appeara that the expedition has been a sacceasful one, the Oawss having 
behaved aplendidty, tliough the hijtheat latitude reached by the ship was Gtl° 2' H., 
or just ouI«ide the antarctic airclit, where winter quarters were establiahed 
off a newly discovered land iri 80° IS' E. long. The ship waa frozen ia in ice 
80 feet thick, while the anow was 30 to 40 feet In depth. Sledge-Journeya appear 
to have been made during the atay at the winter quarlera, and many members of 
the esppdilion are said Co have suffered from froaC-bile and snonr-blindnesf. FurCher 
details, which wdl be awaiteil with much intereat, should he available before long, 
as Ifao leader, Dr. von DrygaUki, forwarded his report i in nied lately on arrival 
at Durban, .\mong the geographical reaults of the exi>ediCioa is the diecovery 
of Cfae Don-eiUtence of TcrminaCioD island, Che site of which waa passed over by the 
espeditioo, while no trace of land waa seen in the neighbourhood . 

Hordenikiold Belief Ezpeditioai. — As already announced, an expedition 
is being organized in Sweden for the relief of Dr. 0. Nordenski!ild, who has been 
tinable to return north during the past season in accordance with bis original plan. 
The sum cf 200,000 kronor, voted by the Swedish parliament, has been aupple- 
mented by contributions fiom private individuals to the extent of 50,000 kronor, 
And the Norw^ian steamer Frithjnf bas hceu hired for Che purpo^s of Che expedi- 
tion, which will sCarb from Btochholm about AugusC l.'i. Ita leader is CapCain 0. 
Gylden.of Che Boyal Swedish Navy, son of the late well-known astronomer, and 
captain of the Antnictic duiing cLe voyage to Spitsbergen in lUOl, in connection 
with the operatioos for the measurement of a degree. Some anxiety is naturally 
^elt for Dr. Nordcnskiijid and his party, but it U hoped that the supplies taken out, 
which would he barely aufhcieaC for a second winter, may be supplemented hy the 
Iresh meat afforded by seals and peiiguius. AC the insCaoce of Ut. Moreno, the 
.Argentine Oovemment bas also decided on thedespucchof a relief ex^iedicion, should 
no news of the explorers he received before Che next spring of the soutlicrn 
hemisphere. 

XATHZKATICAL AND P&TBICAL SXODBAPHT. 
Prof Agasiiz on Barrier Eeeft and Atoll*-— In a communication to the 
Eoyal Society, read in Marah last, and primed iu vol. Ixxi. of the I'roccediiKjs of 
That body. Prof. A. Agaaaiz sums up the results of his twenty-fivo years' observa- 
tkms on oora] formations in the Atlantic, Pacific, aod Indian ooeaiis. Ue has 
«nade no attempt to establish any general theory, but has conlined himaeif to 
a deicripCioa of the diiTerent types of reefs aud of the causes lo which they probably 
owe their formation. The barrier reefs of Fiji, Hawaii, and the West lodieB are 
•bond to usually Hank volcanic islands, and Co be underlaid by volcanic rocks. 
Thoie of New Caledonia, Australia, Florida, Honduras, and the Ilahamas are 
underlaid by outliers of the adjoining land masses, which crop out as islands 
«)Q their very margins. In the CJse of some barrier reefs, in the Society Islands 
wid elsewhere, wide and deep lagoons have been formed by erosion, from a broad 
flinging reef Qat, while encircling reefs hold to their central island or inlands the 
name relation which a barrier leef holds to the adjoining land mass. Denudation 
Bad submarine erosion fully account for the formation of platforms, upon which 



^ THX MOMTHLT RIOORD. 

the Tarious orgmnisms may build either bjurier or eDcircling reeft or eren atolls. 
Another type is fonned by the reef-fiats and outer reefs flanking elevated ialands — 
either wholly composed of limestone or in part volcanic — ^in the Paumotus, Fiji, 
and elsewhere. They partake of the nature both of barrier and fringing reefik A 
passage may be traced from such elevated islands, like Nine, through various forms 
to that of atolls in which only a small islet or larger island of the limestone or 
volcanic rock remains. Sometimes the underlying base of the atoll is not known, 
and some atolls are mere shallow sinks formed by sandbanks. Throughout the 
Pacific, the Indian ocean, and the West Indies positive evidence exists, in the 
form of bosses, pinnacles, and undermined masses of modem or Tertiary limestone, 
of a moderate, recent elevation of the reefs. Signs of the solvent action of the sea 
are also to be seen everywhere, while atmospheric denudation has played an 
important part iu reducing elevated limestone islands to the level of the sea. 
Goeed atolls can hardly be sud to exist (there being always some means by which 
the lagoon is fed by the sea), and the land area of an atoll is relatively small com- 
pared to that of the half-submerged reef-fiats. The Maldive archipelago sappUes 
overwhelming testimony that atolls may rise from a plateau of suitable depth, 
however it may have been formed, and whatever its geological structure. The 
great coral-reef regions are within the limits of the trades and monsoons, and are 
areas of elevation, with the exception of the Ellice and Marshall, and some of the 
Line islands. In the regions examined, the modem reef-rock is of very moderate 
thickness, within the limits of depth at which reef-builders b^in to grow, and 
within which the land rims of atolls or barrier reefs are affected by mechanical 
causes. The Marquesas, Galapagos, and a few other islands, though within the 
limits of the coral areas, have no reefs, owing to the steepness of their shores, and to 
the absence or crumbling nature of their submarine platforms. Lastly, it is 
pointed out that corals grow sparingly in lagoons where coralline algee grow most 
luxuriantly, and that nuUipores and corallines form an important part of the 
reef-building material. 

Ic6 in Siyars. — ObservatloDS of the number of days on which ice has been 
present in the river Hahle at Duderstadt (South Hanover) have been kept almost 
continuously since 1893 by Herr L. Koch, who gives a summary of the general results 
of the observations in the Deutiche Eundschau fiir Qeographie (voL 25, part 6). 
The writer remarks that the temperature of the water has a much greater infiuence 
on the duration of an ice-covering of rivers than that of the air, and that December 
on this account has on the average fewer days on which the streams are ice-bound 
than either January or February, as, however low the air-temperature may fall in 
the early part of the winter, the water still retains some amount of warmth. In 
February the cooliug of the water is counteracted to some extent by the rising 
temperature of the air, so that the number of days then shows some diminution. 
Thus during the period of observation the number of days on which the river was 
entirely ice-bound averaged, for the three months respectively, 1*3, 3*1, and 2*6. 
The ccoiditions seem, however, equally favourable to the formation of loose ice in 
Febmary, which shows a fractionally higher average number of days with such 
ice than even January, the figures being 2*6, 4*8, and 4*9 for the three winter 
months. The average total number of days with ice during the winter was 21 
(the extremes being 35 and 4), but on seven only, on an average, was the river 
entirely ice-bound. Last winter was an abnormal one in the extent of the ice- 
formation in the early ]>art of the winter, the figures for December alone surpassing 
the average for the whole winter. 

Alpine Olaeien in their Kelation to Riyeri.— In the EioUta G^ogr. Ital,, 

No 3, 1903, Prof. Marinelli gives a summiry of the researches of the engineer 



OBITDART. 91 

^gnor FaDtoli oonceming the oontribation of (glaciers to the river disoharge. He 

has measured the areas of the glaciers in the Verbano (Maggiore) and Lario (Como) 

basins. In the latter the glaciers occupy an area of nearly 67 square miles, or 

about 3'8 per cent, of the whole basin (1795 square miles), while in the Verbano 

they corer 42 square miles, or about 1'8 per cent, of the basin (2394 square miles). 

These data are drawn from the last Italian and Swiss surveys, and refer to about 

the year 1855, when the extent of the glaciers was a minimum. Measures from 

maps of the middle of last century give an area in the Verbano basin of nearly 49 

aquare miles, or 16 per cent, larger. From a careful examination it has been found 

that during the warmest days of the year two-thirds of a cubic metre per second are 

removed from each square kilometre of the glaciated area, which correspond to a 

thickness of 5-6 centimetres (2-2*4 inches) in the day, while the drainage from 

^e parts of the basin not covered with ice amounts to only 10 litres per kilometre, 

w only a sixty-seventh of the above. Consequently, daring the dry summer season 

the glaciers of the Verbano, with their area of 42 square miles, contribute more than 

^f the total drainage of the basio, and in the Lario basin more than two-thirds. 

^ rise of one degree (C.) of temperature at this season removes from the glaciated 

surface an additional thickness of 0'45 centimetre (0*18 inch) per day, whereas 

in the basin of the Rhone the increase is only 0*24 centimetre (0*09 inch). The 

^planation of this difference may be found in the fact that in the latter basin 60 

per cent, of the glaciers lie above 3000 metres (9800 feet), whereas in the Verbano 

^Iq the percentage is 22*5, and in the Lario 38*5. Observations are wanting to 

<ietermine the action of heat at different hours of the day. Signor Fantoli has also 

studied the effect of condensation of vapour from the air in contact with the 

Sl^ciers. In the Lario basin he calculates that in August the vapour condensed 

amounts to about 2*5 litres per second and per kilometre. And, again, the latent 

heat thus set free produces a fusion of ice which he calculates at 195 litres per 

wcond and par kilometre. The total fusion from this source is, then, 22 litres 

(12-6 gallons per square mile), while the total discharge of the glaciers is 46*8 

litres (26-7 gallons). 



OBITUARY. 



Thomas Oodolphin Booper. 

^^ ^ with great regret that we have to record the death of Mr. T. G. Rooper, ica., 

^^ of His Majesty's inspectors of schools. Mr. Rooper was warmly interested in 

^und educational methods, and possessed in the highest degree the power 

commiuucating his enthusiasm to others. His loss in the educational world can 

^^ly be overestimated, and the cause of geography in particular has lost a 

^^ble and influential supporter. When stationed at Bradford, he did much 

^ stimulate an interest in geography, and to improve the methods of teaching 

"^y organizing a geographical exhibition, starting and paying for the first Teacher's 

^^^^ificate classes, planning geographical readers on sound principles, securing the 

P^nction of an excellent contoured wall map of Yorkshire, as well as by lectures 

^^ private conversations. In Southampton be took the leading part in the 

foundation of the Southampton Geological Society, which owes much of its success 

to him. Mr. Rooper became a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society in 1895, 

and served, up till the time of his death, on the Special Education Committee. 

He prepared a report on " Hints on the Drawing up of Syllabuses of Geography for 



92 CORRESPONDENCE. 

Elementary Schoolp," which, unfortuDately, be did not lire long enough to finish. 
This report, completed by Mr. Ghisholm, will shortly be published. Mr. Rooper 
may be said to have died, as he would himself have wished, in bar nee s. He 
possessed a singularly lofty character and an attractive personality. His friends 
and colleagues have to deplore the loss of a truly lovable and high-minded man as 
well as of a devoted public servant. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
The 'Tanganyika Problem.* 

I MUCH regret that, in venturing to criticize some of the geological, palioonto- 
logical, and zoological speculations in Mr. Moore^s ' Tanganyika Problem/ I should 
have incurred that gentleman's anger to so serious an extent as to. have caused him 
to write the Earcastic letter which appeared in the OeographiccU Journal for June 
(p. 682). Mr. Moore might, I think, have remembered that a recourse to sarcasm 
in place of argument generally indicates that a speaker or writer has a bad case — 
and knows that he has. To the greater part of Mr. Moore's letter it is unnecessary 
to reply, but there are a few scientific questions of importance involved, and it is as 
well to clear them up. To prevent any misunderstanding, I must say that my 
omission to notice some of the statements contained in the letter does not imply 
that I admit that those statements are correct. 

The greater part of Mr. Moore*s letter is, in fact, a very good specimen of what 
is commonly koown as special pleading, and I can congratulate the writer on the 
skill with which, in several cases, he has suggested an inference favourable to his 
views without committing himself to a definite statement, or he has credited me with 
his own mistakes. As one instance, I may call attention to his remarks (p. 683) on 
a certain echinoderm cited as evidence of the marine origin of the Drummond's 
beds. As these beds are classed by Mr. Moore as Triassic (they are, in fact, older, 
as will be seen presently), and the echinoderm was stated by him to be Oligocene, 
I pointed out that this fossil could not have come from the Drummond's beds at all. 
" But,*' Mr. Moore replies, *' is it an Oligocene species, and if so, is this species 
possibly Triassic also ? '' Now, the Oligocene age of the fossil rests upon Mr. Moore's 
statement, not mine (I shall have occasion to refer to this matter again), and I can 
hardly suppose that Mr. Moore is so ignorant of elementary paleontology as not to 
know that echinoderms are some of the most characteristic fossils known, and that 
the idea of a species being both Tertiary and Triassic is absurd. So far as is 
known, no species, scarcely a genus, and only a small minority of the families of 
echincdermata found in the two periods are common to both. 

Another instance in which Mr. Moore charges me with his own error is to be 
found in his observations, at the bottom of p. 682 and the top of p. 683, on my remark 
that the bivalve shells of Lake Tanganyika are exclusively fresh-water types. 
Mr. Moore had referred all of them to purely fresh-water genera, and I accepted his 
determinations. 

It may be noticed that in the commencement of his letter Mr. Moore compares 
himself to a military leader, and he naturally adopts military method*". The 
examples just cited are ruses de guerre, I have no wish to waste time upon these 
purely polemical matters, but, as I have stated, there are a few questions of scientific 
interest, and to these I will reply brie By. 



CORBKSPONDENCt 



«S 



To take a purely geological point firat. Mr. Moore, at the end of the third 
paragraph id his letter (p. 683), dealing with the " rift>vallej8," states that " thrae 
TftUeTB are aauall; foldii, they are not ' longitudinal blockB let down by trough 
faalts,' ae Dr. Blauford dogmatically asserts." May I beg every reader who wishes 
10 form a Judgment on this matter to turn to the lower diagrams on the plates 
opposite pp. 42 and 44 iu Mr. Muare'a book, 'The Tanganyika Problem"? It 
requires very tittle fun iliarity with geological ceclions to enable any one to judge 
whether these sections agree with Jilr. Moore's account of the structiires or with 
mine. My description of the nature of the valleys was founded ou the accounts 
liy Sueas and Gregory, conGrmed by Mr. Moore's own sections. 

Probably the moet important geographical question noticed in Mr. Moore's 
letter ia that relating to the so-called Dmmmond's beds on Lake Nyasa, because 
iAi argument that the sea occupied pirts of Central Africa in early Mesozoic 
'times ia an essential part of his proposed solution of what he terms the Tanganyika 
■problem, and his attack on the views of Murohiaon and Gregory (' Tanganyika 
Troblem,' pp. 32, 72, etc.; 'Great Rift-Falley," p. 214), who held that Oanlral 
-Africa has never been under the lea, are mainly based on the evidence afforded by 
^be Drummond's beds' fossils, no organic remains being known from the other 
IMeeozoic and PjIo^jzoIc rocks of tliearea. Igare reasons (p. 290) for not accepting 
the marine origin of the Drummond's beds, and fur believing it more likely that 
-theae deposlls, like the Kari« formation of South Africa, are of freoh-wster origin 
and largely fluriatile. Mr. Sloore replies, " It may be stated for general informa- 
tion that these beds {Drummond'ii) are like nothing at all in Sjuth Africa, and 
~whelh°r tbsy are marine or not, they are not duviatile, unless deposits like our 
J>ancashire limestones are to be considered as having originated in rivers." 1 may 
jioint out that I did not say that the Drummood's beds were like anything in South 
Africa. I wrote of them as representative, but I question whether Mr. Mooie'a 
scquaiotance with South African geological formations Justifies liia sweeping nsser- 
lion of the dtSerence between the two. I do not think I am misinterpreting Mr. 
Uoore's remark about the limestones if I understand him as expressing an opinion 
that rocks " like our Lancashire limestones " (carboniferous limestone, 1 presume) 
are evidence that the strata in which they occur are not of fluviatile origin. If this 
it his meaning. Mr. Moore ia mistaken. Limestones are of frequent occurrence in 
frenh-water beds, whether liuviatile or lacustrine, I think most British geologists 
mast know the limestone beds in the Hastings sands, whii;h are generally regarded 
IS deposited by rivers : and I may add that calcareous beds, which in older rocks 
voald become timestones, abound in some of Ibe fiuvlatilo deposits of the Ganges 
Kud its tributaries. The limestone did not necessarily "originate in riTers"Bs 
limestone, but is probably das to the subsequent percolation of water cootainlog 
nlta of lime in solution. 

The facta about the Drummond's hoJs are very imperfectly stated in 'The 
Tanganjika Problem,' and certain data which are of great importance as evidence 
of the origin of these etrata are not mentioned. I have, therefore, tried to ascertain 
Mmething mora of these beds, with the following result (the facts are taken from 
Mf. J. titewart'a papar, Proe. Soy. Geo. ,Soc., vol. lii., 1831, pp. 261, etc. ; Prof. 
UrnmmoDd's ' Tropical Af:ica,' 1881, pp, 183-109 ; and an article by Prof. Kupert 
Jonea in the Gvolot/ical Magasine for 1830, p. 553). 

The beds in question are represented in Mr. Moore's map, opposite p. 48 of 
the 'Tanganyika Problem,' as occupying a conaiilerable area west of Lake Nyasa, 
tiear ita northern end. They consist, according to Prof. Drnmmoad, of " thin 
Wa of Tory fine light grey sandstone, and blue and grey shales with an occa- 
aioul bond of prey limestone." Sjme coal occurs in the neighbourhood, and is 



94 CORRESPONDSNCK. 

appareDtly assooiated with the same strata. (Mr. Moore has omitted to notice 
the occurrence of this coal.) In some of the heds remaios of ganoid fishes and 
bivalye mo11a£oa were found hy Prof. Drummond ; the fishes were descrihed hy 
Prof. Traquair, and referred to Acrolepis^ a Palasoniscid ganoid, and the mollusca 
were douhtfully assigned hy Prof. Rupert Jones to the genus Iridina. The latter 
have heen re-examined hy Prof. Amalitsky, who (Quart, Jour, Qed, Soc,, 1895, 
p. 341) refers them to the fresh- water Permian genera FcUoeomutda and Falcs' 
anodonta^ heloDging to a group from which the modem UniontckB^ or pond mussels, 
may possibly be descended. Closely allied^ if not identical species, of the two 
moUuscan genera named occur in the fresh-water Permian strata of Rossia, and 
in the Karoo series of South Africa at Kimberley, Graff Reinet, and other places, 
and in the latter localities, or some of them, as in the beds on Lake Nyasa, 
remains of the ganoid genus Acrclepis accompany the mollusca. Quite recently 
{Quart, Jour, Oeol, Soc,y 1903, pp. 285-287) the same association of Acrolepis and 
Faictomuida in coal-bearing strata has been reported from Rhodesia. Similar 
land-plants {Olossopteris, etc.) and terrestrial reptiles are met with in both the 
Russian and South African rocks, and these formations^ in which no marine 
fossils have been found, are generally admitted to be fresh-water deposits. Prof. 
Rupert Jones formerly regarded the mollusca from the Karoo beds as of estuarine 
or salt-lake rather than of river origin ; and I was myself at one time disposed 
to think them estuarine or marine, but the reasons for the view I then held no 
longer exist, further discoveries of the relations between the floras and faunas of 
the Permo-Carboniferous beds in South Africa and Russia having made it evident 
that both areas in Upper PalsBOzoic times were parts of the same continental tract. 

It may be added that the same kind of FaX<xanodonta as that occiirring in the 
Drummond'd beds was obtaiued by Gregory from rocks in the Sabaki valley 
near Mombasa, and recognized by him as evidence of the fresh-water origin of 
the cocks. 

I have thus accounted for the ganoid fishes and bivalve mollusca of the sup- 
posed marine beds of Nyasa. The so-called Oligocene echinoderm is a mystery, 
for although Mr. Moore (* Tanganyika Problem," p. 72) professes to take the 
statemeoi of its occurreoce from *The Great Rifi Valley,* p. 230, there is no 
mention on that page, nor, so far as I can trace, elsewhere in Prof. Grregory'd book, 
of any Oligocene echinoderm ; although there is a reference to an Eocene foasO, 
whether an echinoderm or not is not stated. This, however, is "of minor impor- 
lance. The fossil, whether Oligoceue or Eocene, could not have come from the 
Drummond*s beds, as I pointed out before. 

I am aorry that there should be occasion to repeat these rather dry details, bat 
as Mr. Moore has replied to my criticism of his book by charges of fslse aaaump- 
tkms and hinu that my assertions mere unfounded, I am obliged to show what is 
the evidence on which I depend, and what is the worth of the statements and 
assomptions contained in such phrases of his as the following ('Tanganyika 
Froblem,' p. 72) : ** It would thus appear that at some time there was in Uua region 
(Kjaaa)a fauna consisting, at any rate, of ganoid fishes, echinoderms, and moUuacs, 
or, in other woius, a marine f^una.*' And again (p. 73) : ^ Thua it would appear 
tbat ihere was once a marine, (wssibly a Triassic or ^Turassic, fauna in the region of 
the north end of Xyasa.** 

Mr. Moore expresses his contempt for conchology, which he nys he always 
itigaioed ^ a$ s^Muewhat trivial -a$, iu fact, moie of a waste of time than a science," 
and his remarks <>n geological and |vala^HitologicaI questions appear to show that he 
has the same low opinion of palaeontology and geolc^. To judge by the instances 
•liraMty giT a> » Mr. Moore^s views on geology and palieontology are not founded on 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



95 



■ thorough acqnAiDtance with those acieuccs. With reference U) his contempt for 
WDcholog^, it ahould not bo forgotten that bis evidenoe of the JuroBsic affluitiea of 
the halollmnic mollutca of Lake Tan^aD^ika U, as be quite fairly states, entirely 
cnuchological. But if the Juraseic Bflioitiesof the halolimnia mollusca are founded 
OD triTialilies, and the older Mesozoiu sea of Central Africa on evidence half of 
«hich is ignored and the other half misialerpreted, what becomes of Sir. Mooie's 
•olulioo of the ' Tanganyika Problem ' ? 

The points about ibe Pituda-inclafiiaa and the migration of Tilupia burtoni are 
really unworthy of reply. There is no evidence that Ti/apia hiirtoni migrated 
ffoin Taaganyikn to Kivu after the latter became a lake, or that Mdania tuber- 
rul'tia, nhich inhabits both lakes ulao, wundered from one to the other. Either or 
both may have inhabited streams in the Kivu area before Lake Kivu existed. Of 
course, Mr. Moore does not imagiue that Limnea, Planorhis, Vioipara, and Unio all 
deacwided from the Pscndo-mdiiiufis, but if not, his reply is woithlesB. The only 
caae in which a remark of his is really worth attention ia that in nbicli he com- 
pares Huxley's i uggeslion of what that author calls the polyphyletic descent of 
certun genera to bis owa hypothesis of the origin of fresh-water faunas. No doubt 
there is a cerlain connection between tbe two ideas, but at the same time >fr. 
Moore's hypothesis is much more akin to tbe sporadic theories of authors like 
JUcide D'Orbigny aud Louis Agassiz, than to Huxley's polypbyletic hypothesis. 

There is one more prirai^raph of Mr. Moore's that requires notice. In the 
'Tasganylka Problem,' p. 20, be states emphatically thnt there is no evidence that 
"than has been any connection between Africa and America since the origin of 
'^pes now common to both. I suggested that Mr- Moore could not have been 
acquunted with the writings of Suess and others ; and his reply is rather surprising. 
•■Wall/hesay*, "butwhatif I had read Suess'a' AntiilzderErde,' if I knew some- 
thing of Beddard'a and Neumayer's observations, if 1 have also a vivid recollection 
of several discussions with Dr. Gregory upon this very subject, and if, after bII this, 
I bad and etil) ' bae mi doots ' about there over having been a connection between 
iheconlineata at all ?" I can only reply that in that caae it is uufortuaate for Mr. 
Moore's credit fur scientific accuracy that he should have " dogmatically " asserted 
that no evidence exiiited, and atill more unfortunate that he thould regard his error 
sa a cause for self-laudation. I should never have suspei^ted Mr. Moore of having 
deliberately denied the existence of evidence with which be was well acquainted 
ii be had not admitted his knowledge, and 1 do not think his reputation as a 
ideniific writer will gain by bis confession. 1 can only suggest that, having failed 
to find in my criticism of his work an illustration of what he elegantly terms 
"exploaive argusients which have a nasty habit of going off inside his own 
trenches," he has been minded to afford a brilliant example of his own figure of 

1 may aay, however, that despite Mr. Moore's " doots," biologicF.I evidence as to 
tbe former land-connection between Africa and South America has accumulated 
tspidly of late. Two papers on the aubjfct have been sent to me by their authors 
tinco my review of the ' Taoganyikti Problem ' appeared in the Match number of this 
Journal, and 1 have eeen the abstract of a third. The first of these, by Dr. Schatff , 
tutitled " Some Kemarks on the Atlantis Problem " (Prw, Roy. Irish Ac, vol. xxiv.), 
omitaina a large amount of detailed information on the biological relations of tbe two 
coDtinenta ; the reeond, by Dr. A. E, Ortmann of Princeton Univeraily, entitled " The 
Ueograpbical Distribution of Fresh-wator Decapods and its Bearing upon Ancient 
Qsograpby "(Prof. Jni, WiV. fcV., xli., 11102, pp. 287-400), ie a most important 
contribution to tbe dbcuaslon ; and the tblni, by Mr. R. 1. Pocock, read before the 
Zoologiatl Society in April last, was on the " Geographical Distribution of tiie 




9i\ CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mogalomorphn*' (spiden). All these writers show that strong evidence exists in 
favour of a former union hetween Africa and South America. It should be added 
that no groups of animals are better adapted to the study of ancient distribution than 
spiders and fresh-water orustaoeans. 

There is one remark I must add in conclusion, and that is that I shall not notice 
any further contribuiioosof Mr. Moore^sto this discussion, unless such contribntions 
are written in a very different tone from that adopted by him in his letter published 
in the last number of this Journal. 

W. T. Blanfobd. 



Ptolemy^t Sootland A.D. 140, and the Latest XTpheayal on the 

West Coast 

Poltalloch, Lochgilphead. 

The hill Dunadd, beside the river Add, stands about 2 miles from my house, 
and has long been a source of great interest to me. 

There are evident geological signs that at one time the present Loch Awe, 
then n river, tlowed to the sea between the site of my house and Dunadd, the 
«trvuighv\ld in Scotland for at least two hundred years of the Dalriad kings, who 
oame fn>m Ireland. To a military eye Dunadd has now not much to specially 
reci^mmend it as a place of strength for men whose connections were with Lneland, 
A« Wflwii^n it and the fca stretches the big Crioan ncoss, through which the river 
Add wiiuis it$ deviv^us cvmrse ; but if the sea came up to the foot of the hill or 
cKv^ tv^ it, and tho Awe as well as the Add flowed into the larger Crioan bay, then 
the military evi^^ in the day$ K^fore guu{x>wder, would rejoice in the site. 

1 hav« KvD$ s^>ught to find }vv>of that in the comparatively recent days of the 
IXjdriavb the Aw« did flow into Onnan bay, and to find the date when it ceaaed to 
«lo ji^\ 1 think 1 hare found both. 

lV^my« in hi$ man of Sootland dating from ciixa a.d. 140, shows his first 
3^tatk«i iionhwavd» fiv^m the Epidium lV>mv>ntonu!n, or MuU of Cantire, as A^tt^v 
«'^'-A«/« ^N^Va.. Th;» statkui i$ 1 !i decree east * fiv>m the Promontoriam — a distance 
w;.Wh« wh^fi cv>Qvvrt(vi into ;^tadia on the Ptdt maie ba$is o^ 500 stadia to an cqua 
u>m*, ^eipi^Mw jci^ne* 4vV ^ad;a« xHT 40 nautkal mi*.e!&. Crinan bay, I find by Admiralty 
c4artx ^«$ 4S ax.W^ cv^i far frv«i the 40 of Pt<4cxny. 1 leave It to others to decide 
>»^t^<r l>tf l.vv:ij:tt» or \o->** of Ptoiemy is iy i$ not a prc«|wr name — that is, 
^kisr-ii^fc tii* 1lMtlu:lir^; ;* the m^^uth of o long river cc cf lit loog river, or of the 
nxyc <«alWc ** l.oc^.* latne^y rK^v.^: that he wri5<$ a Latin word in Greek letters, 
Ktt :: riay W v-/ irLtrt>t« k^^ kno« that the si^anin;: a:tJicb«ii to the Gaelic name 
F^ijk rs'« oall^ A^ is L<>c.c* 1 further find that x.r\. 736 Dmuidd was 
a«*c^<\^ a:^ takna. A 4c the A::iiaU vV V.sier siat« that thec^ was an earth- 
s aU^r i::^ li; ,xi* i«ay x-c K^>>iJ^ T^ i:: aa\ Tk\ aai ibai I^-i»ii was given up in 






•5 ;ias «^ecsi* T-o^ r* to S^ eT:>Jeci that tie <ar:isi,iake wlk-h acvv<D|«nied the 
;.-i(*: .V-^frfC >,,'^ alv-a^ tie wx^i x\^^ ofi' ;>< HU:Uac#^ ani wrirfi ti::ad np the 
,^ ,-c^t>^ A^Vv jax*».;Ti$ ;>,e r,xvr a::.; ^^ai-r.*: it i.^*- tiiroci:*:: li* xhen cpined 
7«fc» .'iT ?i^wv&<-^. A^C'^T'^Nx ^,v. T^\ A'^^ that Lccyr^ Vr^-^w' wibi ffv^Uv the 
1 i^.r :?«.>. *;3Cii a; :!•♦ TAt;ve Vdirjse of ti^f t;v«>. :,\* Uci^^ kt ;: iii its ri» in 



^ami 4a»£ am^ aoiJl ^» «aiffw« « ^MtUy c« t^ "cvtst A-Mua ^-c"^ 



MSETINGS OK THE ROYAL GEOGUAHHICAL SOCIETIT. SESSION 1803-1903. 97 

">B aprings of the Orchy and Stral, and was really b river of coiuidorabla IsDgth, 
*^i Ptolemy's m»p shows that it was flowing properly aa late aa a.d. 140. But 
'aea the npheaval came, Dunadd would bo cut off from the sea, and moat pro- 
'>'l>ly a horrid mar«h took its place, makiog it northlesa as a atroDghold. 

Moreover, I think it not unlikely the name Loag adhered to the riTHr which 
coniinued to flow into Crinan bay, being shifted from the former Awe to the pre- 
Mit Ada. 

I claim no credit for abstruse researches; only a little local knowledge and an 
uitereit in the question. My facts come from a seriee of papers by the late 
Captain Thomas, b.m., contributed to the Society of Soottlsli Aotiquariea soma 

feKTBIgo. 

E. D. MALOOI.K, 

Colonel late R.E. 



HEETINGS OP THE ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 
SESSION 1902-1903. 
'*'•»» tVrtary Heeling, Maijld', 1903. — Sir Cllments Markjiam, k.C.b., f.r.s., 
FrcBident, ia the Chair. 
^* Secretary read the minutes of the last AnniverBary Meeting. 

Elkctions:— Oenwni Sir G. Digiy BurkeT, K.C.B.; Commander Cuihberl 

y*'*t>man, S.N.; Captain Benry LanyrUhc Cotlingham, R.F.A. ; Jama Currit ; 

—**«*-#. John HcCltan Oriffin, S.F.A. ; Bithard A. Hall ; Htnrij Cahora karper ; 

^t>tain Claud Ftreival, RiJU Brigade; Jamitaan Soberlson; HohaH Chalfield 

^^t*tjitld-Taylor. 

1'lte preEenlalion of the awards then took place. 

The Pbegident: Mr. Douglas Preshfield, the Council has oelected you as the 
Recipient of the Founder's Medal this year, and the selection has received the 
*PprcTal of His Majesty the King. The Council considered that you had well 
**»Tied the Medal by your explorations commencing thirty-sii years ago in the 
U»t)casuB and continued on several other occaHJona, during which time you made 
^U'y important additions t« our knowledge of the phyaica] geography of that 
■Oiportant range of mountains, and also for your journey at a very high level 
■vuiid EaschinjuDga, on which occasion you added largely to our knowledge, 
^nere were your services in the fiold, for which you have so well earned this 
"'^al. But the Council was also mindful of your long services to geography 
■Ting a course of upwards t)f thirty years, and especially of the valuable work 
'"** kavo done in promoting geographical eduoation. It is a great pleasure to me 
"*t it ahould be my duty to present the medal to jou, when I remember the long 
la of yean during which we worked together for a. common object, always 
P'"»*«rTing friendly and harmonious relations with each other, and i now have 
'''***^li pleasure in placing the Patron's Medal in your hands. 

ilf. DouoLAB Fkeshfield; It is now my duty to oipresa to the Council my 
™c«re gratitude for the very kind appreciation they have shown of my geographi- 
™ career by recommending me to His Majesty fur the Founder's Medal, the 
*"•*' honour which is in the gift of the Society, I think few tecipiocta have 
7*** in a position to appreciate it more thoroughly than I am, for during the 
""^en yiiars I served on the Council, or as one of your hon, Eecretaries, I bad oon- 
''^t and frequent opportucitios of watching the extraordinary caru and solicitude 
" . L— July, 1903.] h 




98 MEETINGS OF THE R07AL QEOORAPHICAL SOCIETY, SESSION 1903-1903. 

which the Council showed in choosing candidates for these medals, in looking 
not only over the wide field of Great Britain and its Colonies, but over the whole 
world and selecting those they thought best qualified, irrespective of nationality. 
We are none of us good judges in our own cause, and surprised though I am that 
this honour comes late to me in life, it is not for me to dispute the wisdom of 
the Council ; but I cannot help thinking that they may hare been infiuenced by 
sympathy with the aims I have had in view rather than by any actual sucoesseB 
I may have won, either as a mountaineer or an explorer, or as an educational 
geographer. If you will allow me, I will briefly put before you the record of what 
those aims have been. I have, during the last fifty years, frequented the Alps, 
explored the Caucasus, and visited one of the regions — perhaps the moet interesting 
— of the vast Himalaya. As a mountaineer, I have tried to prevent mountaineering 
from becoming a form of sport and to keep it in its proper place as a branch of 
travel. By precept and example I have done my best to persuade my comrades 
to keep their eyes open to all the interest, historical, scientific, and artistic, in 
which the mountains abound. In doing this, I have followed in the footsteps 
of your old colleague, Mr. John Ball, who devoted his time to first exploring and 
then describing the Alps at a time when many geographers thought them beneath 
their notice. You have been kind enough, sir, to refer to the small part I have 
played in geographical education. Twenty-six years ago, when Mr. F. Qalton 
first drew the attention of the Council to the work which was needed in this 
direction, I took the matter up. Since then a great deal has been effected. We 
have, in the first place, our old casual Froceedings turned into the Jaumalt the 
most important publication of its kind in Europe, mainly kept in that position 
by my friend Mr. Keltie*s care. We have brought photography into fall play to 
illustrate the evening lectures as well as the articles in the Journal. We have 
done a great deal to persuade the controllers of the Ordnance Survey to bring it 
up to the le?el of other countries. I think the present Director has fulfilled every 
single demand we have made on him. And, last of all, more strictly educational 
*-I am not going into details — wo have succeeded in establishing a flouriiihiog 
School of Geography in the University of Oxford, a School which has already- 
spread its influence through the rest of the kingdom. We have done much 
besides which I must not dwell upon. In all this work, ar, I have been acting 
on lines you started, or with your full sympathy. Ton, Mr. Chairman, preceeded 
me and succeeded me, and yoa must allow me to say it is with peculiar pleasure 
thai I take this medal from the hands of one to whose inception, energy, and 
untiring devotion, gei>graphy in Great Britain owes so much. I will only add 
one other rt»mark, and that is, that it gives an additional charm to the medal, that 
it mak«» another link between me, however unworthy I may be, and the first 
explorer of Kangchenjanga, the illustrious Xestor of geographical science. Sir 
Ji>»eph IKvtker. 

The rKKjUDKNT: Pr. Sven Uedin, the Victoria Medal of this Society, as 
perhai^ you are awan\ was institute^! about two years ago for geographical research 
indriw\dent of travel ; and you will uDder^iiand, 1 hope, thai it is conferred upon 
you oxolviwvely for your merits in the rec«arvhes you have undertaken. The 
iVunoil i\ui»iiior* that your wv^rk connected wiUi the great plateau of Central 
Awa, ai d tl»e Tanm vallov, is ctf fuch importjuice that you have by that alone won 
fi>r your>elf a cUini lo our Victoria Meda.. You have in a most ronarkable 
wi^v i^jxaml yourself fivm y^Hjr eariy vv^th to make these reeearchee and to 
make thrm thv>n>nghly. If it was nece«>^^y that you should know the history 
t\f a rt^iv^n in wder to iuquin^ into its geograi^hioal cbangee, you have studied 
that bbuiry i^Uautavely ^ if it waa ncc(a«ary that vvvi should kiww the languages 



KUTINaS OF THE BOTAL GBOGRAPHICAL SOCIITT, SKSSION 1909-1903. 99 

of^the oountrieB yon yisited, yoa studied and mastered those langtiages. In every 

depftriment that it was necessary for you to gidn knowledge, you made yourself 

a master, and in that way your researches became of great value. I take this 

opportunity of congratulating you on the grant that has been made you by the 

Swedish Parliament in order that your great labours may be satisfactorily utilized. 

The medal is graoted not only for your work in the Tarim valley, but also for 

yoar remarkable researches, both historical and geographical, in elucidatiDg the 

qaestions relating to the Lob regioD. These were the reasons which influenced our 

Oooncil in selecting you for this honour. I have now great pleasure in placing the 

Victoria Medal in your hands. 

Dr. SvEN Hbdin: May I express my deep gratitude for the great honour 
which has been bestowed upon me by the Royal Greographioal Society, and for 
the kind words which you have addressed to me. I quite realize the high value 
ftod the great importance of this medal, which has been given away only once 
bafore, and which is regarded as an honour for geographical scientific work. I 
take'jt, the Council of the Koyal Geographical Society regard this honour as an 
eaoouragement to go on on the same lines as I have gone before, and I shall try 
in the future to get some more materials and more knowledge of the geography of 
Central Asia. The time of adventurous journeys will soon be gone. We are just 
^ the beginning of a new era in geographical science. During the three following 
yean I hope I shall be able to show the results I have won during my last journey, 
uid I hope the Council of the Hoyal Geographical Society will not have any cause 
to regret the great honour it has conferred upon me. I thank you, Sir Clements 
Varkham, very much for the kind words you addressed to me concerning the 
E^t I got from our Parliament, and by its aid I hope to be able to give to the 
vofld a very great publication with regard to the different materials collected 
Quring my journey — special maps, in an atlas of two volumes in folio and the text 
^ five volumes. It will be published in English, as English is the language which 
^ governing the world, and which will be understood by scholars and geographers 
^ other countries. The part of Central Asia I have visited, I am sure will be of 
very great interest not only to geographers in England, but also to politicians. I 
wpresB once more my deep gratitude. 

The Pbeside5T : Baron Rammel (Charge d^ Affaires of Sweden and Norway), we 

^^ory great pleasure, when Captain Sverdrup was in England, in greeting him and 

'^^^g the accoimt of his important discoveries in the Arctic Begions, and I then 

took the opportunity of delivering to him the Patron's Medal, which was awarded 

^7 the Council and received the approval of the Eling. We all, I can assure you, 

"k^\y appreciate the importance of the discoveries made by Captain Sverdrup, 

^'^ the admirable way in which he conducted his expedition. It is now my great 

pleasure to announce to you that one of our awards, the Murchison Award, has 

^ given to one of Captain Sverdrup's principal followers. Captain Isachsen. 

^ptain Isachsen is an excellent draftsman and a good surveyor, and he conducted 

'^ aledge journeys under the orders of Captain Sverdrup in a way which enabled 

him to make what to me was the most interesting part of the discoveries : that is 

totty, the discovery of the two large islands extending away to the westward be- 

7ood the meridian o.' the eastern coast of Melville Island. By this discovery, I 

WDsider that he filler up the last great gap in our knowledge of arctic geography. 

Giptain Isachsen has selected a gold watch as the form that the award should 

take, and I now have great pleasure in requesting you to forward it to him. 

BiTon Rammel : On behalf of Captain Isachsen I beg to express his gratitude fo^^ 
the high distinction you have conferred upon him. 

The Pbssidsht : The Gill Memorial has been given to Mr. Ellsworth Huntington 

H 2 



100 MEETINGS OF THE BOTAL GEOaRAPHICAL SOdSTT, SESSION 1902-190S. 

for a very remarkable jourDey througli the great cafion of the River Euphratei 
and the Cuthbert Peek Grant to Major Burden for very useful route-maps ii 
Northern Nigeria. Neither of those gentlemen are able to be present at thi 
meeting. The Back Grant has been given to Dr. W. G. Smith for his investi 
gations into the geographical distribution of vegetation in Yorkshire, a valuable, and 
I consider, most interesting paper. 

The Presidential Address was then delivered (see p. 1). 

Mr. Douglas W. Fbeshfield: I have been informed by my friend, Majoi 
Darwin, your hon. secretary, that I must not introduce any contentious businesi 
to this meeting. Perhaps he was thinking of ten years ago. But the business ! 
have to introduce cannot be considered as contentious in the slightest degree. I 
is to propose a vote of thanks to our President for the admirable address he ha 
just given us. There is a certain appropriateness in my doing it. One of my las 
acts as your secretary was to send a telegram to Sir Clements Markham in Sicily 
" Elected President ; wire acceptance." I think it was my best act during m] 
thirteen years of office. Daring the ten years that have since elapsed, he has givei 
the Society not only his time, activity, and experience, bnt he has given somethinj 
more: he has given to the Council of the Society enthusiasm— and even the bes 
of councils require enthusiasm. I hope he may be President for some time to come 
after our Antarctic anxieties are over, because we shall want his energy to assis 
in housing the Society in a new building, and I know no man who has such powe 
of getting money out of other people^s unwilling pockets as Sir Clements Mark 
ham, and even of tackling a Chancellor of the Exchequer. And meantime w 
geographers, who have a liking, perhaps, for the air of the torrid or temperat 
zones, and prefer to take our snow and ice in more homceopathic doses, feel gratefu 
to Sir Clements Markham for the way in which he keeps an eye upon all parts c 
the globe from China to Peru, and yet finds time to assist in the important tasl 
of bringing up the rising generation to a better knowledge of the world we liv 
in. I beg to propose a vote of thanks to Sir Clements Markham for his services. 

Sir Thomas Holdich : I have very much pleasure in seconding Mr. Dougla 
Freshfield's proposal. 

Sir Clements Mabkuam in response said : It is a source of the greatest pleasur 
to me to receive the approbation of any assemblage of Fellows of this Society. Toi 
must all feel that I have been here a great deal too long in this chair. No one ha 
ever approached me except Sir Koderick Murchison, whom I have beaten now by ) 
year and a half. I should have asked to be allowed to retire before now, had it no 
been that I felt it absolutely necessary that I should see our gallant explorers in thi 
south through the wood, before 1 go. There are many younger men who would d< 
the work better than I can hope to do it in the future. But still I must say whei 
1 retire from this chair I shall do so with regret, because of the kindness I hav 
always received from my associates, the Fellows of the Society. 

The Report of Council was then read ; it will be issued with the next edition o 
the Year Book. 

The President then announced that the Council, as proposed, had been duli 
elected. The list is as follows, the names of new members, or of those changinj 
office, being printed in italics : — 

Presidtnt: Sir Clements Markham, k.c.b., f.r.s., f.8.a. Vice-Presidents 
Colonel G. Earl Church ; Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, b.b., k.c.i.k., cb. 
Loi'd Lamington, G.CM.O,; Admiral Sir F. Leopold McClintock, k.c.b., d.c.l. 
F.R.8.; Sir George S. Mackenzie, k.c.m.g., c.b. ; Field-Marshal Sir Henry "W 
Norman, g.cb., o.o.m.o., cle. Treasurer : Edward L. Somers Cocks. Trustees 
Bight Hon. Lord AypHh * vjub.; Lord Belhaven and Stenton. Honorari 



DIGS OF THE R07AL GEOGRAPEIICAL SOCIETT. SESSION IflPE-lflOB. 101 

Seerrtariet: Major Iieonnrd Darwin, b.b. ; JameB F. Hughes. Farei^n.-SterelaTy : 
Sir John Kirk, k.c.b., o.o.m.o., f.b.b. CowicBlors : Admiral Sir I,mit!»-Ar Beau- 
moat, K.O.B.Q. ; Prof. T. G. Bonney, lt,.d., f.r.s. ; Eon, Oeorye 0. SrodrtcS,-b.B.l- ; 
Admiml Sir James Brnce,H.c.M.o.; J. Artnan Bryoe ; SirH. E. G, Bulwer, ff.aii.a. ; 
Prof, J. Nonnan CoUie, f.b.b. ; Oolonel J. Cecil Dalton, b.a. ; Prof. E. J. Garwowlr 
i.OA. ; Sight Eon. Sir Oeorge D. T. Guldit, s.c.M.O., F.R.s.. D.O.L. ; D. Q, Hogsjt^ ; 
Colonel D. A, Johnaton, r.e. ; Sir Barry B. Johnton, ci.o.U.a., k.cb, ; L. W: "■ 
LongHtaffj Howard Saunders, p.l.b. ; OtufraX J. E. M. Shaia Stewart, &.E.,y.n.B,E::'',- 
H. YatcB Thompson, j.p. ; Admiral Sir Richard E. Tracey, Tt.c.n. ; Colonel J, K.'.-' 
IVilter, C.Il.a,, r.a. ; Culonel Charles Moore WatBon, R.m., i;.b.,o.U.<I. ; Commandn' ' 
David Wilton-Barktr, n.s.R., Prea. b,m.3., f.r.s.k. 



THE ANNUAL DINNER. 

The Annual Dinner waB held on the evening of the Anniversary, in the White- 
ball , Rooms, Sir Clements B. Markham, President, in the chair. Among these 
present were Lord Bethaven and Stenton, Lord LamiDgton, Mr. Justice Darling, 
the Dean of Westminster, Sic William Huggins, Field Marshall Sir Henry Norman, 
Admiral Sir Yeaey Hamilton, Sir Harry Johnston, Sir Thomas Holdicfa, Hon. 
George C. Brodriok, Admiral Sir Lewis Beaumont, Sir George S. Mackenzie, Dr. 
8»en HediD, Mr. Douglas W. Fresbfield, Sir Henry Bulwer, the Astronomer Royal, 
Mr. Pember Reeves, Admiral Sir E. B. Fremantle, Admiral Sir James Bruce, Sir 
George Whilehouse. Mr. L. W, Longstaff, Prof. Thorpe, Prof. Ray Lankester, Hon. 
Al/red Dobaon, General Shaw Stewart, Mr. R, Chalmers, Hon, W. E. Macartney, 
Colonel J. K. Trotter, Admiral Sir R. Tracey, Prof. Silvauua P. Thompson, General 
Sir Henry Smyth, Sir James Hayes Sauler, Mr. Julian Ccrbett, Mr. Grant Ogilvie, 
Mr. Alfred Sharpe, Mr. C. H. Read, Major L. Datwin, Mr. J. F. Hughe?, Mr. B. L. 
8. Cocks. 

After the toaats of" H.M. the Kin?," Patron, and " H.R.H, the Prince of Walep," 
Vice-patron, the Presidbrt proposed the toast of " The McdBlliHtB," which was re- 
sponded to by Mr. Dooolas Feeshfield and Dr. Svkm HsniN. The Preeideni' 
next proposed "Success to the Antarctic Expedition." Major Dabwjn' proposed 
"The Guests," responded to by Sir Wii.ijam Huooins and Mr. Prmbeb Rrrvb;*. 
The toast of " The Staff " was proposed by the Prebidisnt, and responded to by tlie 
Secretabv. Mr. Eobukd Oosse proposed the toast of " The President an<l the 
Society," which was responded to by the Presioe.st. 



Thirl''enlh OnUwiry Meeting, June 8, 1903. — Oolonel G. Eari. CriDRCH, 
Vioe-Proaident, in the Chair. 

BLECTtoKB: — Jjtatt. J. W, M.Ame$, 5(4 Ftailien ; Dr. Ward Brinton ; A. II. 
Whytt Batler, A.M. In*t. O.E.; Ben. E. 8. Cronin ; Eenry Robert Conway 
MA*, I.C.S.; Alaglair Maepherion, Grant; Willian Jama Hoyten, M.R.C.S., 
L.R.C.P. ! Arthur Albtrl K«ight ; Swgton-Capl. John Smith Furdy, Uk N.Z.M.R. ; 
Jouph Tucker; W. It. Speacar ; Sir Oeorgt WhiUhoute, K.CB. ; Men-yn 
Wittiami, 

The Paper read was :— 

"Journeys in Mongolia." By C. W. Campbell, ck.q. 




i 









• • 



102 



a • 

» • 



tilOORAPmCAL UTKRATURE OF THE MONTH. 



FcurteejitJi Ordinary Meeting^ June 10, 1903. — Sir Clements Markham, 
.•.*•• K.C.B., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

.fhp'-Paper read was : — 

'** O^e First Tear*s Work of the Natiooal Antarctic Expedition." By the 
President. 



> 

V Fifteenth Ordinary Meeting, June 22, 1903. — Sir Clebcents Markham, 

K.C.B., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

Elections: — Oerald James Frederick Adams; Granville Sevan; Herbert 
Fulford Bush ; L. Hope Centeno ; Thomas Herbert Davies, B.A. ; Arthur Henry 
Dunning ; Dr. P. Dwyer ; Frank Flowers ; H 8. Hdt ; J, J, Hubert Humphreys ; 
Captain W. J, Johnston, B,E. ; Wilfred Henry Jones, M,A. ; Mark Jamestoum 
Kelly ; Bichard Boope Linthome ; Walter B, Marley ; Tyler Morse ; William John 
Bad/ord; Edward Bobins, C.E. ; Bev, Francis Henry Sprent; Lieut, Francis 
Maurice Collins Stokes; Albert B. B, de Tschamer; Lieut. W.H. Wilkin. 

The Paper read was : — 

** Explorations in BoliTia." By Dr. Evans. 



GEOGRAPHICAL LITERATURE OF THE MONTH. 

Additions to the Library. 

By EDWARD HEAWOOD, M.A., Librarian, R.a.S. 

The following abbreviations of nonns and the adjectives derived from them 
employed to indicate the source of articles from other publications. Geographi* 
names are in each case written in full : — 



A. = Academy, Academic, Akademie. 
Abh. = Abhandlungen. 

Ann. = Annals, Annales, Annalen. 

B. = Bulletin, Bollettino, Boletim. 
Com. = Commerce. 

G. Bd. = Comptes Bendus. 
Erdk. = Erdkunde. 

G. = Geography, Geographle, Geografia. 
Ges. = Gesellsohaft 
I. = Institute, Institution. 
Iz. = Izvestiya. 
J. = Journal. 

k. u. k. = kaiserlich und koniglich. 
.= Mitteilungen. 



Mag. = Magazine. 

Mem. = Memoirs, M^moires. 

Met. = Meteorological. 

P. = Proceedings. 

R. = Royal. 

Rev. = Review, Revue. 

S. = Society, Soci^t^, Sels^b. 

Bitzb. = Bitzungsbericht. 

T. = Transactions. 

V. = Verein. 

Verb. = Verhandlungen. 

W. = Wissensohaft, and compounds. 

Z. = Zeitschrift. 

Zap. = ZapiskL 



On account of the ambieuity of the words oetavot quarto, etc., the size of books 

the list below is denoted by the length and breadth of the cover in inches to the 

half-inch. The size of the Journal is 10 x 6}. 

A selaetion of the works in this list will be noticed elsewhere in the ** JomaL'* 

STIBOFI. 

Austria—Alps. O. Abh. 7 (1903) : pp. 52. KttlliL^ 

Die Vereisung der osterreichischen Alpenseen in den Wintem 1894-5 bis 1900-1 - 
Von Prof. Dr. J. Mailner. With Diagrams. 

Austria— Danube. If. k.h. Q. Ges. Wien 46 (1903) : 8-11. Onily 

Geoffraphisoh-G^logisehas ans dem oberoeterrelohlMhen Donautale. Yon H. V. 



OtOGRAPFICAL LITERATURE OF THE MONTH. 



Pobliostionen fBr die InteniB lion ale Eidmesanng. Die ABtronomisclie-Oeod&t- 
iKhen Arbeiten dcs K. und K. MiUtir-G?ogf»pIiigobon InatJlulea in Wien. 
XIX. Band, ABtronomisohe Arbeiten, 7. Polbohan und AssLmiilh-Measungen 
snf den SUlionan Ainbroinj, Blazkoy. Doubrnva, Komojk,MeIeclmn (nnr Polhohe), 
Mem vraty, SpiHavn, Spitzber^, 8?iduik, Tofc und Volini Yreh. Heraoagegehea 
vara K. nnd K. Militlr-Geographiaohen Inglitute. Wien, 1902. SiBo 12 x 9i, 
pp. Ti. and 216. 

iMtri*— inria. VierteljahTi. G. UnlerricM 3 (1903): 138-U2. Kreb». 

Wandernngen am Tstrien : Dor TBchilnshenboden. Von Dr. N. Krebs. 

BaftM PaninnJa. &Z.9{1903): 119-160. Phllippion. 

Neaero Forgobungen in der vestlicben BalkauhulbiDBel. Von Airrcd Philippwin. 

Btl^nm— Coal. MAn. 3. Belgs Gfohgie IB (19(]2): 77-120. 8ta£ni«r. 

Etudes Bar 1e baasin liouiUer du Nord (io la Deleiqoo. Par S. BUinier. With 

Belgium — Vannlkotnrai. lolU. 

Jtfifn.. Co'aronn^t Aewl. E. Bei. Bdglquis, Coll. 8= 63 (1903) : pp. 81. 

Les Grandes Febriques eu B«lgique vera la miliea du XVIU" SiMe (17t;l). Par 

Annan d Jutin. 
Mgiam— Klnarali. Mfm. S. Beige Qfotogie 16 (1902) : 1-15. Btainiar. 

Deaoription iet gllea me'tallif^reB de la Belgique. Par X. Stainier. Wilh Plant. 
BnlgarU. IBtleoTolng. Z. 20 (1903) : 97-107. iHtdrkoff and Katiner. 

Zata Kllma von 8oSa. I. Einitre Notizen Qber dlo Lttrttcmperutur von Sofia. 

VoD Dr. A. liohiikoC— U. Ueber den li^lichen Gang dcr Tempemtur au Sofia. 

Von C. EftSBner.— Iir. 10-Jaliiige Mittel Ton Sofia. Von A. Ischirkoff und C. 

OfBtral Enropt. ITI«. 

NioderBchlag nod Abfluag in Mittelemopa. Von Prof. Dr. W. UIo. (Foreohnngen 

mr deutschen Landea- nnd Voliakunde . . . herauagegeben Ton Dr. A. Kirch- 

boff. Vlertehnler Band. Heft 5.) Stuttgart: J. Engeihorn, 1903. Siaa 9} x Oi, 

pp. 435-516. 
Tranea— Coaiti. C. Rd. 133 (1903): 1039-1043. 

Sur les nnciennes lignee de riTBge plioctnea et qn ate main 

de la Sl^diterranee. Note de C. Dep^rct. 
Ttane*— DanpUne. BS.G- Ima39(1903): 1G3-180. 

Le maasif de roieana. Far Uanrice Maquot. 
IraBafr-PorU U.S. Lang«e,loe. G. 36 (1902) : 351-361, 465-47E 

Lea Porta Fmn^aia. Pur E. Bonchet. 
Ctnnanj. 

Beitigge mr Siedlungageognipbici dea Unleren MoBelgebietefl. Von Dr. Wilhelm 

Ademeit. (Forschtingi^n zur deutsoban I.andee- und Votkskunde . . . herauB- 

gegeben Ton Dr. A. Kircbhoff. Vierzebnler Band. Heft 4.) Stuttgart: J. Engel- 

hom. 1903, Siie 9} x GJ, pp. 335-434. 

See note in Jlontbly Record (n«(e, p. 79). 
fl«nBSii7— Bavaria. Jahrr'b. G. Get. Minchen (1901-1902): 87-120. IWndi 

Die ehematigen Weinkutturen in Biidbajern. Eine gcograiiblacb-kaltnrgesobiaht- 
liclie SkizKo von Dr. J. Reindl. WUh JHurtrQlioiu. 
^^nBrny— Limnology. Jahnvb. G. Ge'. MUnehen (1901-1902): 55-88. Oebbiaj, 

fijdrochcmiuhe Untfrauebnugen des Wlirm-, Eoobel- und Walobenaeca. Von 
O. Q ebbing. 
""•maaBy— MaeWenburg, Kaaitner, 

X>ie Nordiwtliclie Heide Meoklsnbarga naab ihrer geologisoben Bf BobafTenbeit nnd 
XnUtebnng. (Mitt, nui dcr QroBslicrxoglicb Mt-cklenbuig. Oeol. Land emu atalt 
Kiii.) Inaugural- DiBBcrtation von Alexander Kaeatner. Boatock, 1001. BJze 
-lit X 9. pp. 2S. Map and Stction*. 
^_ Be e note in Monthly Record (anU. p, 80). 

**«Bi«n7— Pnnda, I'titnnann, M. 49(1903): 04-68. Bnwn. 

' ^t! Pcbilling-See irn PreuBaiatben Oberlande. Eiue landtskundlicbe Stndio. 
^w G. Br»iin. Wm Map. 



Sepeiat. 

ir lea cotea franfaiaea 

Haqnet. 
Boncbet. 
Aden alt, 




104 GSOGRAPHICAL LITERATURE OF THE MOMTH, 

Germanj — SamlAncL Jankowtky. 

Samland nod Seine Bevolkernng . . . Yon Kadolf Jankowsky. Konigsberg i. Pr., 
1902. Size 9x6, pp. 76. Map. 
See note in Monthly Record (p. 80). 

Germany— Thnringia. ViertdjdkrB. O. Unterrieht 2 (1908) : 129-138. Sehomen. 

Ein geographischer Augflug naoh Thiiringen. Yon H. Schomers. 

Greece — Enbcsa. O^er. 

Qaellen und Forschnngcn. znr alten Geschiohte and Geograpliie. Heft 6. Topo- 
grapbie und Gesobichte der Insel Euboia. I. Bis znm peloponesisohen Kriege. 
Yon Fritz Geyer. Berlin: Weidmann, 1903. Size 10 x 6}, pp. 124. Price is. 

Holland. MAn. 8, Beige Oa>logie 16 (1902) : 129-153. Lone. 

Le Bhin et le glacier Scandinave qnaternaire. Par le Dr. J. Lori^. With Maps. 

Italy. Biv. O. Italiana 10 (1903) : 169-179. Xal&ttL 

Snlla necessity di ana Geografia dell* Italia medieyale. Memoria poetama del 
Prof. B. Malfatti. 

Italy— BibUograpby. Biv. G. Italiana 9 (1902) : pp. 45. XagiitrU 

Bibliografia Geografica della Regione italiana. Anno i. 1901. Bassegna di 
L. F. De Magistris. 

Italy — 71orenoe. Hyett*. 

Florence, Her HiBtorj and Art, to the Fall of tbe Bepnblio. By Francis A. 
Hyett London : Metbuen & Co., 1903. Size 9 x 5}, pp. xxxii. and 600. Priee 
Is, 6e2. net. Presented by the Publishers. 

Italy— Hydrology. Biv. Q. Italiana (1902): 619-630; 10 (1903): 21-44. Bertolinl 
Ancora della linea delle 8orgive in relazione alle lagane e al territorio yeneta 
Del prof. G. L. Bertolini. 

Italy— Bivers and Olaoiers. Biv. G. Italiana 10 (1903) : 146-151. Marinelll 

I gbiacciai nel regime dei finmi alpini secondo ana memoria dell* Ing. Gandenzio 
Fantoli. O. Marinelli. 
See note in Montbly Bccord (p. 90). 

Italy— Terminology. Biv. O. Italiana 10 (1903): 45-53. Oroeioni. 

Termini geografici dialettali di Yelletri e dintorni raccolti da G. Crocioni. 

Italy— Tucany. Biv. O. Italiana 10 (1903): 201-208. BainellL 

Le oBservazioni fisicbe in Toscana di Pier Antonio Micbeli per il Dott. G. 
Dainelli. 

Micbeli was bom in Florence in 1679, and died in 1737. 

Mediterranean— Crete. Obalikioponlos. 

Sitia, die Osthalbinsel Ereta's. Eine geograpbiscbe Stndie von Dr. pblL L. 
Gbalikioponlos. (Yeroffeutlichangen des Institnts fUr Meereskande and dea 
Geograpbischen ^stituts an der Universitat Berlin, Heft 4.) Berlin: E. 8. 
Mittler & Sohn, 1903. Size 10^ x 7, pp. viii. and 138. Maps and lUustraHons. 
Price 5s. 

Mediterranean — Crete. 

Tbe Cretan Exploration Fnnd. [Report, 1902.] Size 9} x 7}, pp. 8. Sketch-map, 

TTnited Kingdom— ComwalL Hnll. 

Tbe Cheesewring, Cornwall, and its Teacbings. By Prof. Edward Hall, p.ba, 
tttc. (A Paper read before tbe Yictoria Institate, Febraary 16, 1903.) Size 
8} X 5}, pp. 16. Illustrations. Presented by the Author. 

Tbe *' Cbeesewring ** is a remarkable pile of rock near Liskeard. 
TTnited Kingdom— England. Milne. 

Tbe Gentleman's Magazine Library : being a Classified Collection of tbe chief 
contents of tbe Gentleman*s Magazine from 1731 to 1868. Edited by George 
Laurence Gomme. English Topograpby. Edited by F. A. Milne. Part x. 
Sbropsbire — Somersetsbiro (pp. xiv. and 350); Part xi. Staffordsbire — Saflblk 
(pp. xiv. and 328); Part xii. Surrey— Sussex (pp. xiv. and 382); Part xiii. 
Warwickshire— Westmoreland— Wiltshire (pp. xii. and 388) ; Part xiv. Worees- 
tersbire— Yorkshire (pp. xii. and 418). London: E. Stock, 1898-1902. Sixe 
9 X 5J. Price Is. 6d. per vol. 



OEOGRAPHICAL LITKHATnilE OF THE MONTH. 



105 



Vnitod Kingdom — Falmoath. v*T' 

Old Falmnuth. Thn Htorr of the Town from Iho dnys of the KlUiprowB to tbo 
Earliest fart of tlie 19th Century. By Snean E, Gny. London : Heodley Bro«., 
1903. Size 9 x 5|. pp. xiy. and 260. Map and RinitTaUoM. Friet It. M. 

Diited Kingdom— London, QaarUriy Rn. 187 (190B) ; a62-2G9. 

The Fori of London. 

ITDitBd Kingdom— Trftdo. Popetea. 

WirtschaftsseoErophiaplie Studien ftna GrosHbritinnlen. Von B. D, Popeacu. 
Leipzig : O. Schmidt. 1903. Size 9x6, pp. 178. PrttenleA tji th» Author. 

DBiUd KingdoM— Torkthire. BRddalt;. 

ThoToagh Oaide Beriw. Torbahire (Piirt i.). The Eaat Coast. York, and the 
OoDDtry betveen the N'.E, Mnin Line hhiI the Sea : bIso the Cuthednl nnd Oaatle 
of IhiTham. By M. J. B. Baddeley. Fonrth Edition, RpTioed. London; Dulan 
4 Co.. 1902. Size 6J x 4i, pp. ivi. and 142, Mapt aud Plant. Price 2>. 6d. 
Praenttd by Vie PvhUtheri. 
Specfal attention haa been paid in this edition to the requiroments of cyoliata, and 

there are additiona in other dirtctionfl also. 



Woaikof. 



Herdman. 



inbU. Rfr. G. B2 (1903): I23-I3i, 250-2C3. Birrfc, 

L'Arabif. Pnr 1'. Itarr^. With Map. 
CupUn Sm. M'-tforolog. Z. 20 (1903) : 54-57. 

Dit Beanllate dcr Korabogbuz-Ripedition. Ton A. WoeikoF. 
Cqrlon. .Vfi(uree7(1903): 620-622. 

~ Tfap Peatl Fisheriea of Ceylon. By Prof. W. A. Herdman, r.aa. 

ttln«. Army Mtdiad DepL Bep. 43 (1901) : 381-410. 

Report on the Medical History of tho Csmpftiga, China Field Force, lilOO-1901. 

China— OaOgraphiBal Nkmoi. Ta-Sii-Tang-Kuo 1 (1899-inOO): 43-52. 

Dcnouiinu^s liiulBa peloB chinezes ao sen paiz, bo Jnpllo e aos principoca paixeH 
enropeuB, etc 
Cliiiw—OTMt Wall. Black, 

The Groat Wall of China. By C. B. D. Black. [From the CofcuWa Bcr.Vw for 
.lunnary, 1903,] Si;ie II x SJ, pp. 12. [See note in Monthly Eeoord.] 
Chisa — MasM. Da Oama. 

Ta-Sti-Tang-Kuo 1 (1899-1900); 31-41, 113-119, 181-188, 305-310; 2 (190*1-1901): 
693-702, 747-763. 
lima lesorrei^ao hiatorioa. (Paginaa in^ditas d'um viaitador doa jeanitaa [Lniz 
da Ganm]) (11)65-1671). 

China — HavBo. ■ 

r,i-A-ri.Fan{f-i.'itt)l(1899-l!100): 213-223, :i69-380; 2(1900-1901); 411-435. 

Ab fortnlezBs do Hacuu. With Illiulrittiont. 

C&iok— Mongolia. JahreA. O. €a. Miinehm (1901-1902) : 1-40. Stanffonbarg. 

Bin Ritt dnich die oBtlicho Mongolci. Von Weroor Schenk Frcihetm Ton 

StBDirenberg. With IlluaraUon: 

CliJm— PMhfli. Jahreib. G. Ga. MHnrhen (1901-1902) ; iiiTi.-xli. KBbeL 

Urci Monate an der Wcatgrenzo Ton PetBohili. Von Oberlonlnant Kai«1. 
*5Hii» and Pania. Imp. and Atiatia Qaarlaly Rev. 16 (1903) : 1 44-169. Paikar. 

Chinese Knowledge of Fairly PorsiB. By E. TI. Parker. 
*'K-«oh iBdo-Chtna. ijep. G. 62(1903): 200-224.318-344. Ihoi. 

X'Indo Chine fran';niae. Par Capitaina Iboa. With Map. 
^xa.dla— BengaL XnlUok. 

Stitory of the Vaiayaa of Benfin!. By PromnthB Nath Mullick. Ctilcnlta, 1902. 
Silo 7i X 5. pp. iT. and 190. Tico G'piet priiented bg lie Author. 



Prain. 

Keporl of the Director of the Botanical SnrTey of India f Dayid Prainl for tho year 
"■901-1902. ' 



106 GEOGRAPHICAL LmRATCJRB OP THE MONTH. 

India— Central ProrinoM. WaDnr. 

Mem. Oeolog. 8urv. India 83 (Pt. 3) (1902) : ptp. 22. 
The Geology of Ealahandi State, Central Proyinoet. By T. L. Walker. WUk 
Map and Plate. 

India— Din. ¥«■§•- 

Ta-88i'Tang-Kuo 1 (1899-1900) : 381-388 ; 2 (1900-1901) : 437-442, 493-497, 55S-660 
631-637, 683-692 ; 8 (1902) : 22-30, 76-83, 138-146, 202-209, 286-297. 
Diu (exoerptos d*am liyro invito). A Pereira Xones. With lUudrationM. 

India— Laterite. Geolog. Mag. 10 (1903) : 154-159. 

The Composition of Indian Laterite. By H« Warth and F. J. Warth. 

India and Persia. J,E. India Absoo. 84 (1903) : 12-39. 

Russia, India, and the Persian Galf, or the Western Frontiers of India. Bj J. 
D. Bees. 

Malay Archipelago — Sumatra. 
Pflanzer- and J&gerleben anf Sumatra. Yon Eduard Otto. Berlin : W. Sflaserott, 
1903. Size 8} x 5}, pp. 186. lUuitratioM, Price 8s. 

Xalay Peninsula -Tin. J. Geology 11 (1903) : 135-154. P 

The Tin Deposits of the Malay Peninsula, with special reference to thoae of the 
Kinta District. By B. A. F. Penrose, junr. With Map and IUu9trati4m$. 

Persia. Petermanns M. 49 (1903) : 60-64. B 

Von der kaukasischen Grenze naoh Tabriz und Kaswin. Von A. F. StaU. 
With Map. 

Persia — Kermanshah. Hal 

Trade and General Condition of the City and Proyinoe of Eermanshah. Foreign 
Office, Mifloellaneous, No. 590, 1903. Size 9} x 6, pp. 76. Price 4d, 

PhiUppine Islands. National O. Mag. 14 (1903): 185-195. 

The Conquest of Bubonic Plague in the Philippines. With lUfiUratione, 

Russia. Wxifkt^ 

Asiatic Bussia. By George Frederick Wright Two Tols. London : E. Nath : 
New York : McClure, Phillips & Co. 1903. Size 9} x 6, pp. xxii., 638, and xiL 
Map$ and lUtutrations. Price £1 ]2«. 

Hnisia— Caucasus. Loewinson-Leuiag.— 

MateriaJien Qfologie Huttlands 21 (1903) : 108-110. 

Geologisch-petrographische Untcrsuchungen im Bereich des Massivs und der 
Ausl&ufer dcs Kasbek im Jahre 1899. Von F. liOewinson-Lessing. [In Russian. 
Bimm^m German.] With Plates. 

Bussia— Caucasus. Badde. 

Die Sammlungen des Kaukasischen Museums im Vereine mit Spedal-Gelebrteii 
bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Dr. G. Badde. Band ii. Botanik. Yon Dr. 
G. Badde. Tiflis, 1901. Size 12} x 9, pp. x., 102, and 202. Maps ami Platee. 

Bussia— Eastern Siberia. Xikhailofikj. 

Trav. SouB'Seet TroitgJmaawik.'Kiakhta S. Imp. Ritste O. 3, 1900 (1902): 63-180. 
Troitzkossawsk et les faubourgs Eiakhta et Gust-Kiakhta sous le rapport aanitaiie 
et ^conomique. Par I. P. Michailowsky. [In Bussian.] 

Busiia— Eastern Siberia. B.8.0. Com. Parie 24 (1902) : 565-570. LnbM. 

En Asie russe et en Extreme-Orient. Par P. Labb^. 

BuisU— Sakhalin. Scottish 0. Mag. 19 (1903) : 183-190. HawM. 

A Visit to the Island of Sakhalin. By C. H. Hawes. With lUustraUoM, 

Buiiia— Siberia. Meister and Uhitakj. 

Explorations g^ologiques dans les B^gions aurif^res de la Siberia. B^on 
aurif^re dl^nissdi. Livr. iii. Bassin de la Tatarka. Par A. Meister. Explora- 
tions g^ologiques dans les bassins des rivieres Pit, Gorbylok, Oud^r^i. Par N. 
Izhitzky. 

Bussia and Persia. KmluMr. 

Bussland in Asien. Band. vi. Die Beziehungen Busslands zu Persien Ton 
Krahmer. T^eipzig : Zuckschwerdt & Co., 1903. Size 9} x 6}, pp. 126. Price St. 



QBOaRAPHICAL UTEEAT0RE OF THE MONTH. lOS 

Xuiiui Csntnl Aiia. B.S.e. Com- Parii 24 (1902); 55I-5C1. Lant. 

Uoe E^typte rudie. TorkextaD et Boukharie. I'ar D. I«<r»t. 
lutikii Central Atia. /)ni(»-A. Aumlwhau O. 26 (190^) : !ins-3l8. Orlonkf. 

£iD mftchtigGa Gebiet. nclolies dnrcli Tnigation kuUtviert neiden aoll. Von J, v, 
Orlowaky. With Ifap. 
Tnrfcer. Titleooki. 

The Reatoratina of the Ancient IrHestiim Work* on tlifi TigriB. or the Be-creation 
of Chaldoa By Sir Willinm Willconke. Cairo, 1903. Size 9) x 6i. pp. 72. 
Atapt nnd llluttraUont. Prttenled hg the Aatlutr. 
Turkay— Ana Kinor. Olobai B3 (1903): l(a-169. 186-191. Bnge. 

^leinaitcn nla Wiefro der «iBBeDKliBftli<>hen Krdknnde. Von 8. Bngs. 



AVBIOA. 



.Ulo-i?thiapieQ8. 



—Tmxim. 

XL.'£Uuopio, I'AniFlotem 

:K='ar M. Kouire. 
A-I^^^uuii*— Hi*t«rieaL CastanJioio and Whitewaj. 

"^XThe Portucueic Elpedifloa to AbyBtioia in 1541-1543, as naimted by Caabmboeo. 

'•••itli some Conlomporary IMtera. the Short Anronnt of Bermiidez, and Cartaln 

-.■rixlracta from Correa. TraceBatcd and edited by B. 8. Whitewaj. London : 

^^BaklDjt Society, 1902. Size 9 x 6}, pp. cxxxii. and 296. Map and Uluttratiaiu. 

-^^Tfoded by tht EaUuyl Soeiety. 
* '^*. l ea. OWnMB3(1903); 197-190. 8ing»r. 

'Xiie deutsohe AfrikafonobiinK. Von H. Singor, 



~l~.e XXIU* Congr^ G^eraphiqae rrao^aia et le Hillenaire do la Ville d'Oian. 
:pBr Arthur de ClapaiMe. GenoTa, 1902. Size 7} x ■>, pp. 37. 
^v~S.ti*li Batt AMu. ArkeU-Hardwiak. 

~An Ithtj Trader in Nortli Kenia. The Beoord of an Expedition through Kikuja 
*!> Galla-Lruid in East Eijnutorial Afrioo, with nn ac»mnt of the Kendiii and 
S)nrkc-noji Tribee. By A. Arketl-Hnrdwick. London, etn, ; Longmans, Green * Co., 
I'.W8. Size 9 X 5|. pp. in. and 3G8. Map and lUvttrationt. Priee Vii. 6d. nrt. 
-frrKTiled tjr tke Puhlitheri. 
■■**-4tUh Eart A&iea. Whyt«. 

-Africa, No. 8 (1903), Beport bj Mr. A. Whjta on Ue recent travels alongtha soa- 
«3(«at bolt of tho British East Africa Proteotomte. linden, 1903. Size 13 X 81, 
Kp. 18. PlnU: Price 8i<l. 

yoGixA in the Monthly Hecord (p. 83), 
^^^a Colooj. Xllpla. 

Tiie Cap* of Good Hojio Civil Sarvioe List. 1903 ; containing tlie Offlcinl Betum 
•^t the Civil and Militnry F^tabliglimentg of the Colony, I'eniiion Lilts, Acts and 
Itegnlations. Service and Datien of Ofllcers. Fartlculare uf the Government and 
Tatliament. Local Boards and Conrts, etc. also the Civil Service CalandHC, 19i).t, 
Tontaininp all Matters connected with tho Kxaminations for entry into the Service, 
ond the Civil Service Law Ezaminationa, Edited by E. V, Eilpin. Cape Town : 
W. A. Richards A Sons, 1903. SiKc 9 x 5i. pp. xlviii. and *61. Map. 
^^ngo-lTavigation. B.S.G. MantilU 20 (1902) : 450-4Sr>, BertbUr. 

T.a Navigation flaviale an Con^o, Par L. C. BerthiOT. 
%S7pt. JahreA. Q. Qei. MSneAen (1901-1902) : iix.'ixxii. Staindorff: 

B<ii§o von Euim dnroh die libysche Wiiate znr Ammone-OaNe. Von G. SteindotB'. 
^fcgrplHUs. Popular Sei. Monthly 62 (1903): 5;i0-5Gl. Baksr. 

The Nile Dama and Beaervoir. By Sir B, Baker, With /Iliufrntioni. 

^BTPt and the Indan. 

Pgypi. So. 1 (1902), Beports by His Majesty's Agent and Coneal-Qeneral on 
ilic Pinanees. Administration, and uondition of Egypt and the Soudan in 1901. 
London : Eyre and Spottiswoode. 1902. Size ISJ x SJ, pp. iv. and 80. Price SJrf. 
Egypt. No. 1 (1903). Ditto in 1902. ly>iidan: Eyre 4 Spottitwomic, 1903. 
BiM 18i x 8i, pp. It. and 98. Priee lOd, [Bee p. a2.J 



I 

I 
I 



108 GXOGRAPHICAL LITER ATURS OF THE MONTH. 

SfTptian Sudan. Mouvement 0. 80 (1903) : 175-182, 187-191, 199-2(HL Wanttn. 

Lot Territoireg pris k bail dn Hani Nil. Par A. J. Wautera. Jlfopt. 

Freaoh Congo. Rev, Colon, (1903) : 403-406. Conpi. 

Heconnaissanoei faites dans la rdgion de Bangui du 6 jnln an 25 aodt 1902. Par 
M. Coupe. With Map, 

French Oninea. Rev. Colon, (1903) : 373-38G. BonoheB. 

Region du Labb^. Rnpport du oapitaine Bonchez. 

French Oninea. Rev. Colon. (1903) : 389-400. Ganthier. 

Gerole dn Rio Nunez. Rapport do M. Gauthier. WOh Map. 

French West AMca. Thmnann. 

Ren$e%gnemenU Colon., ComiUVAfriqtte Franfaite (1903) : 1-18, 98-104, 121-135. 

De la Ci^to d'lyoire au Soudan frani^ais, la mission Thomann. Wiih Map, 

Niger. Tour du Monde 9 (1903) : 1-96. Lenfiant. 

Le Niger, voie ouTerte a noire empiro Afrioain. Par le Oapitaine Lenfant. With 
Map$ and Uhittrations. 

Portngnete Colonies. JS.iS^.(?. Lit&oa 19 (1901): 535-761. Coata. 

Kstudo sobre a administra^&o cIyH das nossas possessoes africanas. Por E. Costa. 

Portngnete Bast Africa. B.S.G. Luboa 19 (1901) : 827-849. d'Efa. 

E8b(^ geogn^phico-historioo dos territorios Portugueses entre o Indico e o Nyaaaa. 
Por V. Almeida d'E9a. 

Portngnete Eatt AfHca— Pearl Fishery. B.S.O, Litboa 21 (1903) : 1-20. F«rrat. 

As pcrolas o a sua pesca em Mo9ambique. Por I. Ferras. 

Rhodesia. 

The Itritish South Africa Company. Reports on the Administration of Rhodesia, 
1900-1902. With Appendix. Size lOJ x 8J, pp. 474 ; Appendix, 124. Map*^. 
Pi'tttnM by the BritUh South Africa Company. 

Bhodetia. 



British South Africa Tompany. Administration of North-Eastem Rhodesia. 
Roix>rt on tho Administration of North- Eiistem Rhodesia for the Two Yean 
<>niiin^ Maroh 81. 1902. Official. Fort Jameson. 1903. Size 13 X 8, pp. 34. 
Map. Price \0$. (i<l. rre$ented by the Adminifirator. 

Sahara. A <rtiiw« le Moml^, Tour du Monde 9 (1903): 89-92. Dex. 

l/Kx|HHlition a<fro8tatiquo dn Sahara. Par Leo Dex. With Map and lUnttnUiotu, 

Sahara. TaiUia. 

-4 <niirr« U Monde. Tour du Mond- 9 (1903) : 57-60, 65-68, 73-76, 97-100. 

Xjh^ Tmnssaharion e«t-il possible ? Par J. du Taillis. Wiih Map and Illuttrationt. 

Seath Africa, Begnln 

l.<r« Ma-rotH"'. Ktudo j^\>graphiquo et ethnographique du Haut Zamb^ze. Par 
Ku):^n<« IWguin. Laustutne and Fontaines : £. Sack, 1903. Siie 7) X 5, pp. 156. 

Tho author has wc^kcnl as a missiivnarv for eeren years in Baaotseland. 

West Afrtea. Rer. 0)l}n. (1902): 249-27a Ihiboe. 

I. a Mi$!ii^\n du ilx^lfo do Guin<^. Par le Uentonant Duboc. 

i>n ^'thnoU^ioal ol\«Y>rvjitii>as made during the wtirk of the FranoivSpaniah delimi- 
taii\>n ixuwmis^ion in the i"orisiH> Imy region. 

Weal Africa. Sehaai. 

\\V*t-Afrika Yixn MoriU Sohani, Borlin : W. Siisserott, 1903. Sixe 10 x 7, 
pp ri ami 4l<v TriW O^h. Prt*r^ed by the Vuhli*her. 

KO&TH AKHICA. 

Alaska. .Vi6Vmi; 0. M^^^. 14 0^^"^^: 99-lCtv BMcnoa. 

I'^l^i^ninj: v^f iV.o .\la«Kikn Torrit^vy. IW U. lvmorT^>n. With JUmsintiont. 

Alaska. X.Uf*m.\l O. V.>^. 14 0^^"^^ : 9l->^. Waatdahl. 

Mo«ata\i\« <« I'nimak Uland. AWka, Hy K. \Vo«uiahl. Wiih Map emd ntne- 



GBOGSAFHIGAL LITSRATURE OF THE MONTH. 109 

Aaiarica. Bev, G, 62 (1903) : 1-21, 101-122, 225-242. Briwe. 

Les intei^tfl allemanda en Am^riqae. Par A. Brisse. With Map, 
Cwuda. Fortnighay Rev. 78 (1903) : 412-423. Church. 

Canada and its Trade Boutee. By O>lonel G. E. Churoh. With Map, 
Canada— Hew BmMwiok. B. Nat, Hid, 8. Neu Brunswick 5 (1903) : 90-101. BaUey. 

Kotes on the Highlands of Northern New Brunswick. By L. W. Bailey. 
Canada— Hew Bmnswiok. B, Nat. Eiat. 8. New Bruntwich 5 (1903) : 35-92. Oanong. 
Kotes on the Natural History and Physiography of New Brunswick. By W. F. 
Oanong. With Map$, 

Canada— New Brunswick. B. Nat, Hist. S. New BruMwick 5 (1903) : 5-14. Stead. 

Notes on Surface Geology of New Brunswick. By G. Stead« 
C&nada and United States. National Q. Mag, 14 (1903) : 85-90. Poster. 

The Canadian Boundary. By Hon. J. W. Foster. With Map. 

JToxth Amerioa— Olaeial Epooh. J.O. 2 (1903) : 21-25. Whitbeck. 

n*he Glacial Period and Modern Geography. By R. H. Whitbeck. 

Traces the influence of the glacial period on the pbysical, and contiei|uentIy uq the 
e<:^c3nomic, geography of North America. 

BTofrth Amerioa— Historical. Thwaites. 

"The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. Travels and Explomtions of the 

Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610-1791. The Original French, Latin, and 

Italian Texts, with English Translations and Notes. Edited by Reuben Gold 

Thwaites. 73 vols. Cleveland : The Burrows Bros. Co., 1896-1901. Size 9J X 6. 

•^ortraitSf Map$, and Facsimiles. 

^•'^tited States. National G. Mag. 14 (1903) : 171-185. Adams. 

The United States — Land and Waters. By Cyrus 0. Adams. With Map and 
■^^lustrations, 

^^ted States. J.G. 2 (1903) : 40-45. Eaymond. 

geographical Positions of the Base Lines and Principal Meridians governing the 
Public Surveys. By W. G. Raymond. 

^'^Xed States— California. American J. Sci. 16 (1903) : 342-362. Diller. 

^VJamath Mountain Section, California. By J. S. Diller. 
^*^^ted SUteiH-California. /. Geologij 11 (1903) : 155-165. Hershey. 

"^lie Sierran Valleys of the Klamath Region, California. By O. H. Hershey. 
*^ ^.ted States — Census. 



'welfth Census of the United States. William K. Merriam, Director. Bulletins, 
Ids. 1-232. Washington, 1901-02. 

, _ The agriculture, manufactures, etc., of eacli state are dealt with in separate 
^'^^^letins. 

^ ^^ted States— Meteorology. Monthly Weather Bev, 80 (1902) : 482-485. Murdoch. 
Cycles of precipitation. By L. H. Murdoch. With Diagram. 

^ Discusses the relation existing between rainfall and the level of the Great Salt 
*^^ke. 

^Xiited States— Ohio. J, Geology 10 (1902) : 822-838. Bownocker. 

The Oil- and Gas-produoing Rocks of Ohio. By J. A. Bownocker. 

^* Uted States— South Carolina. Jesnnofsky. 

Monthly Weather Bev. 30 (1902) : 479-481. 

Some peculiarities in frost formation over the coast region of South Carolina. By 
L. N. Jesnnofsky. 

United States— Trade Boute. Benton. 

The Wabash Trade Route in the Development of the Old North-west. By E. J. 
Benton. (Johns Hopkins University Studies. Series zzi. Nos. 1-2.) Balti- 
more, 1903. Size 9} x 6}, pp. 112. 

Tlnited States— Utah. Huntington and Goldthwait. 

The Hurricane Fault in South-western Utah. By E. Huntinjrton and J. W. 
Goldthwait. (Reprinted from the Journal of Geology^ vol. xi. No. 1, January- 
February, 1903.) Chicago. Size 10 x 7, pp. 46-63. Sketch-map and lllustra- 
(toiM. Presented by Mr. E. Huntingdon, 



108 GXOGRAPHICAL LITERATURS OF THE MONTH. 

Sgyptiaa SikIail Mouvement O. 80 (1903) : 175-182, 187-191, 199-201 Wanttn. 

Lea Territoires pris k bail dn Hant Nil. Par A. J. Wantera. Mapi, 

Freneh Congo. Rev, Colon. (1903): 403-406. 0Mp6. 

ReconnaisBanoeB faites dans la region de Bangui da 6 jain an 25 aotit 1902. Pftr 
M. Coup^. With Map, 

Frenoh Gninea. Bev. Colon. (1903) : 373-386. BomImk. 

Region dn Labb^. Rapport du oapitaine Bonchez. 
Frenoh Gninoa. Rev. Colon. (1903) : 389-400. Oautliiar. 

Cercle dn Rio Nunez. Rapport dc M. Gauthier. With Map. 

Frenoh West Afrioa. Thonuum. 

RenseignemenU Colon., Comii^VAfrique Franfaise (1903): 1-13, 98-104, 121-135. 
De la Cdte d'lvoire an Soudan fran9ai8, la miesion Tbomann. With Map. 

Niger. Tour du Monde 9 (1903) : 1-96. Ltnfluit. 

Le Niger, voie onverte a notre empire Africain. Par le Oapitaine Lenfant. With 
Mapa and Ulnttrations. 

Fortngnete Colonies. B.8.0. Lithoa 19 (1901): 535-761. Coitft.. 

Estudo sobre a administra^ao civil das nossas possessoes africanas. Por E. Costa. 

Fortngnete East Afrioa. B.S.G. Lithoa 19 (1901) : 827-849. d'Sfa. 

EsboQo geogn^phico-historioo dos territorios Portugueses entre o Indico e o Nyaesa. 
Por V. Almeida d'E^a. 

Fortngnese East AMoa— Fearl Fishery. B.S.O. Litboa 21 (1903) : 1-20. Farm 

As perolas e a sua pesca em Mo9ambique. For I. Ferraz. 

Rhodesia. -^— 

The British South Africa Company. Reports on the Administration of Rhodesia, 
1900-1902. With Appendix. Size lOJ x 8J, pp. 474 ; Appendix, 124. Map*. 
Pretented by tJ^e British South Africa Company. 

Rhodesia. 



British South Africa Company. Administration of North-Eastern Rhodesia. 
Report on the Administration of North-Eastern Rhodesia for the Two Yean 
ending March 31, 1902. Official, Fort Jameson, 1903. Size 13 X 8, pp. 34. 
Map. Price lOt. Gd. Presented by the Administrator. 

Sahara. A travers le Monde, Tour du Monde 9 (1903): 89-92. Dez. 

L'Exp^dition a^rostatique du Sahara. Par I.^o Dex. With Map and lUuttrationt. 

Sahara. TaiUit. 

A trovers le Monde, Tour du Mond^. 9 (1903) : 57-60, 65-68, 73-76, 97-100. 

Le Transsaharien est-il possible ? Par J. du Taillis. With Map and Illustrationa. 
South Afrioa. Begnin 

Les Ma-rots^. Etude geographique et etbnographique du Haut Zamb^ze. Par 

Eugene B^guin. Lausanne and Fontaines : E. Sack, 1903. Size 7) X 5, pp. 156. 

Price 2s. 

The author has worked as a missionary for seven years in Basotseland. 
West Afirica. Rev. Colon. (1902): 249-278. Duboc. 

La Mission du Golfe dc Guinde. Par le lieutenant Duboc. 

On ethnological observations made during the work of the Franco-Spanish delimi- 
tation commission in the Corisoo bay region. 

West Africa. Sehani. 

West-Afrika. Von Moritz Schanz. Berlin : W. Susserott, 1903. Size 10x7, 
pp. vi. and 416. Price 6m. Presented by the Publisher. 

NORTH AKERICA. 

Alaska. National O. Mag. 14 (1903) : 99-106. SmenOB. 

Opening of tbo Alaskan Territory. By H. Emerson. With Ultutrntions. 

Alaska. National O. Mag. 14 (1903) : 91-99. Westdahl. 

Mountains on XJnimak Island, Alaska. By F. Westdahl. With Map and lUua- 
trations. 



110 OEOOBAPmCAL LITERATURE OP THE MONTH. 

CnrTBAL AHD SOITTH AXSBICA. 

AatigTift. W, Indian B, 8 (1902) : 362-372. 

The Climatology of Antigua. 

Argentind-ChileaiL Boundary. OlobuB 83 (1903) : 199-201. HanthaL 

Die Entscheidung im argentiaiBoh-ohilemschen Grenzstreit. Yon B. HauthaL 
WiOi Map. 

Argentine-Ohilean Botmdary. O.Z. 9 (1903) : 160-164. Stange. 

Die Begelund dee argentiniBoh-chilenischen GrenzBtreites. Yon Dr. P. Stange. 
Map. 

Barbados— Voloanio Bust Weri Indian B. 4 (1903) : 92-100. 

Notes on Fall of Yolcanic Dust at Barbados, March 22, 1903. 
BoUvia. 

El territorio Naoional de Colonlas. La Paz, 1903. Size 9 x 6}, pp. 54. Map. 
The map shows the land and water routes which give access to the territory. 

Brazil— Amazon. B. Muieu Paraeme 3 (1902) : 370-399. eosldi. 

Maravilhas da natureza na liha de Marajd. Pelo Dr. E. A. Goeldi. With 
Mlustrationi, 

Sketches of the fietuna and flora of Marajo. 

Brazil— Amazon. B. Muaeu Paraenae 8 (1902) : 447-498. Enber. 

O>ntribuicfio d geographia physica dos furos de Breves e da parte occidental de 
Maraj<5. Pelo Dr. J. Huber. With Map$ and Illufiraiion$. 

Will be noticed in the Monthly Record. 

Brazil— Zoology. Oosldi. 

Estudos Bobre o desenyolvimento da Arma^ao dos Yeados galheiro do Brazil 
CCervtu paludotuif C. Campeatris, 0. Wiegmanni). Pelo Prof. Dr. Emllio A. 
Goeldi. (Memorias do Museu Goeldi, iii.) Bio de Janeiro, 1902. Size 13 x 9), 
pp. 46. Plate. 

Central America— Earthquakes. P.B.S. 71 (1903) : 403-404. Hay. 

On Central American Earthquakes, particularly the Earthquake of 1838. By 
Admiral Sir J. D. Hay. 

Chile. Meteorolog. Z. 20 (1903) : 114-122. XartiiL 

Zum Elima yon Siidohile, Llanquihue und Ghilo^. Yon Dr. 0. Martin. 

Colombia. Uribe. 

Anales diplomaticos y consulares de Colombia. Publicados bajo la direcciiSn del 
Dr. Antonio Jose Uribe. Tom. 2. Bogota, Imprenta national, 1901. Size 
9} X 6}, pp. 981 and Ixzxi. Presented by the Editor. 

Colombia. TTribe. 

Anales diplomaticos y consulares de Columbia. Publicados bajo la direooion del 
Dr. A. J. Uribe. Tome Segundo. Bogota, 1901. Size 9} x 6}, pp. 982 and 
Ixxxii. Presented by Dr. A. J. Uribe, 

Colombia— Panama. Globus 83 (1903) : 247-253. Sapper. 

Eine Beise Uber den Isthmus yon Panamd. Yon Karl Sapper. With IUu$tration$. 

Cnba. Tour du Monde 9 (1903) : 109-132. Gnorlao. 

Cuba sous TAdministration Americaiue. Par O. Guerlac. With lUuetratione, 

Falkland Islands. Melvill. 

Mem. and P. ManchesUr Lit. and Philosoph. 8. 47 (1903) (x.): pp. 8. 

Beport on the Plants obtained by Mr. Bupert Yallentin in the Falkland Islands, 
1901-1902. By J. Cosmo Melvill. 

Falkland Islands and Tierra del Fnego. Petermanns M. 49 (1903) : 33-34. Andersion. 
Die wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten der schwedischen Siidpolar-Expedition auf den 
Falkland-Inseln und im Feuerland. Yon U. G. Andersson. 

Fern. Plane. 

A trayers I'Amerique Equatoriale. Le Perou, par Auguste Plane. Deuxi^me 
Edition. Paris : Plon-Nourrit et Cie., 1903. Size 7} X 4, pp. iii. and 340. Map9 
and Plates. Price 4/r. Presented by the Author. 



aSOORAPHICAL LITSRATUKK OF THE MOMTB. 



Ill 



■onth .A^m«ri». Que4lion> DipL el Coha. IS (1903) : 197-503. Jftdot. 

Le o<:»ite8t^ beliTiaao-breailien : le tcrritoirs de TAcio. far li, Jftdot. Witli Mapi. 
I«nb .^k^trlaa— Orthagrtiphy. Olobni B3 (1903) : 170-171. SieveTi. 

Zar Sdiratbweiee del Oris- \iai BUmmes-namea !□ Sudamerika. Yon L'roF. W. 

Umga-^j. B.S.G. Gm. Fnrlt 24 {1902) ; 539-550. WiwiBr. 

l-'U"K-»iguuy aa poinl lio viie ecoBomique. Par 0. Wiener. 

¥tn ^LKidist— Sailing DlrecCloni. lusett. 

Tb» _^VIeai India Pilot. Vol. i. From Cape Orange in BraiU to Cape Sable in 
Plo^ a. «la. witii tbe adjacent UIiidiIh. OrigiQally compiled bf Capt&iu E. Bamett 
8iit1:» Edition. London, li)OJ. Size 9) X 6, pp. iiii. and 012. Maji. frice 
^'' E&«d, FraenUd by Ihe MydroijrapJier, Admirally. 

AIFBTSALABIA AHD FAOITIO IBLASD8. 

iMtn^tJIi»_DUso»Bry. ru-S.f-ranfl-Xoo 2 (,1900-1901); 661-666. Pimeotel. 

On g^ aa paisvraB Bobre a descoberta da AuBtralin em 1601 poios portuguezis. Jajme 
"^c-^»iia de Sampaio Foijai de Serpa PunenteL 

*•* ^^-ninea— BritiBh. 

Aaa -»3al Report on BritiBb New Quinea from July 1, 1900, to June 30, 1901 ; 
*'^':^ Appendices. Biiubane, 1902, Size 13} x 8}, pp. 1. and 196. Hapt and 

**^* note in tiie Journal for Maj (p. 558). 
Ibw ^ ^,(1, Wilai- P.B.S. Qaeauland IT (1903) : 71-96. Hortoa. 

„*"• England (N.8.W,). ReminiBoencoi during Ihe FiflioB. By tbe Hon. A. 

'"''** «otl. Bngit-eering Mag. S3 (1902) : 161-181 Xlnuum. 

Th^ Coal KcBOurcea of the Paoifio. By Harrington BmerBOD. With lUuitTatiimi. 
*~^*— ^Oenaia ?o)ieiiloii*. Wegaaer. 

^^S^ ftwbland in Blillen Ozean. 'Bamos.. KarollDen, Maraball-Inieln, Marianen, 
>^-WUhuliiui-Lan(], Bismarok-Archipel und Satomo-Inseln. Von Georg 
ntier (Land und Lente. Monographiea znr Erdkunile. it.). Bielefeld and 
rr **3ig: Velhagen and Klaaing, 1903. Size 101 X 7, PP- 156. Map and lUmtra- 
"o--*-^. Priee 4m. Presented 6j, Iha PabUtheri. 
'*''*■ ^ — KarlutDei. Ann. nydTvgfuphit 81 (1903): 139-111. Saidri. 

^^ *=*iB uod Wetter auf den Mariaaen. Van H. Seidel. 
^y^^-^ilMd. i'.fi.S. (3ueeni;ai«I17(190S): H7-I60. MortOB, 

,^^*>liijg in QueeoBland and tbe reaaanB for doing bo, iritb special reference to 
■"""^■^igliU. By tbe Hon. A. Norton. 

Tork Fentntnla. Jaeluon. 

QMeniland Gov. Mining J. i (IS03): 10-15. 
■;^^t Coo«t of Capa York l*omusi;lu and Horn laland and I'oBBeBBJon bland 
*"* ■- ^-Jflelds. By V. F. V. JaokBon. Map and lUuitmtiom. 
'"■*^— Ba»aii. Z. Oa. l^rdk. Berlin (1903) : 208-219. WagMiBf. 

r'^ TUlkaniaoliea Auabrilobe auf SawaiL Von Dr. G, Wegener. With Mup and 

*'''*"*-«:»a iBliada. GJoiw. 83 (1903) : 181-186. 8«idfll. 

^^^ deutBchan Salomo-Ineeln bodbI und jctit. Von H. Seidel. With Map. 
V)M^ ^Mttalia. T.B.S.S- Aailralia 26 (1902) ; 268-277. Oreenway and Hulllppi. 

n Yorke Peninaula. By T. C. Greeu- 



We 



FOLAS ESOIOHS. 

tKti«i_., p,Ij„ g(^j „ Abraui, Cagni, KollnalU, and Le Qnetuc. 

'^ *-i>e i'utat Star in tbe Amtiu Sea. By Ilia Royal Higbnesa Luigi Aiuedeo of 

"Vof, Doko of tbe Abrtmi, witb tke steleuieiile of Oomuander HL Cagni upon 




112 GEOGRAPHICAL LTTKRATURI OF THI MONTH. 

the Sledge Expedition to 86^ 34' North, and of Dr. A. Gayalli Mf linelli upon his 
return to the Bay of Teplitz. Translated by William Le Queux. In Two 
Volames. London : Hutchinson & Co., 1903. Size 10 x 7}, pp. xvi. 702, and 
xii. Price 42«. net. Preiented by the Publuher». 
See review in the May Journal. 

XATHSXATIOAL GXOeBAFHT. 

Areas. G.Z. 9 (1903) : 167-168. Frdh. 

Zor Bestimmung der Oberflichenentwicklong. Von Prof. Dr. J. Friih. 
Cartography— Kap Colleotion. G.Z. 9 (1903) : 164-165. Eantooh. 

Die Kartensammlung der konigl. Bibliothek zu Dresden. Yon Dr. Victor 
Hantzsch. 

Compass— Historical. Biv. G, Italiana 10 (1903): 1-11, 105-122. BortellL 

La leggenda di Flayio Gioia inventore della Bussola. A propoeito di nn articolo 
del Prof. F. Porena, osserrazioni del P. T. Bertelli. Also teparate eopy, pre- 
t«nied by the Author. 

Geodesy. Albroeht. 

Centralbnrean der Internationalen Erdmeesung. Neue Folge der voroffentlich- 
nngen, No. 8. Besultate des Internationalen BreitendieniSes. Band i. Yon 
Th. Albrecht. Berlin: G. Beimer, 1903. Size Hi x 9, pp. 174. Map9, Plans, 
and Plates, 

Geodesy— InBtromonts. 8ci. T,B, Dublin 8. 7 (Ser. ii.) (1902) : 385-390. Gmbb 

Some new forms of Geodetical Instruments. By Sir Howard Grubb. Plate, 

FHT8ICAL AHD BIOLOGICAL GXOGBAPHT. 

Climatology. Eann and Ward. 

Handbook of Climatology. By Dr. Julius Hann. Translated with the Author's 
permission from the Second Bevised and Enlarged German Edition, with addi- 
tional references and notes, by Robert de Courcy Ward. New York and London : 
Macmillan & Co., 1903. Size 9} x 6, pp. xiy. and 438. Diagrams, Price 12s. 6d. 
net. Presented by the Publishers, [See review, ante, p. 75.] 

Coral Beefs. P.E.8. 71 (1903) : 412-414. Agassis. 

On the Formation of Barrier Beefs and of the Different Types of AtoUs. By A. 
Agassiz. 
See note in the Monthly Record (p. 89). 

Crust of the Earth. B.8. Beige G^ologie 16 (1902) : 594-602. Van den Broeek. 

Quelques remarques k propos des yues de M. le Dr. A. StUbel sur la gen^ et la 
structure de T^corce solide du globe et des consequences g^ologiques de cette th^se. 
Par E. Yan den Broeek. 

Geology — Bibliography.' 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. First Annual Issue. H. Geo- 
logy. Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London. 
Loudon : Harrison & Sons, 1903. Size 9 x 5|, pp. xiv. and 220. Price 15s. 

Glacial Epooh. Naturw. Woclienschrift 2 (1903) : 301-305. Wolff. 

Zur Kritik der Interglacial-Hypothese. Yon Dr. W. Wolff. 

Olaolers. f insterwaldsr and Mnret 

Commission Internationale des Glaciers. Les Yariations Periodiques des Glaciers. 
Septi^me Rapport, 1901, r^ig^ par le Dr. Finsterwalder et E. Muret. (Extrait 
des Archives des Sciences physique et naturelles, t. xiv., 1902.) Geneva, 1902. 
Size 9x6, pp. 21. 

Glaciers. Jahresb.[G. Ges, Munchen ild01-ld02) : 41-54. Gtinther. 

Peucks neue Glazialstudien. Yon S. Giinther. 
Gravity. C. Bd. 136 (1903) : 705-707. BaUoro. 

Sur les anomalies de la pesanteur dans certaines regions instables. Note de F. de 

Montessus de Ballore. 

Hydrology. C. Bd, 136 (1903) : 572-574. lUrteL 

Sur renfouissement des oaux souterrained et la disparition des sources. Note de 
E.-A. MarteL 



GKCKJBAPHICAL UTIRATURE OF THE MONTH. US 

l^Tdrology. 0. Rd. 186 (1908): 910-912. Foamier and Magnin. 

Sar la Tiieiae d'eooalement dei eaux soaterraliieB. Note de E. Fonrnier et A. 

tfagnin. 

Hydrology. B.8. Beige Oiblogie 16 (1902) : 166-169. JerSme. 

Ezemple de la eolation de menns probl^mea d'Hydrologie, par le proc^d^ de la 

oolomtion dee eaux k Taide de la flnoreeo^e. Par A. J^r5me. 

Hjdralogj. B.S. Beige O^ogie 16 (1902) : 648-650. MonlaiL 

Note fur lee venaee d'ean daDi lea calcairee. Par T. Moulan. 

OooftBOgrapliy. P.B.8. Edinburgh 38 (1899-1901): 35-43. lUnley. 

The ExamiDation of Sea-Water by an Optical Method. By J. J. Manley. 
Ooaawography. Thoulet. 

B^anltata dee Campagnee Scientifiqnes accomplies snr eon yacht per Albert I*^ 

Prince Sonverain de Monaco, public . . . aTeo le oonconrs de Jalee Richard. 

Faacionle zxii. Echantillons d*eanx et de fonds provenant dee oampagues de la 

THncene-Alice (1901). Par J. Thoulet. Imprimerie de Monaco, 1902. Size 

14 X llj, pp. 76. PlaUt. 
Oceanography. Z. (iet. Krdk. Berlin (1903): 220. Woeikof. 

Das Warmwaeser vor den Strassen von Gibraltar und Bab-el-Mandeb. Von Prof. 

IDr. A. Woeikof. 

Oeetnography— Xtlantie. Ann. Hydrographiques (1902) : 160-16«j. 

Hesultats d'expe'riencee snr les courants au largo d'Ouessant et du Cup Finisterrc 
^t k Tentree du detroit de Gibraltar. 

Oceanography— Atlantio. ^nn. G. 18 (1903) : i:s-18. d* Almeida. 

l^Qx nouvelles cartes mensuelles de TAtlantique du Xord. Par P. Camena 
^''Almeida. Also eeparate copy. 

^•aiiography — Currents. Sanditrom and Helland-Hanien. 

^o\ief clie Berechnung von Meerestromungen. Von J. W. PandstrOm und B. 
^'^^lland-Hansen. (Report on Norwegian Fishery- and Marine-Investigations, 
^'^l. ii., 1902. No. 4.) Bergon, 1903. Size 10 x 7, pp. 43. Diai ram. 

AVTHBOFOaEOaBAFHT AUD HI8T0BICAL OXOOBAPHT. 

^^^MbaUim. Gee. Vdlker- u. Enlk, Stettin, Bericht (1901-1902): 19-22. Sokolowsky. 

.^^^.nnibalismufl. Von Dr. A. Sokolowsky. 
^^"^^^te and BaUways. J.Q. 2 (1903) : 178 190. Brown, 

^imatic Factors in Railroad Construction and Operation, liy iC M. Brown. 

^^^aeroial- Ginseng. J.G. 2 (1903) : 2»j-31. Carney. 

^^iie Domestication of (linsoug. By ¥. I'arney. With lUuttraivm*. 

^^^Mneroial— iTory. Mouoemmt G. 20 (1903) : 183-185, 191-19*, 204-20G. Van Baer. 
/^^Ivoiro. Par R. Van Baer. 

^^%torioal— Apimnns. Ortroy. 

^ibiiograpbie de TuQUvre do Picrru Apian. Par F. Van Ortroy. (Extrait du 
^ibltographe fiux/erntf, mars-octobre 1901.) BeBan9on, 1902. Size 10 x 6|,pp. 120. 
^reeenUd by the Author. 

^torieal— Cartography. Biv, G. Italiana 9 (1902) : 643-644. Xrrera. 

XJn particolare notovole in una Carta nautica del secolo xv. C. Errera. 
On a legend showing the influence of Battista Beccario on the maps of Roselli. 

^Utorical—Molanns. Ortroy • 

Lettres de Jean Molanus (Van der Molen) k Gerard et k Bath^emy Mercator. Par 
F. Van Ortroy. Bmxelles: Kiesaling et Cie., 1901. Size 9x6, pp. 72. Pre- 
mnied by ike Author. 

Hittorieal — ^Toieanalli and Columbus. Vignaud. 

Toecanelli and Columbus. Letters to Sir Clements R. Markham, o.b., etc., and to 
0. Raymond Beazley. With an Introductory Note and the Bibliography of this 
OoDtroversy. London : Sands & Co., 1909. Size 9 x 5}, pp. 32. Presented by the 
Author. 

No. I.— July, 1903.] i 



114 NEW MAPS. 

GEHXBAL. 

BritUh ColoniM. NineUenUi Century 68 (1903) : 670-677. Dyer. 

Gom-growing ia BritiBh Goiintries. By E. J. Dyer. 

British Empire^-Ceniiii. J.R. SttUiitieal 8. 66 (1903) : 31-70. Bftinei. 

A OeoBus of the Empire. By J. A. Baines. 

Comparative Oeography. Bev, O. 52 (1903): 345-353. Desehampi. 

Archipels d^Am^riqae et d'Asie, Essai de G^graphie comparatiye. Far Dr. L. 
Deacbamps. With Map, 

Education. J.G. 2 (1903) : 83-95. 

The Ck)urse of Study in Geography and Nature Study at the Spcyer School, 
Teacher's College, Columbia University. 

Educational— Exhibition. 



Eatalog dcr Ausstellung neuerer Lehr- u. Anschauungsmittcl fUr den Unterricht 
an Mittel8chuloD,K. E. Ostcrreicbisches Museum fur Kunst u. Industrie in Wien. 
Wien : C Fromme, 1903. Size 9x6, pp. zii. and 160. Pretented by Dr. K, 
Veueker, 

Kedioal Oeography. Clemow. 

The Geography of Disease. By Frank G. Clemow. Cambridge : The University 

Press, 1903. Size 8 x 5|, pp. xiv. and 624. Mapt. Price 158. Pfetented by the 
Syndics of the Cambridge University Press. 

Kedieal Oeography. Hanson. 

Tropical Diseases. A Manual of the Diseases of Warm Climates. By Patrick 
Mauson. New and Revised Edition. London, etc.: Cassell & Co., 1903. Size 
7) X 4), pp. xvii. and 756. Plates and Illustrations. Price lOs. 6d. wst. Presented 
by the Publishers, 

Xedieal Oeography— Malaria. Popular Sd, Monthly 62 (1903) : 521-525. Reniek. 

The Relation of Malaria to Agriculture and other Industries of the South. By 
Prof. G. W. Herriok. 

Medical Oeography— Malaria. Climate 4 (1903) : 221-235. Sambon. 

Malaria. By Dr. L. W. Sambon. With Illustrations, 

Medical Oeography— Tsetse-fly Disease. Brodoa. 

B.8. d'Mudes Colon. 10 (1903) : 225-227. 

Le surra ou ** maladie de la tsete^ " chez lee bceufs, "k L^opoldville. With Illus- 
trations. 

Spanish Orammar. Weintt. 

The Spanish Principia. —Part i. A First Spanish Course. Containing Grammar, 
Delectus, and Exercise Book, with Vocabularies. By H. J. Weintz. London: 
J. Murray, 1903. Size 7^ x 4|, pp. x. and 180. Price 3s, Gd. Presented by the 
Publisher, 

Travel. CockerelL 

Travels in Southern Europe and the Levant, 1810-1817. The Journal of 0. B. 
Cockerell, r.a. Edited by his Son, Samuel Pepys Cockerell. London, etc : 
Longmans, Green & Co., 1903. Size 9^ x 6, pp. zii. and 286. Portrait, Price 
10s. 6d. net. Presented by the PMishers. 



NEW HAPS. 

By B. A. RBBVES, Map Curator, R.Q.S 

ETTSOFX. 

England and Wales. Ordnanoe Surrey, 

Obdnanob Survit of Enolakp and Walks : — Revised sheets published by the 

Director-General of the Ordnanoe Survey, Southampton, firom May 1 to 81, 

1903 

10 miles to 1 inoh : — 
Great Britain, with water printed in colour, 9, 10, 11, 12. Is. each, (Publioation 
complete.) 



NKW MAPS. 115 

4 milet to 1 inoh :-^ 

Hill-ihaded map, printed in oolonn, in iheeti, 13, 14. U. Sd. each. 

5 milM to 1 ineh : — 

I^r'inted in oolonn, 81, U. ; folded in ooTen or flat in sheets. 

lineh:— 
E^vlnted in oolonrs, 85, Is. 

9 inehei to 1 mile : — 
Silisbnry Plain, War Department land on, 2f. ; printed in colours on linen. 

^inth— Ooimty Maps : — 
CtaaanbridgwUre, 4 8.b.,5 8.i., 8 s.w., 13 n.w., 8.w., 17 8.W., s.e., 23 s.w., &i., 25 8.w., 

S&0 N.E., 8.W., 8.E., 27 N.W., 8.W., 29 8.E., 30 N.W., N.E., 8.W., 8.E., 81 N.W., 38 8.B., 34 

so'.^., B.E., 35 H.W., N.E., 8.W., 8.E., 36 S.W., 41 N.W., N.B., B.W., 42 8.W. Honot, 38 
Br.^.,46 H.w. (46 8.W. and 52 n.w.), 46 s.e. (52 n.w. and 46 b.w.), 52 n.b., 53 s.e. 
O-loiiMsteiBhiro, 4 n.s., 7 8.B., 14 n.w., 15 n.i., 33 n.e., 49 n.b., 58 n.e. Kontgomory- 
s^^irt, 30 ■.■., 31 M.W., S.B., 41 s.w. Shropshire, 10 n.w., 16 n.b., 84 s.w., 35 s w., 36 
>a-^., 37 8.W., 40 S.E., 41 S.B., 43 n.e., 44 N.w., 46 S.B., 47 n.w., n.b., s.e., 48 n.w., 
'^-^j 50 N.W., 51 N.W., S.W., 52 N.E.. 55 N.w. Staffordshire, 22 n.w., 8.w. Suffolk, 
SO a.£., 81 8.W., 41 N.B., 42 8.w. Warwickshire (Bet), 50 n.e., 56 n.e. Wiltshire, 
^ x.s. Woreestershire and (Do. Det. Xos. 8 and 4). 44 n.e., 50 s.e., 57 n.w., 58 n.e. 
xorkshire, 290 s.w., 296 n.w., n.e., 300 n.w., n.b. Is. each. 

M-ineh — County Maps : — 

Camliridgeshire, XL. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16; XLVII. 1, 4, 5, 8. 9, 11, 12; XLIX. 1, 

?. a^ 4,6,7. 9, 13; LIV. 11, 12; LV. 14; LVI. 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 13; LVIL 10, 16; 

LVXIL 7, 10. 11, 13, 15, 16; LIX. 3, 4, 7, 8; LXI. 1, 2 ; LXU. 3. Dorset, XX. 

1*- eioneestershire, XVIIL 7 : XXIV. 4, 11,12; XXV. 1. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 : XXVL 

f. IS, 15, 16; XXXI. 9, 10, 14; XXXIX. 3, 7. 8; XL. 2, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 

l^* 16; XLVIL 1,9, 10, 12, 15; XLVIIL 2, 5, 7. 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14; LV. 9, 

*?-• 16 ; LVll. 5, 14, 15, 16 ; LXIII. 3, .\ 9, 14 ; LXIV. 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 

i^. 15, 16; LXV. 6 ; LXVIIL 4, 7 ; LXIX. 2, 8, 4, 7. 8, 11, 14, 15, 16 ; LXXII. 

*2_XXXIII. 2, 7, 15. Leicestershire, XV. 10, 14, 15 ; XXII. 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14 ; 

i^^^JIL 14, 15; XXIV. 2, :{, 6, 10, 11 ; XXVIIL 2, 4, 8, 12, 15; XXIX. 1, 2, 9. 

■'^^^s>pshire, LVI. 14; LVIL 13; LXIV. 11, 14; LXV. 5; LXVL 12, 15; LXIX. 

^» ^ 2, 14 ; LXX. 10 ; LXXL 4, 8 ; LXXH. 1, 3, 4, 5, t>, 7, 8 ; LXXIIL 1, 2, 3, 5, 

,7^ ^ 1*2; LXXVL 6. Somerset, XIL 2, 8, 11 ; XIIL 1, 2. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11. 

i^^ 13, 14, 15, 16; XIX. 5, 6; XXI. 7, 8. 11, 12, 15; LXXIIL 2. Staffordshire, 

it;,:*^U. 8 ; LV. II, 13, 16; LXI. 11 ; LXX. 16; LXXL 2. Warwickshire, IL 12, 

ii* i III. 2, 5, 6 : V. 4, 8 ; X. 6. Worcestershire, IV. 15 ; XIIL 3, 4, 7, 9. York- 

f^^jo. CCLXXXV. 6. 3«. each. 

^"^^^ Stanford, London Agf^nt.) 

"^^^mad and Wales. Oeological Survey. 

^^e-inch scale, new aeries, colour printed. Leioester, sheet 156 (Drift edition), 
^th ezplanatioo. U. 6d. 

If EHOIBS : — 

iioester. Geology of the Country near (explanation of sheet 156). 3s. 
^ -^. Stanford, London Agent) 

^^^land and Wales. Bartholomew. 

^be Surrey Atlas of England and Wales. A series of eighty-four plates of maps 
^tid plans, with Descriptive Text, illustrating the Topography, Physiography, 
Geology, Olimate, and tiie Political and Commercial Features of the (Jountry. 
X^gned by and prepared under the direction of J. G. Bartholomew, f.b.s.k., f.r q.s. 
I^arts 5 and 6. Edinburgh: John Bartholomew & Co., 1903. Presented by the 
J^MUhert. Price 2«. 6d. each part. 
Part T. contains the following sections of the ^-inch map : No. 40, Brecon 
^d Builth ; 41, Cardigan; 42, Milford Ha?en; 43, Swansea and Carmarthen. In 
addition to these, this part also includes the dedication and contents of text. Part vi. 
<^tains: section 21, Cromer and the Broads; 22, The Wash; 44, Cardiff and 
Herthyr ; 45, Bristol and Monmouth. As part yi. is issued with part v. in June, 
there will be no part published in July. 

liTsrpool Bay. Belam and Ashton. 

Chart of Liverpool Bay. Surveyed by the Marine Surveyor of the Mersey Docks 
and Harbour Board, 1902. Scale 1000 yards to an inch. Henry Belam, Com- 



mander, a.N., Marine Borreyor: H. G. O. Asliton, f b.q.s., i 
Hiirveyor. PrmtnUd by B. fl G. Aihtoa, &r;. 
New edition. showiDg altarsUoiu in saadbatiki (uiil louiidinga. 



A*la Kinar. 




Ki«p«Tt. 
Kiirtfl von Eleinuien. Boale I : 400,000 or 6 3 ttat. mile* to an in'ili. Von Dr. 
Bichard Kie|.e7t. Blieels : GV,, MaUtU, an.l DV . Haleb, Hertio ; DiBtrioh llBimer 
(Eroat Vohsen), IEI02. Priee (Jm^rA'i. 
Britiih North Bonuo. British Horth Born*o Gompanr 

A Map of Britiali Nortb Borneo. Compiled from the Enicliali Admiralty I'barls, 
mnd ftoax tlie Surreyi and Explorations of Messrs. F. WiUi. W. It. I'ryer, F. 
tUlton, Heiiry Walker, O. D. DJy, and R. I). Ueastoa, in the aerriru of tbe Hritisti 
North Borneo Companv. Boale 1 ; 633.600 or 10 stat miles to on inoh. 2 sheets. 
London: Edvard Stanford, 1903. PHet it. Gd. 

A good general map of Briluh North Borneo, iihowiug the present state of oar 
knowledge of Iho oaantry. Soundiogs are giieo round the coasl, and tbe tnaji it 
divided into two minate squares. Land sold to subsidiary companiEH and others is 
indicated. In addition to Briliah N'ortlj Itorneu. the map also includes the a'ljacent 
portions of Brunei uud Saranali. 

Indiui OoTSnimenl InrTsys. SurTeyOT-asugral of India. 

Indian Atlas, 4 miles to uniQeh. Shcots: 21 N.K.,pirts of Udaipor. Jodhpur.BDd 
Birobi (Bajputana Ageacv), and of Idot, Danla, aod Palanpur. Native States 
(Bombay Pi<>aidenry), additions to 1897. 35n.e., parts of Native Stntesof Gwalior 
and Indore (C.l. Agency), and of Udaipur. Tonk. Bundi, and Jhalawar (Kajputnna 
Ag;ency), additions to 1901. 39 a.E.. parts of Native Stales of Udaipur, Jbalawar, 
■'artabgarb. and Baaswara (Bajpatuis), and of Owalior. lodore, and Western 
MalwB Agendes (Central India}, corrections to 1899, 1900. 38 s.e.. parts o1 
JiHtricts Aurengahad uud Bid (Nizam's Datniuions), Alimednagar and Nasik 
(Bombay Preaideuoy), additions (o 1900, 1901. 71 n.k., parts of districla Jubbul- 
pore, Damoli, Handla, and NarsiQgbpur (Central Provinces), and of Rewab (O.I. 
AgeoDy), additions to 1901, 19U2, lOCi N.i:., parts of districts Falsmau, Bunchi, 
and Singhbbum, and of Jashpur State (Obota Naapnr), Bengal, additions to IBSll. 
ITS s.F .parts of districts l^ylliot, Caohor, and North I:UBljai Hills (Aaiaai). and 
Native State of Hill Tipi>era (Bengal), additiouH to 1899. 130 *.t... parti nf 
distriata Naga bills, Hanipur Native Blate. and of Nsga tribes<Aasam), addi- 
tions to 1S94.— India, 64 miles to an inch. 4 sheets.— Kail way ByHtem of India. 
80 miles to an incb. corrected up la April 30, 1902. — Province of Aaeatu, 16 
milee to an inch, 2 sheets, 1902. — Ansaa Survey, 1 mile to an inob. Sheeta: 
(Preliminary Edition) 61. districts Darraug and Nowgong, Seasons 1887-88, 
1891-92, awl 1897-98,1902; 165. district Luahai Uilts, Season 1899-1901, 1902. 
— ^Bengal Sarvey. 1 mile to an inch. Sheets; 127, porta of district! Rtuiebi 
and Binghbhum and Ganpur State, Season I862-tj3, 1902 : 128. parts of dUtrict 
Singhbhum uud States of Gangpur uud Bonai, Beaaoa lg60-i;2. 1902; (Pre> 
limioary Edition) 141, 144. 145, district Mazaffarpur, Season 189S-96. 1901.— 
Lower Provinces, Bengal, district Ilancbi. 4 njiles to an inch, additiooa and 
correctionsaptDOctobsr. 1901,1902.— Bombay Survey, I mile to on incb. Shaeta; 
1 8i1, parts of Pancbi Mabalo District and Statea oF Baroda, Chhota Udeypur, and 
Bariya. SeaBous 1883-84 aad lSi«-91. corrected up to February, 1898, lOUl ; 206. 
parts of Ratuagiri District, and Kolbapnr and Southern Maratba Agency, SeaaoD 
1892-93, additions and oorrectiooa up to March. 1902.— Burma Survey, 1 mili; to 
an bch. Sheeta; 247 (New Series), parts of districts Ueiktila, Tamethlo. and 
Southern Shan States. SeasoDs I»d0-9t and 1898-1901,1902; 288(307 Old Series). 
parts of districts Mnndalny, Kyankee. Norlhcm and Southern Shan Statea, Seasona 
1895-97, 1902; (^Preliminary Eilition) 289 (New Strlea), Northern and Soathern 
Shao States, and diatricia Manilalay aud Eyaiikae, Seueon 1899-1900. 1901 ; 431 
(New Seriea), part af Northern Sbau Slates, Season 1900-01. 1902; (Preliiaitiaiy 
Edition) 434 (New Seriea). part of South Hsenwi State. Season 1899-1900. 1901 ; 
439 and 508 (New Series), parts of Southern Sbaa States. Seasons 1897-96 and 
1900-01, 1902 ; r>07 (New Series), parts of Northern and Southern Blian States 
Season 190(M)1, 1902.— Upper Burma, 16 miles to an incb ; (Third Edition) 
2 sheets, 1902. — Nortb-Eustem Frontier, 4 miles to an inch. Sheets ; (Fourth 
Edition) 23 s.k., Burma and China (Yun-nan Province), Seaaona 1894-95 and 
1B97-1900, 1902; 28 s.e.. h.w., 29 n.e,, b.w., fl.t., :« s.e., 37 N.E., 44 n.w., 8.w. ; 
China, Sau-ebnan Prorinoes, Season 1899-1900. 1902; 29 s.w., SO e.w.. 39 a.w., 
Orioa, Ynn-nan and SBn-ohoan I'roTiiKws, Bmson 1899-1900, 1902; Obhia, 



A 



NEW MAPS. 117 

ran-nan Provinoe, Season 1898-1900, 1902; 88 n.w., China, S«n-chuan and 
KofltX/hon PioTinoea, Season 1898-99, 1902 ; 38 8.W., China, Ynn-nan and Knei- 
Cbou PzoTineea, Season 1898-99, 1902; 44 n.e., China, Hu-Pei Provinoe, 
Saaaon 1898-99, 1902; 44 B.E., China, Hn-Pei and Hu-nan ProyinoeB, Season 
1898-99, I902.--Soirth Eastern Frontier, 4 miles to an inch. Sheets : 12 n.e. and 
v.w., China, Yunnan Province, Season 1898-1900, 1902.— Central Provinces, 
District Betnl, 8 miles to an inch, 1902.— Hyderabad Assigned Districts, District 
AnuBoti, 8 miles to an iuoh, 1902.— United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, district 
Pilibhii, 8 miles to an inch, corrected np to 1901, 1902.— Chart of Triangulation 
ind Traverse, No. 20 Party (Bnrma Forest), 2 miles to an inch. Sheets : 254 and 
256 (Bnrma), New Series, Seasons 1890-95, 1902.— China Field Force Survey, 
2 miles to an inch. Sheets : 1-9, 12, 13, 15-21, China (Chih-Li Province), Season 
1900-01, 1902.— Central India and Kajpntana Survey, 1 mile to inch. Sheet 228 
(Second Edition), parts of States Jaipur, Jodhpur aad Kishangarh (lisjputana 
Agency), Seasons 1865-66 and 1867, additions and corrections to July, 1882, 1902. 
PremUed by H.M, Secretary of Slate /or India, through the India Office. 

Piking and Tientsia. Kdnigl. Prenss. Landes-Anftiahme. 

Plans of Peking, scale 1 : 17,500 or 3 5 inches to 1 stai mile; Gesandtschafta- 
viertel in Peking, scale 1: 3000 or 21*12 inches to 1 stat. mile; Tientsin, scale 
1 : 25,000 or 2*5 inches to 1 stat. mile. Aufgenommen 1900-1901 von den Feld- 
^Pographen ded Deutschen Ostasiatischen £xpeditions-Korps. Herausgegeben 
▼oQder Kartographisohen Abthellungder Konigl. Preuss. Landes-Aufnahme 1903. 

AFBICA. 

^^^^^nl Africa. Universities* Mission to Central Africa, 

■^be Universities' Mission to Central Africa Atlas, with descriptive letterpress by 
members of the staff of the Mission and others, and a preface by Sir H. H. 
vohnaton. London : Offices of the Universities* Mission to Central Africa, 1903. 
^riee 2t. 6d. net. Presented by the Secretary of the XJniversitie* Mianon to Central 

. ^^ etlas of eight sheets of maps and plans, with descriptive letterpress, showing 
~f '^tions and spheres of operations of the universities' mission in Central Africa. 
J^Koi^pg (iQ^ plans, which have been prepared by Messrs. Bartholomew, are clear and 
9^» a.iid the fact that the text is by members of the mission staff personally ac<iuaintcil 
^^ the special districts they descrilje udds considerably to its interest. 

^o Stats and HorthWest Bhodesia. Grey. 

Tanganyika Concessions, Ltd. Mr. George Grey's Maps showing Exploration and 
l^i«coveries to September 30, 1902. Scales 1 : 506,880 or 8 stat. miles to an inch 
*^^ 1 : 1,000,000 or 157 stat. miles to an inch. London : Edward Stanford, 1003. 

^bese maps include the regions of North- West Ithodesia and the Congo Free State 
to the west of Lakes Bangweuiu and Mweru and north of lat. 13° S. They are based 
upon recent route surveys and explorations, and although no pretence has been made 
at great aconraoy, they fill in a considerable area that has hitherto been very im- 
P^'^^tly known. The maps must only be considered as provisional, and members of 
Hr. Qrsy's expedition are now making a more complete survey of the region. 

O^^ttan Bast Afdea. Sprigade and Moisel. 

^srte von Deutsch-Ostafrika* Scale 1 : 300,000 or 4*7 stat. miles to an inch. 
Begonnen unter Leitung von Dr. Kichard Kiepert ; fortgesetzt unter Leitung von 
Paul Sprigade und Max Moisel. Sheet E 5, Kissaki. Berlin : D. Ueim( r (E. 
Vohsen), 1902. 

TmivaaL de Hora. 

Hining and Geological Map of the Witwatersrand Goldfields. Compiled from 
sQthentio information and actual survey. By M. H. de Hora, o.e.,m.b. July, 1902. 
9 sheets. London : G. Philip & Son. Price, unmounted in sheets, with index, 2U. 

A considerable amount of detailed information is given on this map concerning 
mining properties, water-supply, direction of reefs, and other similar matters connected 
with tne Witwatersrand Goldfields. It is accompanied by an index to names. 

TiBis. Service Oeographique de I'Armee, Paris. 

Tanisie. Scale 1:50,000 or 0*78 stat mile to an inch. Sheet No. Ixiii., 
Kaironan. Paris : Service G^ographique de TArmee. Price 1.50 /r. 



AKEBIOA. 
C&UfDrnla. Xelsey and lUnwn. 

Map of the State of Californin showing the Three PriDoipal Faoton in the Water- 
supply. Soale 1 :TG0^20 or 1:1 atat. miles to an inch. Compiled for the t 'aUforniii 
Water and Forast Auooiatioti by Fletcher F. S. KeUey, direottsd by Manden 
MaoaoQ. r;.£, September, 1900, FriKRttd hy Manden Manson, Etq.. o:. 
TbiB map sbu«H tlie ateaa of the principal natershedB hy red lines, with Ugateit 
giring tlie square miles in each, the mean aoDUul minfall in inibeB, and the timber 
and hnuh-oovered areiM and foreet reserve boundiirice. Altogetlier the map is interest- 
ing and instructive iu connection with the phyaiual geography and wttler-aupply of 
California. The data upon which it ia based has been obtaioed from the moBt reliable 
Eourcea, Ihut for Ibc drainage areas liming boen furnished by the State Engineering 
DapaitmeDt, the rainfall from the U.S. Weather BureaD,reoords of J,B. I.ipplQcotl,c.E. 
(Resident Hydragrapher, U.S. Qeologioal Survey), and the Btiite P'ngiTieeriQg Depart- 
ment ; while the reports and mapiof the Californiu State Board of Forestry, 1886 and 
1888, and the U.S. Geological Smrey of 1808, have fumiahed the data for the rorest 
and bmsh areas. 

Caaada. SsiTe7or-'Sen«ral of Canada. 

Sectional Map of Canada. Scale 1 : 190,080 or il stat. miles to an inch. 
Emerson Sheet (I), East of I'rinaipul Meridian. Revised to February 25, 190:1. 
Lake of the Woods Sheet (1a), East of Principal Meridian. Ht-Tiaed to April 14, 
19u:{. Oroas Lake Sheet (2a), East of Friocipsl Meridian. Sensed to April 1, 
1903. Dnfferin Sheet (9), West of Ptiuoijial Meridian. Revised to SeptamtiM 3. 
1903. Armit Sheet (30>, W.^sC of Principal Meridian. Revised to April II, ISO:^, 
Bed Deer Forks Sheet (59), West of Third Meiidinu, Ri^visod loMorohSl, I!M):i. 
Ottawa: Surveyor- Genera! 's Office, 1903. Preientfd bt/ llie Sunvyor-General oj 
Canada. 
Manitoba. Department ot the Interior, Canada. 

Manitoba. Scale 1 : 79Z,iino or I2'3 slat, miles to an inch. Otbiwa : Departmeiit 
of the Interior. Prutnttd by tht Drparlment o/ llie Interifr. Canad-i. 

GBKEEAL. 

Eanarn EmplrM. Hmndy. 

Murray's llundy Clussical Maps. TheKaKlera Empires. Edited by G. II. Grnudy, 
>LA.. of ilraaonose College, Oxford. London; .lohn Murniy. FtUe \i. Vrfnentrd 
by (!•,■ VublUhtr. 
This sheet contains two mapu. the BrHt of which, on the Kcalo of 1 : r,!.0Oil,U0ll, \a 

orogniphioally coloured, and shovtB the empire of Alexander (he Great : whilst tlit* 

seoond, whivh iticludes a slightly larger urea (on Che scale of I : 14,4U0,'KW). repreaants. 

by difTerent tints, the empires of the Baylouiaua, Lydiane, Hoilea, iiud Prniiina. Like 

others of this useful aeries, the mapx are aroninpanied by an index of plaoo-naniea. 

Woild. LBbmann and Seobcl. 

Atlas filr bobere l.ebmnstulten mit besonderer Boriicksichtigaiig der Hoodels- 
Rtugraphie. B'Mirbeitet uod herausgegeben vnu Dr. ft. Lehmann und .\. Scobel. 
Bielefetd und I.eipiig : Velbagen St Klaaing. 19<iK. 
Although it is not so stated, this atlas may be considered aa a now edition of that 

brought out in I8!(7 under the superintendence of Dr. li. Lehmann and Dr. W. Petiold. 

It containa eighty sheet* of maps, plana, aod diagrams, cleariy drawn and printed in 

oolaors, dealing with physical geography, meteorology, vegetation, populatian, and fauna, 

in addition Ui those showing political diviBions. 

World. Btieler 

Nene, nennta Lieferungs-AnsKahc von Stielcrs Hand-Atlai, lno Karten iu Kupfsr- 
Btioh. 17 & 18 Liofeiung. Gotliir Justus Perthes. Friet tH^pf.eaehfixrt. 
Omtains the foor fbllowine maps: Nos, 17 and 18, dstorreioh-Unftam, Bl. I u. 2, 

1 : l,5()tl,lllJ0, von O. Vogel. No. 38, Groasbrilannien, Siidl. Jilatt.. I : I.5n0,<l00, voii 

O. Koffmahn. Xo. 58, Ost-Sibirien, 1 ; 7,flOll,l'l)li„ von H. Habenicht. The two last 

are new maps, while the others are rerleed editions. 

OHA&Tf. 
AdBiialt7 Cbarta. Hydrographic Dspartment, Admiraltf. 

t. Admiralty, daring 




KIW MAPS. 119 

No. InchM. 

|SK8| Tidal streamB, ChaDnel ifllands. Each id. 

133641 '^^^ "^"^^ twelve oharts bound together in an Atlas. 5ff. 

S315 m = 1-30 England, sonth coast :— Straight point to Portland. 3«. 6d. 

3902 m = 6*9 Scotland, west coast :— Narrows of Baasay and Oaol More. 2$. 6d, 

«Qi « - /6-88\8ootland. Hebrides, west coast :~Flannan isles or Seven Hunters, 

*"^"*-\3-4/ Snlisker, North Bona. If. 6d. 

3819 m = 0*78 North American lakes. Lake Huron : — Goderich to Chantry 

island. 2s. 6d, 
1465 m = 0*26 South America, east coast : — Sao Sebastiao island to Bom Abrigo 

iidand. 2i. 6d. 
3836 m =: 0'24 Aleutian islands : — Unimak and Akutan passes and approaches. 

28, Qd. 

895 m ={4.0} Africa, west coast : — Isles de Los, Eonakri road. 

3347 m s= 5*28 Japan : — Plans on the nortli coast of Nipon. li. 6d. 
2035 m = 1*99 New Zealand, north island: — Coromanael harbour. If. 6d, 
3838 m = 1*6 Pacific ocean. Gilbert island : — South part of Nonuti. 1«. 6//. 
2221 Black sea. Plans of Russian ports on the north shore. Plan 

added : — Gagri anchorage. 
2220 Black sea. Ports and anchorages on the south shore. IMan 

added : — Kerasunda. 
1535 Plans on the east coast of Iceland. Plan added : — Home fiord 

entrance. 
1806 Africa, west coast. Great Fish bay to Walfisch bay. Plan 

added : — Swakopmund road. 
2662 Celebes. Ports in Makassa strait. New Plans : — Majene road and 

Balangnipa road. 
3209 Celebes. Bays and anchorages in Makassar strait. Plan added : — 

Mampya road. 
769 Admiralty and Hermit islands. Plan added : — Carola bay. New 

plan : — Hermit islands. 
(I D. Potter, Agent.} 

Charts Caneelled. 

^^- Cancelled by No. 

m Coromandel harbour. {^''c'ow^del harbour 2035 

5269 Nonuti, south-west an- r New plan, 
chorage ; plan on this sheet.\ .South part of Nonuti 3338 

Oharts that have reoetved Important Correotlons. 

No. 1610, England:— North Foreland to Orfordness. 2960, Lapland :— Port 
£katerininskoi and Pala bay. 2280, White sea :— Arkhangel bay. 2366, 
Gennany : — ^north coast : — Sheet XL : — Arkona to Dievenow river. 2369, Germany, 
>M)rth coast :—Bixh6ft to Bruster-ort. 88, Spain, north coast .—Plans :— San 
Sobsstian, entrance of San Martin de la Arena. 1130, Sardinia: — Cagliari bay. 
1550, Iceland : — Reydar and Faskrud fiords. 414, West Indies .-—Cuba, Havana 
Arbour. 2677, West Indies, Leeward islands :—Gulebra or Passage islands. 
^, West Indies, Leeward islands: — Approaches to Points k Pitre, etc. 3107, 
SoQth America, east coast : — Cape St Tnom^ to Guaratiba point. 2837b, Persian 
Solf, Dortbem portion. 2760, Sumatra, Sheet I. : — Acheh head to Tyingkok bay. 
2201, Sumatra : — Plans in. 709, Sumatra, west coast : — Ujong Masang to Ujong 
lodnpura. 941b, Eastern archipelago, western portion, sheet 2. 942a, Eastern 
Vohipelago, eastern portion, sheet 1. 934, Eastern archipelago: — Surabaya, 
Bali, and Sapndi straits. 2636, Philippine islands : — Strait of Makassar, north 
part. 389, Ohina, north-east coast :~Shanghai harbour. 1236, China, north 
coast :— Port Arthur. 2657, Japan :— Gulf of Tokyo. 2388, Russian Tartary :— 
Sea of Okhotsk. 1750, Australia, south coast : — Port Adelaide. 2130, Tasmania : 
—Port Davey. 3269, Pacific ocean, Gilbert islands : — Tarawa lagoon. 968, Pacific 
ooean, EUice islands :— Mua and Mata Utin anchorage. 

(/. 2>. Potter, Agent.) 

Isrtk Atlantio Oeean and Mediterranean Sea. Meteorological Office. 

POot Chart of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean for June, 1903. London : 
Meteorological Offioe. Prios 6d. Preeenied 6y the Meteorologieal Qfioe, Lond(m, 



120 



NEW HAPS. 



I 



United SMtM Ohftrt. United St«t«i Hydrogrkphie OS' 

rilc)[ Chart of llie North Paoifiu Ocean fur Juoe, 1903. U.S. Hjdrogtaphio 
Office, WusbingtoD, D.C. Frrunled bji the 17,5. Hydrographie Cfgioa. 

PHOTOGKAFHS. 

California. Anhibal 

Twelve phoU^npha of the Yosemite vallej, (.'aliforniH, taken by Captuin J. F. J. 
Archibald. PreienM by Oaplain J. F. J. Archibald. 
Ad cioetlent little Kiiea of platiaotypes, measuring 6jj x H inches, 
fl) The "floor" of the Yoaemlte valley: (2) Upper Yoeemite valley: (3) Tomu 
Tulley in winter fTom Ingpection point; (4) Upper entrance to Yoeemite vatlej: (.■ 
El Capitan, Yoeemite Tulloy ; (6) The pack-train going into Yoiemite valley ; (l ao 
!)) The upper and lower Yoeemite falle : (D) Merced river, Yoiemilo valley; (II 
The Half-dome, Yoeemite valley ; (11) Oignntii' sequaia tree, Maripoea county. 
Gold Coast. Wome 

Seventy-five phetographe of the Clold C'oaat, teMaa by T. H. Woranop, hlsq. Fre- 
tmted by T. H. Wortnop, Ktq. 
This ie a set of Kodak photographs repiesihnting lypioal eoa^t teenery of the fid 
Coast. Although small, moat of thoio are fairly clear. 

(1) Canvoyofsalt.belowAniedica.Valtariver; (2)DiTlngrorBlieIlaDearthenlUj 
of Dodi, Volta river -. (3) Village on aaiid spit near Dodt Custom sUtion, Volta ti«ai 
(1) Kmtchia falls: (5| Head nfKiatohie falls; (C) Foot of Rratchie falls; (7) Hhu 
Man. Kratchier (8) CarrierB waiting for loads, Kratchie; (9) Women c«rrien ww 
iiig For loads, Kratehie : (10) Onrriers storting on marub from Kratchie; (11 aod II 
Between Akusi and Kpong; (13) Si'me of the larger rocks at the head of Aku 
rHpids; (14) l.ooking uptheVolta river from Akusi landing; (15) Volta rivet i^i 
Akusi rapids, looking north lovards Kpong rapids ; (16) One of the rocks in the Aku 
rapids: {17 and 18) Entering the Akusi mpids from Akusi: (I!)) Books and sandip' 
opposite Akusi Custom ntstion ; (20) Akusi landing, steamer left high up on the bajl 
in 1884; (21) Akusi rapids; (22) Bapida between Akusi and Kpong; (23) Bocks i 
Kpong rapids : (24) Bivpr in front of Kpong Cnstooi etalion ; (25) Kpong tnaike 
place; (2)i) Hend of Kjiong rapids; (27) Prisoners at Eethu; CiS) Meoi or Ai»tl( 
rapids : (29) Looldng soutli over Apfaeon rapids ; (BO-33) Loohine up weet ahanne 
Senki rapids ; (34) Senki rapids ; (35) Ouslom staliou. Aseaoherie : (36) LookiB 
north over Yahin rapids; |37) Boeky point about 2 miles south of Faau Costal 
station; <38-40) Simpi rapids; (41) Outcrop of quarti just above Akwama, oa U 
weet bank of the Volta river: (42) O'Buiumann station, luoking north: (43) Jaf^ 
rapids ; (44) Apatifo or Apasse rapids ; (45) Barrier rocks, Volta river ; (46) LooklB 
toiith over Barrier rocks : (47) Yabin rapids, looking south, showing the ridge of rock 
that run across the bead of the rapids from the island in the middle of the stteaiu I 
the west bank of the river; (46) Barrier rocks above ^'ambawso station; (49 and oC 
Akroeu or Oingnr rapids: (.'>!) (.'hesicase Custom station; (52) Chome rapida; [TA 
'Smnll river entering the Volta river just above AHsaoberi station ; (54 1 Kete muket 
(.■i.'i) Kaiiifioll or Split Barrier rooks; (56) Agrama rapids; (ri7j Looking south ovi: 
liie A^rama rapids; (5r<) Hr. Worsnop's oanoo. 

Hew Bouth Walei. H.S.'W. Bailway Commiitiwen 

I'botographio reproductions of Places Couvonient to tlio Linos of tlie New South 

Wales Government Kailwayn. Published by authority of tlie Bailvray Cam- 

mibsioners. Prttatl&i 6y the A-jmC- Grntrul /or Neie South H'a/rs. 

An album of photographic reproductions of places of interest in tlic noighbouboed 

of New Bouth Wales railways, prei^red for the use of loarista. They are as followe ;— 

(1) Mosman bay, Sydney harbour; (2) Botanical gardens; (3) Bnlli paM; (I] 

fltanirell park; (5) Tree ferns. Cembewarra mountains; (6) Hawkesbnry imUwU 

bridge; (7) Hawkeebity river: (8) Woy Woy ; (9) Meryla Twin foils. MoaaTkl*;O0J 

Hount Kosciusko; (11) View on the Nepean river; (12) Tbe Weeping rock. Wont 

worth falls; (13) Bridal veil, Katocmba falls ; (14) Satoomba falls; (15) Fairy Dal] 

watL-rfall ; (I'i) The Willows, .lenolaii cotes. 

N'3. — It would greatly add to tha valua of tho oolleotlon of Fbote 
ftraptiB whlob has been oetabllahed In the Map Boom, If all th« FaUowi 
of the Sooiety who have taken photographs during their traTsla, would 
forward copies of them to the SIhp Curator, by whom they will Im 
aoknowledEed. Should tha donor have purohased the photograplu, tt 
will be nsetld for refbrenoe If the name of the photographer and hli 
addreM are giwn. 




NATIONAL ANTABOTXG BXPXDITXON. 
PROVISIONAL MAP. 



^ 



J 



. Arm.lMII II fB'rmr Sep 10 2* 

. Scot,S><aMi,m.Sh»Sen.W.Uan r»rn.r.Sep: 

. Royile * KofiHiii Sep 10-19 . 



The 



Geographical Journal. 



No. 2. AUGUST, 1903. Vol. XX II. 

EARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAY OF NAPLES.* 

By R. T. GUNTHER, M^., F.R.a.S., Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

''JaceDt in litore sediiicionim fragmenta quie romanam maiestatem prfeseferaot, 
^bierunt in scopalos orastatis piscium generibus habitatoB." — Capaocio, * Hist. Neap.,' 
cap. xiv. 1607. 

•^>f a preliminary note read at the Bradford Meeting of the British 

-^saociation in 1900, it was suggested that the ancient rnins in the sea 

^ZoDg the Neapolitan shore might yield satisfactory information regard- 

^^S the Roman coast-line of the Phlegrssan Fields. With this view a 

^^"w survey of parts of the coast was prepared and an interim report 

^*^e laid before the 1901 Meeting by the Committee on ** the changes of 

the land-level of the Phlegraean Fields." We hope that, by describing 

the more noteworthy geogiaphicai results, a light may be thrown on 

^Oae vexed problems and may tend to elucidate them. Babbage and 

otlx^j,g have shown that the burrows of marine shell-fish in the columns 

^^ the Temple of Serapis, at a height of about 19 feet above sea-level, 

"^^r witness to a subsidence followed by an elevation of the land through 

i^ot less than this distance since the construction of the building. We 

"^v© })een able to collect supplementary evidence which indicates that 

^<^CQ the Homan dominion the Neapolitan coast firdt sank about 35 feet, 

^^d then rose about 19 feet to slightly above its present level. Reasons 

^^U be given for believing that this great oscillatory movement was not 

^^ ^ seismic nature and confined lo the immediate vicinity of a volcano, 

*>ut affected so large an area that it must be regarded as of the order of 

*^OBe slow and majestic movements of the crust of the Earth which are 

'^^^ in progress in Sweden and elsewhere, by which continents have 

''^^^n from the sea, and which can often only be detected by observa- 

^^tig spread over a long space of time. 

♦ Read at the Boyal Geographical Society, February 9, 1903. Map, p. 236. 

No. I [.—August, 1903.] K 



122 EARTH-MOViMENTS IN THE BAY OF NAPLES. 

The assertion that the land-level in Boman times was about 16 feet 
higher than it is at present, depends partly upon the disoovery of two 
submerged regions covered by the foundations of numerooB houfles, 
perhaps the forgotten site of Parthenope or Palepolis, with an anoient 
harbour and a coast roid, which are not withoat archaeological interest 

To the authors whose works inspired and facilitated our labours, we 
would make most grateful acknowledgment. Without Lyell, Niocolini, 
Beloch and many another, we could have aooomplished but little in the 
time at our disposal. We also thank our fellow-members of the British 
Association for their encouragement of the work, and H.B.M. Consul- 
General at Naples, Mr. E. Neville-Rolfe, for furthering oar plans. 

I. CAPRI. 

Indications of changes in the level of the island of Capri are veiy 
numerous and clear, and many ave of comparatively recent date. 

It is not proposed to discuss here that vast series of earth-moTements 
which have resulted in the uprising of the Capriote Tertiary limestones 
from a horizontal position on the sea-bottom to the sur&ce and higher, 
with a dip from south to north at angles varying from 25^ to 70**. 
Concerning the details of these very ancient changes on a gigantic 
scale we have but scanty knowledge ; they no doubt were in operation 
before the strata of Capri had become dislocated from those of an 
extensive limestone continent. Some of the evidence we are about to 
consider points to the long-continued existence of the island nearly in 
its present form. 

The most important evidence of relative levels of sea and land in 
former times is of three kinds. Firstly, marks of marine eroMon, oocurrisg 
either above or below the present sea-level; secondly, raised ^eodbef, 
or beaches apparently collected by, but now beyond the reach of the 
waves; and, thirdly, submerged constructions, now standing at a lower 
level than that at which they were built. 

Marine Erosion at the Present Day. — The details of the process ol 
erosion of limestone by the sea may be well studied at many places 
around the coast of Capri. Owing to the absence of a large tide in 
this part of the Mediterranean, the erosive action of the waves ii 
nearly confined to one horizontal zone. In those parts of the island 
where the clifi& rise sheer from deep water, and are neither too mu(k 
exposed to the fierce onslaught of storm waves, nor composed of roek 
of too friable a nature, there we find a groove chased horizontally 
along the face of the cliffs at the water-line. The size and depth of 
tLis groove varies with the hardness or exposure of the rock, but ca 
the whole it is deepest at the mean tide-level. 

The most vigorous erosion, therefore, is taking place between tris*^ 
and water. 



KARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THZ BAT OF NAPLES, 



123 



Immediately above aod below the water-line, Brosion ia proceeding 
very alowly; above, partly on account of the absence of the eroding 
medinm, partly on accouot of a protective coat of calcium carbonate 
diatolved from the recks above and apread by a trickling fittu of Bpriog 
water- In some placea there ie au organic growth forming a oon- 
BpicQouB blaok band distant a foot or two from the water; this alto 
Eeema to have a protective action. Beneath the surface of the water, 
bnt near enough to benefit by the foam of breaking waves, a garb 
of coralline and algal growth luieuriateB, and protects the stone. 

The size and appearance of the narrow horizontal groove indicate 
tbftt it is chie^y the result of steady erosion by solul ton m calm neather 




at the snrface of the water. The cliffs of Capri tell ns in ckar geo- 
logical siga-languBge that the waves which daah up in etorins can 
bftve taken but a email part in the etching of the groove. On the 
north side of the island calm has prevailed, and the grooving and 
undercutting are well marked ; on the south, full eipoaure to the open 
aea has resulted in foster scaling from the face of the cliffs and in the 
obliteration of the groove of solution. 

When rain and spray fall on flat limestone surfaces near the sea- 
level, solnlion ia very rapid. The result may bo seen in all stages, on 
mozky a partially submerged rock and boulder on the north and east 
coastB. The process is indicated in the diagram, which was drawn from 
KD actual block of limestone (Fig. 1). The dotted line represents the 
original contour of the block. The portion below water has nearly 
retained its original dimensions, having been protected by a thick growth 
»f algge. At the water-line there is a groove of solution all round the 
Btone; and the upper surfaoe, which is undergoing rapid disintegration 
by rain and spray, is jagged and uncomfortable to walk upon. Soon all 
will be planed down to low-water mark, and then the kindly covering 
of weeda will hinder further destruction. 



124 



EABTH-MOVEMENTS IS THE BAY OF KAPLES. 



Tlie furrow at the preBSnt water-level runa iu and oni of the older 
oaves anil oavities like a hollow moulding round the reoeaees of a huild- 
ing, and may be traced almost all round tho island in the lees exposed 
parts. This furrow i* rarely mdre than a foot in depth; but where 
natural crucke or soft places in the rocks have favoured, the eroBire 
action has been more extensive, and deeper hollows and little caves 
have been scooped out. 

The Upper Erosion -line.— Similar marks of erosion ccenr at other 
levels above the surface of the sea. In some places they are aa clear 
as if they had been cut yesterday, in others they have become almost 
covered up by newly deposited etalaotitic matter ; in the more weathered 
parte they have been entirely obliterated. Wherever they occur, they 




afford an unmistakable indication of having been formed at and by the 
sarfaoe of the sea, and of having been subsequently raised beyond its 

At a height varying from 23 feet to 12 feet above the present sea- 
level, the island is gitt about with a line of holes, grooves, and under- 
cnttinga which are similar in character to those at (he present water- 
level, save only that they are less continuous. For these marks of 
erosion no other explanation can be offered, but that they were wrought 
by causes identical with those which have produced the groove at the 
present sea-level, 

To explain the phenomena, two theories are possible. We may 
either believe, with Niocolini, that the sea-level iu the course of ages 
has been subject to alteration, or that the land has moved. Of the two, 
we favour the latter ; for whereas we are not aware of any proof of 




EARTH-MOVEMKNTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 126 

obange of Bea-levely Oapri is a geological monument to change of land- 
le^el. . The originally horizontal beds of Tertiary limestone have been 
tilted BO as to dip with an inclination which increases greatly from east 
to west. From the Faraglioni to Pta. Yentroso the beds dip at angles 
increasing from 25^ to 35'^ ; near the Green Qrotto the dip is nearly 40^; 
^^l&ile at the south-west comer the dip is as much as 60'^ to 70°. 

It is not surprising, therefore, to find that this tilting has continued 
ui the most recent period, and that the marks of the upper erosion-line 
lie in a plane inclined at an angle to the horizontal. In other words, 
^e past and present marks of marine erosion are 23 feet apart at the 
o^stem end of Capri, but only 12 feet apart at the western end. We 
CAQnot suppose that the sea has changed its horizon. The land must, 
^^Qx*efore, have moved as if on a distant hinge 4 miles away to the 
^^^8t, and have turned through an angle of nearly two minutes of arc. 

.As will appear in the sequel, there is good reason to place the erosion 
^f tlie upper water-line at a period subsequent to the Roman dominion, 
^^d this gives us a basis for a calculation of the rate at which geological 
^lici.xiges of magnitude may take place. 

y^e find that the changes in the relative level of land and sea have 
^ot; been of a uniform but rather of a spasmodic character. All indi- 
<^t;xon8 point to the land haviog remained nearly stationary for 
oormsiderable periods of time, and of having then, m a relatively brief 
BI>^ce, shifted to a new level. As a proof, we find that the marks 
0^ erosion are confined to narrow zoncp. The island, moreover, appears 
^ iiave remained stationary in its present position for a shorter period 
*™^ii at the 23 to 12 foot level, for the upper marks are deeper and 
|'^^>Te conspicuous than those along the present water-level. Hence, 
^ ^e may assume that the rate of marine erosion has been fairly 
^^^form, we can estimate the relative duration of periods during which 
^e land-level has remained constant. 

Starting from the south-western comer of the island near the Pla. 
^^i*ena, we find the upper line of holes, grooves, and undercuttings 
*boiit 12 fett above the present water-level. It may be traced at 
^**ious sf ots along the west coast, but, owing to the great extent to 
^^ich the weathering of the limestone has proceeded, the marks are 
^^^ as conspicuous as those along the northern and eastern clififs. 

In and near the Grotta Azzurra the same line of hollows rises about 
^^ to 17 feet above the water, and is continued within the grotto itself, 
^^tiQ proving that it was submerged, and inaccessible. 

At the Pta. Sbrassa this upper erosion line is very noticeable, and, 
*^ping approximately to the same level, small borings in the rocks 
^^ be traced nearly as far as the Pta. Trasele. 

Further to the east, the massive walls of the so*called Bagni di 
'liberie have been levelled nearly to the same height — a remarkable 
<^\xicidence suggestive of a common cause. 



126 



KARTH- MOVEMENTS IS THE BAY OF NAPLES. 



Near the nor th-ea stein cape, the isolated Scoglio Riootta showe the 
grooTing of the o1<l water-line, but to the eouth-west of the Pt». 
Chiavica, in the vicinity of the Grotta Bianca, and at many plac<i8 
round the Gala di Matromonta, the underoulting of the rook is seen 
in its greatest perfection and at ila greatest height ('23 fe«t) above the 
present water-level. Protected from erosion both by its height above 
the sea and by a foreshore of dcbrU from the cliffs above, and in some 
spots painted ovtr with a coat of presorvative calcareous incrustation 
renewed continually, these low land' marks have perfectly resisted 
the destructive hand of time, 

Tho marks of erosion may also be well seen upon the west sido of the 




isolated Scoglio Matromania, which in this respect is a diminutive 
model of the entire island, for on the lee side the undercutting is well 
preserved, hut has been weathered away from the side that is more 
exposed. The vertical diffs of the Faraglioni and of the Uonacone be&r 
the waler-marks of the same low land-level. 

At several places along the coast between the Pta. Venlroeo and 
the Pta. Carena, conglomerated beaches may be seen resting upon 
shelves of rock raised above the soa-Ievel, Some of these are mere 
aoonmnlBtions of debrit which have fallen from higher levels, but 



• Cp, "high water." 




I 



EARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAY OF NAPLES. 127 

otbersowe their origin to the action of the waves when these beaches 
i^ere on the sea-level. 

When a cavity in the face of the rock has once come into existence, 

tli.e unaided action of the sea-water cannot increai<e its size to any con- 

si<lerable extent, for the upper surface of the excavation above water 

^oold soon be ont of reach of that element, and the floor would be 

px-iotected by seaweeds. If, however, the level of the land should be 

dlcvated or depressed very gradually, a cavity already in existence at 

^^^ earlier water-level would be enlarged. An elevation of the land 

'vv'OQld cause the floor of the cavity to rise into the plane of maximum 

^x^csion. Similarly, if the land-level be depressed, the roof would be 

^J^oded. 

It is to the simultaneous action of these two processes of gradual 

^toTation of land-level and of erosion that the larger caves of Capri 

^^o their origin. The caves are, for the most part, wide-mouthed, and of 

^o ^rcat depth as compared with their height and breadth. They are 

of xiiQ type we may term sea-caves, as distinguished from stream-caves 

'^hich have been produced by the flow of fresh water, like the lengthy 

su'bterranean passages with many lateral embranchments in Kentucky 

^i^d Camiola, of which there are no examples of any size in Capri. 

^OT, indeed, is the present surface of the island large enough to collect 

'^Ui-water for the erosion of its lofty caves, attaining as they do a 

^^^ght of 60 feet and more. I am inclined to accept the proportions of 

tlM^ oaves as strong evidence that in recent geological epochs, Capri did 

"^^^t; receive the drainage from an extensive land surface for long, but 

^^^L8 either an island, as it is now, or the extreme end of a narrow 

I^^onaontory. 

Evidence of Land-levels to be derived from Caves. — A type of the 
^txy smaller caves at the water-level is the Grotta del Lupo, which 
known for the gurgling noises which the waves produce in its 
^^^-^^fined recesses. 

A similar cave is the Grotta degli Stalactiti,* between the Marina 
^^^Hude and the Blue Grotto, and accessible only to the swimmer, owing 
^^ 'the low entrance. The long stalactites hanging from its roof bear 
^'^'tuess to a long period of tranquillity within, for spray would have 
^^^^ented their formation. 

Tassag^o della Stella. — As an example of a more extensive result of 

^^Tine erosion, we may cite the passage through the Stella or inner 

^^^glione rock, which is large enough for fishing-boats to sail through. 

^^e height of this passage corresponds to that of the low land-level, 

^bich is clearly indicated by the undercutting upon the sides of the 

^^raglioni themselves. The floor of the passage is far below the 



^ There U another Grotta degli Stalactiti high up upoD the side uf the hill of 
^t. Hichele, near the church of St. Croce. 



121 



EARTH-MOVOIENTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 



Burrow of tbo waler. At ttio ea.st eiid {)ie depth of water ie I30H 
metres ; in the middle, 18'38 metres ; and at the west end, l'."30 metres.* 
We believe that these soundioge indicate that the Faraglioni onca stood 
at least 13 metres higber above the water thau the^~ do now. 

Groita Autirra. — The precipiues of Anaoapri fall into the sea from 
a height of some GOO feet, and the sheer rock is oontinued beneath the 
water for a furlher ]20 Feet. Towards the west this wall of limestone 
does not rise us high above the water, although the adjacent soandings 
are Btill so deep that the 100-metre isobathic line approaches to within 




200 metres of the shore, closer than at any other point round the Bay 
of Naples, and only sarpassed at the Pta. Carena. 

Here, under cliffs of no great height, hot above water of great 
depth, is the chief glory of ^'^p^i — the Grotta Azzurra. 

The present entrance to the cave is of the si:ie and shape of an 
ordinary doorway, but, inasmuch as some 3 feet of this entrance are 
nnder water, an aperture barely greater than a yard square remains 

' at my rpqiipsl, on 




r 



EARTH-MOVBIESTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 129 

above water for the passage of the dimtniitive boats specially built 
for the navigation of the grotto. The floor of the entr&noe projects 
ODtw&rds for several feet, forming a platform. The passage is only 
possible in a oalm sea, although the water within is stated to remain 
tranquil by some who have been caught there during a storm. From 
without the aperture is hardly discBrnible; and indeed, were it 
sufficieutly large to admit any great volume of light, the glory of 
the grotto wonld depart. In fact, the bluenesB is seen to the greatest 
advantage when a screen intercepts the direct light from the entrance. 
The discovery of the grotto in recent times is frequently attributed 
either to a fisherman, Ferrara bj' name, and two Englishmen in 1 622, or 




■ « Kopisch in 1820, who wrote a fantastic account of his exploration, 
^nd of the difficulty of allaying the superstitions of the fisherfolk with 
*~«gBrd to it. It is to this little narrative of Kopisch that the groat 
* «me of the Blue Grolto owes its birth. For the real discoverer, how- 
ever, we must go three centuries back to Capaccio, who mentions it in 
1*18 History of Naples of 1607. In 1701 it was visited by Joseph 
-Addison; and in 1727 Parrino attributed its peculiar character to the 

^vfleotion of light. 

The grotto is oval in shape, the major axis running east and west. 

The diroensiona are—length 165 feet, breadth about 100 feet, greatest 




ISO 



KARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 



beight 40 feet, depth of water 48 feet.* Mangoni gives the dim 
as 170 by 90 by 69 by (19 feet.f The diflcrepancies are, as might be 
expected, greatest in respect of the height. The lower estimate of 
40 feet seems to us nearer the truth than that of 69 feet, and a targe 
proportion of the vault of the grotto is not much more than 20 feet 
above the surface of the water. The sides of tiie cave descend vertically 
into water which is about 8 to 10 fathoms in depth. 

At the side on the right of the entrance to the north-west is a second 
but entirely submerged opening. The crown of its sulmarine arch is 
about 7 or 8 feet iielow the surface, the width of the opening is aliout 
40 feet, and its height about 50 feet- By this submerged window the 
grotto receives its wonderfully beautiful light, and it is near the arch 
that the water has the brightest silvery-blue sheen. 

The early explorers were much surprised to discover that they were 
not the first to enter the grotto. Towards the centre of the back of the 
oave they fonnd an artificial flight of steps, somewhat broken,* lead- 
ing from l«Iow the present water-level to a rocky ledge 3 feet 6 inches 
above. This ledge is the threshold of an inclined passago which con- 
tinues some ;(mO or 100 feet into the rock in a southerly and upward 
direotion. No vestige of building, no tool-marks have been traced upon 
its walls, and so we must assume a natural origin, probably by aqueous 
solution of the limestone. The floor consists of a pavement of stalag- 
mltic matter. At first the passage is high enough to be walked along 
comfortably, but it becomes lower and narrower and several degrees 
warmer § as it asoends. In the last part progression is difficult, and 
the way is fioally blocked by a square-ctit stone, which is supposed to 
indicate a continuation of the passage, perhaps, to the vaults of the 
ruined palace of Damecula, one of the twelve villas of Tiberius. 

Such, then, is a general description of the Hlue Grotto. The indica- 
tions wbioh it afibrds us of ancient water-levels are firstly a number 
of hollows in the sides of the cave jtist under the springing of the 
vault, at a beight of 10 or 17 feet above the sea i Fig. :>). These 
holes are a memorial of the 23 to 12 foot land-level, the level at which 
the Blue Grotto was finally excavated to its present height. 

Next, the ancient steps, continued as they are far beneath the water, 
indicate a higher land-level at the time of their construction. Where 
they cease I do not know, but I have heard it stated that they lead 
down for 20 feet to what we shall consider to be the water-line at th« 
time of Tiberius, and it is very likely that this was the faot. The 



" MniTB]:'! ' Handbook for South Italy.' 

t Bediii%d from Neapnlitna piilmi, 10'4 iocliea beiug taken bb 1 pnlin. Another 
observer gave IBU by Hj by 60 by 65 feet. 

X The old Roman steps were renovated abunt 1S90. 

S The Ihermomeler has bsen obaetved Ui imlicat© a temperaturB of 100° Fahr. 
whtn the temperature uoUide was ooly 88° Fnhr. (Mangoni)' 




w 



tARTH-MOVKMENTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 



131 



large aperture would then have allowed free entrance to boats, since 
its arch would have been at least 12 feet above the enrface. It is 
certain that the Bomans knew of and used the cave ; it is equally 
certain that bo mention ia made of its optical phenomenon by olassioal 
suthora : the conclusion' to be drawn is that the conditions of illumina- 
tion were entirely different from those of the present day. The cave 
must originally have been eroded when the land stood at a level higher 
than at present ; perhaps by some HO feet. A gradual sinking of the 
land through 40 or 50 feet, followed by an elevation to the Tiberian 
ievel, would be sufficient to allow of the erosion of a cave such as the 
Bomans knew. 

Grolla Venle e Patsagyio Verde. — Near the Green Urotto the coast is 
rugged and weather-beaten, being fully exposed to the fury of soiioooo 
S^les ; the wear and tear of the rocks is very rapid, and the marks of 
former water-lines are not likely to be long preserved. Consequently 
It is difficult to recognize any definite indication of former laud-levels 
i«i the Green or the adjacent Ited (Jrottoes, All that can bo definitely 
stated concerning them is that tbey are sea-caves, the floors of wfaioh, 
CVDrnied when the land was higher, arc now submerged, but the roofs 
~^ere eroded when the land was at a level lower than the present by 
•*^wvit 20 feet. 

The green light upon the rocks eeems lobe a composite effect due to 
l>lue light reflected ond tranenritted from the water, playing upon the 
3^ellowish-bued sides and roof of the cave. It is best seen in the lower 
X^aaaaggio Verde, which may be trarversed by boat on a calm day. 

Orolta Bianco. — The White Grotto derivcB its name from the white 
S-n cm stations of oalcareous matter upon its sides, and from tl.e clusters 
*:>f n'bite stalactites which hang from the roof and fringe the entrance. 
I'he cave faces east, and is situated near the Pla. delta Chiavioa. The 
"Vestibule, about 70 to 80 feet high, leads into upper and lower caves, of 
^whiob the former is not easily accessible. There is no record of its 
leaving been visited at all before Lieut. Kennedy, K.t;., in lODl, by 
^i^nding a boy up the loog yard of a lateen-rigged boat, which was 
%3aoored alongside, got some ropes fixed into it. He was thus enabled 
^o olimb up. 

The lower cave can be entered by boat for a short distance. Unlike 
Kuoet other caves at the water-level, it is much broader at some 6 feet 
^bove the water than actually at the surface. The total height is not 
^reat in proportion, being only 24 feet or less. 

The upper erosion-line is very clearly marked near this cave, and 
la also noticeable within it. The upper cave seems to belong to an 
^tarlier period. 

Grolta delV Araenale. — This cave owes its name to a tradition that 
\t was used in the time of Tiberius as a dep6t for naval stores. It 
measures 130 feet long by 100 feet wide by 50 feet high. Excavations 



132 



EARTB-MOVEMESTS IN THE BAV OF JJAl'LES. 



made in 1777 in the shingle, which still covere the floor to a depth of 
from 4 to 5 feel, brought to light traoee of the walls of two or three 
roome of Roman workmanBhip ; a floor of coloured marbles, and some 
iron fragments which have been identified as part of the plant of the 
ancient naval sUtion, or perhaps of a Itomao' galley. Although the 
floor of the cave is quite 8 feet above the aea, in sontherly gaits waves 
dash in with such vioienco as to render its use an a storehoUBO out of 




the qnestion. The walls unearthed here indicate, therefore, that at the 
time they were built this cave stood higher above the sea than it does 
at present, and the conformation of the rocks is such that an elevatioo 
of 15 feet would place the floor beyond (he reach of all but the moat 
exceptional storms. 

The cave itself seems to have been formed by marine erosion when 
the land-level was at least 8 feet lower than it is at present — at a 
period which must have been much anterior to that of the Roman times- 



J 



KARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAY OP NAPLES, 



133 



As evidence of a still greater submergence of Capri, we may mentioa 
e large and lofty caves which are found at a faeigbt eometimes of 
700 feet above sea-level. All are relatively shallow, and appear to bo 
the result of marine erosion. It is diffioult to estir^ate with aoy 
aocnracy the time required for ho great an upheaval. We csd only 
kaov that it is so recent that the combined forces of wind and weather 
have not succeeded in obliterating all traces of marine erosion. 

Arco Nnluralt, Orotta di Jtfa(romattia.— High above the sea, on the 
^teep pile of rooks which rises from a small cove faoiDg east, is a most 
T-«iii ark able natural arch, which, like the passage through the Stella, 
^«ems to have been eroded by the sea. 

At a little distance from the arch is the Orotta di Matromania, 
^^WlitromaDia or Matriroonio, a large natural cavern of about 90 feet long 
t»y 60 feet wide by ijO feet high, which aeems to have been a fane of 
^^dithras, whose name the grotto still bears. 

The Grotta del ('aatiglione is a lofty cave high up in the hill of 
'tt;.3ie same name, facing south. When the inhabitants of Capri took 
:^r~«fage in it at the time of the Turkish raids there was a way to it 
^f^^Tom the east, hat the path has since been destroyed by the crumbling 
«=»>f the cliff. 

GroUa delP Areo. — A large shallow oavo facing east, under the 
wisliffB south-east of the I 'astello di Barbarossa. lu height it is about 
^^5 feet, and it is situated at about 800 feet above sea-lev el. AVe are 
:x:M.ot quite satisfied that the Grotta dell' Aroo is a sea-oave, and rather 
5.aaclino to the belief that it may have arisen as a result of the great 
^ ^ndslip which occurred at the east of Monte Bolaro. 

Other similar elevated caves are the Coouzza, Tiberio, Grotta delle 
-fc^'olci, and others under Monte Solaro. 

It might well be argued that such a great alteration in the level of 
^ZZS&pri as that supposed mast have to some extent affected the neigh- 
~&=»onring mainlund, and we find that on the hillsides of the Amalfi coast 
"C- liere are also large oaverns, similar in appearance, situation, and 
^^spoot to those we have just enumerated. 

Evidence of Land-levels to be derived tVom Ancient Buildings.^ 
-M^-ma many places around the coast of the Bay of Naples, Eomau ruins 
w* :»e to be seen very near the wattr's edge, and, if not dipping in the sea, 
^^> ften so close to it as to be exposed to the ravages of every storm. In 
^» ■wscordance with the theory of altor.ition in land-level we believe that 
*-tie buildings ware originally constructed and occupied at a higher 
i^vel, ami have been carried down by the land as it subsided. Such 
■^xUdings may, therefore, afford us valuable ass ia la nee when we 
^«ideavour to date the land- movements and to estimate the time of 
*-lieir duration. 

Palanzn a Mare. — By far the moat extensive Roman remains upon 
''^e Capri littoral are those known as the Palazzo a Mare, one of the 



134 



lARTH-MOTEMENTS IN THE BAT 0? NAPLES. 



Urgeat of the twelve villas of Tiberius, and therefore dating from abont 
27 to 37 A.D. The buildings not only covered considerable ground on 
the top of the cliffs, which were buttressed by strong walls, but alao 
extended down to the beach, where the north wing was thrown out 
towards the eea, and must have made a charming abode in summer. 
As seen from tho sea, a semioiroular ezedra of opu» reticulatum halfway 
up the face of the cliff is one of the most conapicnous features of the 
ruins. It is built so as to cover the middle third of the height of the 
cliff faoing Vesuvius. Many fragments of walls lie in the water below, 
having been undermined by the sea; but as they have fallen from 
uncertain levels, they do not supply us with data as reliable as those 
to be derived from the western portions of the building still in w'iu. 

To the north-west of the exedra, and standing partly upon a littlo 
beach, partly in the water beyond, are more remains of this northern 
wing of the palace, the massive ruins well known to the boatmen as 




the Bagni di Tiberio. The best-preserved portions are the lower walla 
of a large rectangular room, measuring about 50 feet from east to west, 
which seems to have been open on the east. The southern wall, curved 
and apae-like in shape, is all built of limestone {oput ineerfvtn), except 
one small course of tufa, which may be aeen near the upper part of the 
east end of the wall. The greater part of the top has been levelled 
to a height of about lo feet from the present surface of the water (Fig, 
7), but the east end stands up aome few feet higher. It has already 
been suggested that the wall was cut down to the proKent height at the 
lime of the erosion of the 23 to 12 foot groove. The north and west 
walls, being more exposed, have been much more worn away, not- 
withstanding their remarkable thickness of 27 feet. The inner l.> 
feet are of limestone, and appear to be of the samo age as the south 
wall ; but at a later date an outer casing of tufa of about 12 feet was 
added, perhaps against the encroachments of the aea. 

The original lavement of the room, about 1 foot above the preeeat 




EARTH-MOVEMENTS [N THE BAT OF KAPLES. 



135 



surfaoeof the water,. has been almost wholly washed away, thus exposiag 
a drMD, which opens on the ooith wall at about li feet under water. 
The axistenoe of this drain, as well ae of pipes running in the walls — 
one near the north-west angle is continued for 7 feet below the surface 
of the water— is clear proof of tlie subsidence of the buildings. Near 
by are portions of walls belonging to other and smaller rooms less well 
preserved and also under water. The partial submergence of these 
walls has led to the belief that the lower part of the building was 
originally used as a sea-bath — an interpretation which is commonly 
given for other partially submerged Roman buildings round the Bay 
of Naples. Now, although some of these submerged buildings may 
have been built as batliing-establishments, we must be cautious in 
aocapting any interpretation depending solely upon the present level, 
for often the structural characters of the ruined walls show them clearly 
to have been built well above water. 

Cloaca. — ^The end of a Roman sewer may be seen at the west of the 
Urande Marina. It seems to have drained a considerable part of the 
northern side of the island, to judge from the discoyery of many smaller 
drains whioh are believed to have led into it. The fall of the sewer 
hw been greatly changed. Instead of having a gentle gradient from 
soatb to north, it now dips steeply in the reverse direction, viz. north to 
south at an angle of 2'^". This reversal of incline has occasionally been 
oitod as evidence for the alteration of the land-level of Capri sinoe the 
Boman period. And such evidence it undoubtedly is, but the large 
angle through which the drain has been tilted, the broken nature of the 
end of the cloaca, and the occurrence of perfectly undisturbed and 
xipright ancient walls at no great distance, point to a change of level 
xnore local and violent than those gentle and widespread earth-move- 
xnents which are the more immediate subjects of our paper. 

The dislocation of the sewer was probably the result of a landslip 
~wfaich did not afiect the land on either side. The walla of the Palazzo 
^ Mare, though now standing at a lower level than when first built, 
^u'e still plumb, which could hardly have been the case had they beea 
involved in the landslip. Again, on the other side of the cloaca, the 
«3ld Roman aqueduct near the middle of the Grande Marina has pre- 
^r\'ed its form and level sufllciently to be still carrying off the overflow 
'^waters from the fountain. The aqueduct, however, seems to have 
euflered from earthquakes, as does a large building which was discovered 
xiear the fountain in the reign of Francis I.; the walls were badly 
«3racked, and the vaulted ceilings were found to have fallen. 

An explanation for the remarkable tilt of the cloaca which is given 
\jy some writers on Capri is that since it waa laid, the subsidence of a 
la^e area (between San Michele and Mte, Solaro) has taken place. 
Indeed, Captain Slackowen has gone so far as to make a oaloulation, 
from which it would seem that the land near the watershed above the 



IS6 



karth-movbments in the bat op maples. 



oloaca must have sank 150 metres to produce the required inclination. 
But we doul3t whether it has been proved that the eewer oontioueB in 
a straight line for a great distance and at the same tilt. It is more 
likely that the terminal portion of the sewer only has slipped aad taken 
a steep inclination. Therefore we cannot fairly argue about the direc- 
tion of the earth-moveoieola over such a large area as is involved in 
the calculation of Mackowen. 

The Ancient Harbour and the Theory of SnbBidence. — No diacusaion 
of the data relating to the anoient sea-levela of Capii would be com- 
plete without some mention of the ancient harbour which was used 
daring the period of the Koman occupation of the island, since the two 
Bubjecta are closely connected. 

At the present day the trafSc of the island is chiefly carried on on 
the north side, under the shelter of a little modern breakwater jutting 
out from the Uarina Grande. The anchorage is anything bat safe. On 
the Gouthero shore there is no anchorage at all, for the deep water 
cornea close to the rooks, and so the few fiahing-Uiats kept at the 
Marina Picoola have to be hauled up. 

Now, Suetonius * diatinctly refera to the existence of a port of Capri, 
and of one only. The breakwater of the Marina Grande did not exist, 
nor have any other ancient harbour works hitherto i.>een pointed out oa 
the northern side. Mangoni and others have tried to show that the 
harbour alluded to by Snetonius, which the needs of aa Imperial house- 
hold in residence rendered necessary, may very probably have existed 
on the south coast. 

The site which is the firat to anggest itself to the hydrographer 
is the Porto Tr^ara. This little cove is thoroughly sheltered on the 
north by the island, on the west by the Pta. Tragara, and on the south- 
west by the Faraglioni ; on the other hand, it is open to the south and 
eaat, and the rocky islet Monacone te a very insufficient barrier against 
the full force of a soirocco. Certain archseologists have accordingly ex- 
pressed a view that a breakwater must have extended between the 
inner Faraglione and the Honacone, and that this has been destroyed 
either by snhaidence of the land, earthquake, or marine erosion. The 
Boundinga lietween the rocka, however, do not tell in favour of this 
view, the water near the middle of the supposed barrier being close 
upon 25 fathoms deep. There is no clear evidence of any cataclysmic 
subsidence having occurred here in lecent times; indeed, the fact that 
the upper water-line upon the rocka is in a uniform plane tells against 
the theory of local and sudden subsidence. 

On the other hand, there are remains of large masonry walls, which 
are saJd to extend down to a depth of 22 feel near the Punta Tragara, 



* "Quod una psrvoque litoro sdirelur, septu utidic|ue priuruplu immenBS a|li- 
tudisii rupibua el profundo mari."— SnetonluB, ' Tib,,' 40. 




KARTH-MOVKMEMTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 137 

on tLe western side of the supposed harbour. Lead pipes for the purpose 
of leading down drinking-water from reservoirs above have also been 
foand, and they, together with the discoveries in the Grotta dell' 
Arsenale, are all evidence corroborative of the existence of a naval station 
of some sort. 

If it be granted that the land stood higher out of the water in 
Boman times than at present, it follows that the anchorage would have 
been less deep, the water-passages between the rocks narrower, and the 
h&rl)0Qr more sheltered from wind than at present. But still we doubt 
if the Porto Tragara could have been rendered safe in all weathers 
without the construction of a breakwater to the Monacone. The founda- 
tions of an engineering work of suoh dimensions could hardly have 
entirely disappeared. Some traces would assuredly have resisted the 
oziCToachments of time, even as other Boman works in not less exposed 
Situations have done. Boman galleys may have had moorings there 
^^xiiig the season of settled and tranquil weather, and for this purpose 
^«e natural protection afforded by the three rocks (it has been suggested 
^^^t Tragara = T/xcucpa) may have been increased by some arrangement 
®* boating booms between them, so as to mitigate the force of the waves. 
^t until conclusive evidence of traces of the breakwater are forth- 
^^^xiiDg, we prefer to disbelieve that the Porto Tragara was ever made 
* ^af© anchorage. 

Xhere are many indications that the land is at a lower level than 

*^exi the submerged walls were built. West of the Pta. Tragara, and 

^^^ the Unghia Marina or Albergo dei Pescatori, a flight of steps, 

^^*^ly masonry, partly cut in rock, maybe perceived about 10 or 12 feet 

^^^low the water. These must have been above water at the time of 

^^ir construction. 

A little further west, on the tiny beach known as the Marina di 

_ ^lo or Piccola Marina, are submerged Koman coDstructious which 

considered by Mangoni to have formed part of the Mulo or mole, 

of other works of the naval station, which he believed to have 

^^t^nded from the Pta. di Mulo to Tragara. The depth of the water 

^ oertainly far more favourable for breakwater construction than at 

^ ^^gara, and it is possible that some ancient works may lie buried 

P^xieath the shingle and dibrts of the Marina Piccola, but it is highly 

^^probable that the principal harbour would have been on the weather 

^^de of the island. Beloch has taken the view that the ** one small 

^^ore of access" was the Marina Grande. While doubting his premisi 

^<iat the modem breakwater has rendeied the Marina Grande an entirely 

^fe harbour, and that therefore it must also have been safe in the dajs 

^^ the Bomans, we agree with him in believing that the ancient town 

^^ Caprese would have stood near the landing-place, for it was founded 

V ft sea-faring people. The ancient Greek steps leading to Anacapri, 

and the old cathedral of S. Gostanzo, of the first century a.d., are both 

No. IL— August, 1903.] l 



138 EARTH.MOVEMESTS IN THE BAY OF NAPLES. 

valaable indioaiions of the position of the old town. And we find an 
additional support for the view in the looal tradition that the lower 
town had to be deserted beoanse proximity to the sea rendered it subject 
to the raids of pirates. 

All this evidence is strongly in favour of the principal landing-place 
being on the north side of the island, and it is there that we are inclined 
to seek for traces of it. Lying submerged in the beach and sea are 
some large squareish masses of masonry, which are commonly stated to 
be the end of the cloaca. But in their arrangement and appearance 
these structures ar^ so like the breakwaters of the Boman harbours of 
the mainland (vide infra), that we have no hesitation in identifying 
them as the western mole of the ancient harbour of Capri, which 
has become filled up with sand and dehria from the clififs above. 
Doubtless the landslip which dislocated the cloaca contributed to the 
obliteration of the harbour. The upper part of the mole would, of 
course, have stood high above the water in the Tiberian period. 

Conclusions with regard to the Movements of Capio. 

1. Whereas there is abundant evidence that the land of Capri has 
undergone very considerable changes in position, there is no evidence 
that the level of the sea has altered. 

Therefore all former water-lines are more logically interpreted as 
indicating changes in the level of the land rather than changes in the 
level of the sea. 

2. The land has remained nearly stationary at its present level for 
a period long enough to allow of the formation of the marks of erosion 
along the present water-line. 

3. At some previous epoch (post-Eoman) the land also remained 
stationary in a lower position at the level indicated by the 23 to 12 
foot water-line, i.e, the land has risen 23 feet at the east end, but only 
12 feet at the west end of the island. 

Effects — Erosion of upper water-line. 

Levelling of walls of Bagni di Tiberio. 

Erosion of roof of Blue Grotto and of interior of lower 

White Grotto. 
Erosion of arch of Stella. 

4. The Tiberian land-level was about 20 feet higher than the pre- 
sent. The land must have been at a level sufficiently high to raise the 
large aperture of the Blue Grotto partially above water, and to lift all 
low sites with Eoman buildings, such as the Grotta Arsenale, sufficiently 
to make them suited to their purpose. 

5. At a still earlier epoch the land must have' been at a level high 
enough for the erosion of the floors of the Blue Grotto, of the Stella 
passage, and of all other partially submerged caves. 

6. The land must have been at levels low enough for the floors and 



SARTH-MOYKMBNTS IN THB BAr OF NAPLES. 139 

roofis of all elevsied sea-oaTes to have been awasb. Tbus tbe land must 
now stand bigber by tbe altitude of tbe caveB above sea-level. 

Effects — Eroeion of floor of Grotta Arsenale, and of widest pM*t of 
Oiotta Bianoa. 
Erosion of npper oave of Grotta Bianca. 
Erosion of Coonzza, Grotta Matromania, Aroo Naturale, 
oave at Amalfi, elevated caves under Monte Solaro, etc. 

II.— THE SOEBENTINE PENINSULA. 

7be Sorrento of to-day is perobed bigb above, but overbanging, 
tbe sea on tbe edge of a tufa plateau, wbicb lies in a cradle of limestone 
^^^6. Tbe sea, ever gnawing into tbe foundations of tbe tufa, bas 
^^Iped to produce a perpendicalar escarpment, in consequence of wbicb 
^^^ plain of Sorrento falls away to tbe nortb abruptly in vertical cliffs, 
■^me bundled feet in beigbt. 

Here and tbere tbe torrents from tbe mountains bebind bave left 
S^^at ravines in tbe tufa, wbicb, like tbe valleys in tbe Camaldoli bills, 
**^ canon-like, witb nearly vertical walls. 

Under tbe cliffs are a few beacbes separated by intervening water 
^^ Ho great deptb, covering a sandy bottom. Below Sorrento itself, one 
^^ the more extended beacbes is uEcd as a landing-place, and is pro- 
^^ted by a quay and a breakwater, inside wbicb a few vessels can 
^^d sbelter on wbat would otberwise be a dangerous coast in certain 
^ix^ds. 

The Lower Town. — In times gone by tbe sandy sbore was more ex- 

^*^ded than it is to-day. Fisbermen tell bow it was once possible to 

^^k drjsbod beneatb tbe steep rocks from tbe Grande Marina to 

*xie Piccola Marina. More pobitive evidence is afforded by tbe many 

^^Odations and walls of ancient buildings wbicb now lie submerged 

^ii«atb tbe town, but wbicb must originally bave been built on dry 

^H.^. Tbeir splendour is indicated by tbe almost inexbaustible supply 

^^ fragments of fine marbles and mosaics wbicb are tbrown up on tbe 

^«icb after every storm. 

An entire suburb of tbe Homan Surrentum seems to bave stood on 

^^^ strand at tbe foot of tbe cliffef, between tbe two Marine, and to 

*^^^e stretcbed as far east as tbe Punta di Circe. Among otbers wbicb 

^^ve been traced were a room of opus reticulatum witb a mosaic floor, 

^ovr destroyed by tbe Calata of tbe Villa Tre Case (Hotel Croce di 

^alta) ; foundations of optta lateritium, on wbicb tbe custom-bouse of 

^^e Piccola Marina now stands ; tbe foundation of a rectangular build- 

^^g now under water, and many broken cipolliue columns used for 

Mooring vessels at tbe Piccola Marina. In tbe direction of tbe 

Monastery of S. Giorgio, four otber buildings may be seen beneatb tbe 

Bea, in water wbicb is tbere but a few feet deep. 

L 2 



140 EARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 

The many artificial oaves also bear witness to a more extensive 
foreshore. 

A 4;jpioal one is the Grotta di S* Qiorgio, which, owing to the 
subsidence of land, has now to be visited by boat, the floor being 1*1 
metre below water. The oeiling is vaulted, and there is a nlohe in 
the end wall. Although oommonly called a *' bath," there is a tradition 
that this grotto was once used as a *' church." 

In ancient days the commercial centre of the town was probably 
here close to the magazines and warehouses, and near by must have 
been the Temple of Yenus which is mentioned in the lines — 

" Adeis, o Gytberea, tans te Gssar Olympo 
Et SurreDtini littoris ora vooant/' 

Pseudo-Virgilian Epigram, OataL vi. 

Bagni della Regina Oiovanna. — We have at the Capo di Sorrento 
what may be considered a monument to the changes in land-level, in 
the ruin popularly known as the Bagni della Begina Qiovanna, but 
undoubtedly a Boman buildiug on the property of PoUio Felix. It is 
worthy of attention, for it gives us more positively than do the Boman 
ruins at Capri, the approximate period within which the land remained 
at the low level already referred to as the 23 to 12 foot level of Capri. 

This building is doubly interesting, because it seems to be one of 
the very few on the Bay of Naples of which we have any description in 
classical literature. The romantic position provoked the admiration of 
Statins, and called forth the lines — 

** Dut natara looum montique intervenit unda, 
LituB et in terras, scopalis pendentibus, exit. 
Gratia prima loci gemina tostudine fumant 
Balnea, et e terris ooourrit dulcis amaro 
Nympha mari. levis hio Phorci chorus, ndaque crines 
Cymodooe viridisque cnpit Galatea lavari." 

SUv. ii., 2, 15-20.* 
** Curvi ta litoria ora 
Clausisti calidas gemina testudine nympbas." 

Silv. iii., 1, lOO.* 

A narrow passage leads from the sea, under a rocky arch, into a 
round basin filled with crystal clear water. The basin is surrounded 
by a rocky wall, about 40 feet high, and may once have been a natural 
cave in the limestone, of which the roof has fallen in. The Bomans 
lined it with masonry and vaulted it over. The gemina testudo has 
fallen, leaving the bath open to the sky, and large fragments of masonry 
may be seen lying at the bottom of the pool. 

We believe that this building originally stood higher above the sea 
than it does now, because the springing of the vault near the entrance 



* Otber texts have *Mympbii'' and 'Mympbas" iustead of ** nympha " and 
'' nympbas." 



r 



EARTH-MO VKMEflTS IN THE BAY OF NAPLES. 



abowB that the oeiling, if peTFsat, would be nearer the preEent eurraoe 
of the water and the room lower than a aenae of good arehiteotnTal 
proportion demands. If we may aasume that the height of the bath 
fas originally in a good proportion to the width, as it ia in the other 
milar roand bnildinga at Baite, etc., we have an indication that the 
ad here is lower than it was when the building was erected. Con- 




(Anit a p>u}Uiffrapk by PlilKhoit 



*'^tory evidenoe is afforded by a strongly marked nnderoutting of 
'^ rook walls of the entrance, now at a depth of some 16 feet under 
'^■^T, which we beliere to be due to abrasion by shingle. There ia 
^ a slight undercutting on the sides of the entranoe, at about 5 feet 
wlow the surface of the water. 

Convincing proof of post- Roman rise of land-level is also to be found 
■poo the building, for at 18 feet above the water-level, near the spring- 
Kg of the Taiilt, is an upper line of erosion marks. The same line 



142 



BARTH-MOVEMENTS IK THR BAT OF NAPLES. 



may be eeeD at variotiB places along the north side of tbe promontoTy, 
and also below the Martello tower round the point. 

Our conolusion is, that the building known as the Bagni della 
Regina Giovamia was at least 16 feet higher above the sea-level, and 
instead of containing deep water may even have had a dry floor, and 
hare been used as a hall or apodyterium in which bathers could loung& 
between their baths. 

While the land was still etanding at this level tbe ddes of the 
entrance were worn away by the ahingle rolled by the waves. The 
land then sank iU feet, remaining stationary for a brief space after it 
had annk 11 feet, thus allowing for tbe second undercutting. The 
upper line of erosion marks was then mEkde, and the land has since 
been raised 18 feet, and has remained there for some time. The 
oscillatiiin has, in fact, been similar to that of Capri and of the temple 
of SerapiH, and to one which has afftcled the mainland as far north as 
fJaeto,* but the magnitude of the movement has varied somewhat in 
the different localities. 

Bubmerged Caves between Sorrento and Ueta, believed to have been 
Ancient Quarries. — Ucder tbe tufa cliffa between .Sorrento and Hela are 
some large and partially submerged caves. In the Grande Grotta 
nearest Metu, the depth of water is from 4 to 5 metres, both in the 
main chamber and in the small side entrance of the cave; the bottom 
is aandy. Outside the cave the depth of water is 6 metres at a distance 
of some 4 metres from the cliffrt. 

The nest oare has two entrances, narrower and lower than those 
of the first. The water is 4 metres deep. In the third cave the depth 
(if water is 5 metres. Tbe next, the Orotta della Campana, has a broad 
beach 23 metres long, and the general appearance and inclination of 
the walla lead one to believe that the cave was originally lower, bnt 
not much lees spacious than the other caves, but that it baa become 
partly silted up. 

Now, the tuTa rock does not become eroded in each a manner as— 
naturally to give rise to apicious caves, and consequently we believe 
these large oaves below the plain of Sorrento to have had an artificiaV 
origin. An elevation of o metres would place their floors above water, 
and wonld make it possible for a cart to pa^s along the foot of the olifie 
to the seaport, and so the oonolusion is that they were quarries whence 
tbe Romans drew the hard tufa of good quality for the many bnildings 
whioh stood upon tbe then extensive foreshore. 

Evidence of Former Land-levels from the Amalfl Coast.— It is only 
to be expected that the southern shore of the Sorrentine peninsula 
should have accompanied the northern in its alterations of level, and 



I Lbcpo. lachia, b< 



a to be |i«nl; 





Earth-movements is the bay ov NArLL". Uii 

the elevated sea caves have already been explained as the result of 
the same low land-level as that of the elerated eea-caves of Capri. 

To AmslG, tbe headquarters of the Eastern trade in the eleventh 

centnry, and perhaps also to the juitapoeition of the Uoiversity of 

SaUrnci, we owe one of those rare early records of subsidence which 

help ns to fix the dates of the post-Roman earth-movements. The 

inbmergecoe of the greater part of a town of 50,000 merchant-ma rin^rB, 

who steered by the compass,' was not an event to be left unrecorded 

by the ohroniclers.t and ao we learn that the "inundation" of Amalfi 

occurred btfore 1140, the date of Andrea Mola, and probably after the 

period of the greatest prosperity of the city, No wonder that after 

Biich a catastrophe, thoagh gradual, the city was not able to withstand 

the amis of tie Normans, and finally fell a victim to the ambition c>f 

III. COAST OF rosiLiro. 

The next portion of onr evidence has been derived from the roast of 
^E^osilipo, which we have Studied with iho object of ascerlaining, as 
nearly as may be, both the actual level of the land during the Roman 
^lomiaion, and the form of tbo ancient ooast-line. Except at the eud 
xzieereet to Naples, nhere the natural contours hate been much disguised 
V»y bnildings, the structure i.f Cosilipo may be easily perceived. 

The tofa slopes of Posilipo are Beamed like a well-drained field, with 
^r^dgeB and furrows running at right angles to the long ax's of therid^re, 
"^vbich extends from norlh-east toKonth-wes'. The coust-Une is undulat- 
ing; little cove'i or enle alternate with diminutive headlands, corre- 
sponding respectively to the furrows and ridges of the slopes. The beds 
of tufa are of varying hardness, therefure the progress of erosion hns been 
"^ery unequal. The detritus from tho cliff's forma sandy Leaches in the 
*^ale, and all tholtered spots, such as nrlificial I arbours, tend to become 
i-apidly silted up with *and drifted along the shore from south to rortb. 
At no place is the water near the shore very deep, and the 3-metre Hue 
of sonndings is far enough from the base of the cliffs to admit the 
fx)Baibility iT a road, if the land were raised a little above its present 
level, A rise of only 8 feet would make it possihla to walk along the 
«bore from the town to the Capo di Po&ilipo. 

The Upper EroBion-line. — At many points along tte store the upper 
groove of erosion is very marked. It does not preserve that absolute 
Btraightneas which we have noticed in Capri, where the limestone is of 

" . > . hac plarimuB urbe mnratnr 
Kanli narU coellqno vias apcrire perito*." 

Oulielmua Apulug, Ri. p. 267. 
t •' Civitni Amalpbia erat major at est in prajBeuti. quin mnjor pare ipaius propter 
loandHtioiicDi maria ett ileleta ct JMtt idfus mare," quoted from Andrea Jloln di 
Tramonli by Niccotini. The erent bos been rtoorded in verse by Matteo Caicera. 



1 



144 EARTH -MOVEMENTS IS THE BAY OF NAPLES, 

uniform hardness; the course of the groove, being partly determine! 
by variatioDB ia tho hardiiese of the beds of tufa, risee and falla, eo that 
it is often difficult to determioe the preciHe position of the land-level 
at the time of the greatest depression. Above the groove of erosion 
the surface of the rock is hooeyconabed by weathering, below it the 
rock surface is fairly flat, an instance of preservation by immersion. 

Effects of Subsideiice. — Our evidence that the land is at a lower 
level than in classical times is chie9y derived from the many Roman 
buildings which lie submerged along the shore.* There are rooms with 
floors awash or beneath the surface; ancient plaster is to be seen still 
adhering to submerged walls, and ])assages tunnelled throngh the rock 



I 




iru been pnurrvtl by 

are now entirely filled with water. It is necessary to enlarge upon 
these submerged ruins, because they have generally been regarded 
merely OB foundation walls thrown out into the sea for baths, landing- 
places, and other such purposes, and that, therefore, they are not to be 
regarded as evidences of the subsidence of land. 

We disagree with this view, though acknowledging that some of 
the struotures furthest from the shore and in the deepest water may 
have originally been erected in the sea, like the works referred to by 

■ DoBoribed in a paper read b; the author berore tbe BooUt; or Antiqanriea od 
Jununr; 22, IBIX!, aD<l aliortly tt' he pobligliod in Archmologia. 





KARTH-HOVSMENTS IK THE BAT OP NAPLES. 145 

Hbiace, ''Althongh poflsessed of greater wealth than the untouched 
treasuries of the Arabs and opulent India, you were to overspread with 
^o^ir piles of rubble all the Etruscan and Apulian sea. ..." * 

The work of exploration was not easy : it is always difficult to 
iD^ttke out the true form of objects under water even in a dead calm, 
axmd in a slight breeze impossible without a water-telescope. Beflection 
ikvsd refraction conspire against the observer. Nor are they his only 
bS££9 noires. Currents may drift boats and buoys from their stations, 
itvxd disturb orientation. If buoys left to mark positions be not carefully 
^Atched, some meddling fisherman may move them or '* lift " them 
aX together. Once, when sounding between the ancient piers of the 
Imflurbonr of Misenum, my operations were stopped by a suspicious coast- 
S'Q^ officer; and last, though not least, the gas-lit buoy which marks 
^ dangerous shoal off the end of Posilipo was moved by an officer of 
tlxe port of Naples from the place indicated on the charts of the Uffizio 
•I^drografico, thus rendering a number of position angles based upon it 
'^^orthless. 

lioet of the work was done in the early morning, before the day 
^^^ind ruffled the surface of the sea. Lines of corks at measured intervals 
"^BTe floated on the surface vertically over the walls to be measured, 
^nd. their positions were fixed with the help of a theodolite on land. 
Much assistance was derived from the local shore-fishermen and divers 
foT shellfish, whose livelihood depends largely upon an intimate ac- 
quaintance with the chiane and acogli (shoals and rocks), presently to 
^ described as Bo man ruins. 

Throughout we were impressed by the good state of preservation 
of many of the ruins, which shows that next to no erosion takes place 
At a small distance beneath the surface. 

We believe that we can demonstrate that the principal effects of the 
fi^Dfiidence of the Posilipo foreshore are — 

1. The submergence of considerable tracts of land upon which many 
^OQian, and probably Greek, buildings were erected. 

2. The destruction of the ancient coast-road between Pateoli (Foz- 
zuolj^^^ the submerged regions, and Neapolis. 

^. The flooding and isolation of the ancient quarries near the southern 
®^ti-^mity of Posilipo. 

'^. The sinking of an ancient harbour, so that the breakwaters are 
^^^^ covered by 2 fathoms of water, and are therefore useless. 

^ . The Ancient Buildings on the Foreshore, — The most perfectly pre- 
^^^^ of the ancient buildings which are now actually washed by the 
^^^^s, but which must have been high and dry during the Boman 
P^^icd, is the Casa degli Spiriti. There are some 6 to 8 feet of water 
^^ 'the basement now, although at the time of the lowest land-level 



* Od. iii. 24 ; r/. also Od. ii. 18, and Od. iii. 1. 



r 



146 EARTH-MOVEMKNTS IN THE BAY •)? SAPLM. 

the water reached high up the walls of the first floor, and has left an 
aroBiou-Une inaide the rooms at a height of 16 feet above the present 
level. It in aatoniahing that this house should have survived bo many 




centuries, but of i(s antiquity there can be no question, since the eroaion- 
line and the opitu reticnlalam of which it is built are suffloient to con- 
vince the geologist and the archteologist independently. 

A Htill larger Roman bouse once stood iipon the beach below the 
fishing village of Marechiano. The walls of the grotind-flcor rooms 
are atill standing, bnt the greater part do not reach the surface of the 
water. A few of ihe apartments have been used by fisliprmen as 
aqnaria for keeping live fish, and so a tradition has arisen that in these 
rnina we have the remains of the fish-fanks of Vedius Pollio, and 
doubtlesB many a frano has been earned by the cicerone who ronld 
point out the particular tank in which were kept the pampered mnrfena-s 
that were fed upon slaves. However, other artiGcial conslrnotions in 
deeper water prove that these so-called fish-tanks must have been high 
and dry in the Koman period. For a description of other instances of 
submerged houses near the shore, we must refer the reader to our 
arohteological paper, and will only mention the two submerged regions 
off the villa belonging to the Earl of Rosebery and off the Gaiola. 

The former lies just beyond the Tapo di Posilipo, and inside the 
Pietra Salata ; it is a tract of eea-bottom of some doiten aores in extent, 
npon which there are atill standing several foundations of buildings 
within an ancient sea-wall, and protected by concrete pie's 17 feet high, 
the tops of which are some 2 fathoms below the surface. 

All round the Gaiola islets, and extending Eeaward for the beet part 
of a quarter of a mile from the mainland, are submerged shoals which 
must undoubtedly have been out of the water when the many buildings 




I 5 BARTH- MOVEMENTS IS THE BAY OF NAPLES. 147 

Btanding upon them vere erected. We have been able to find traces of 
artificial work, at a depth of 13 feet, which i^eems onoe to have been 
above water, while artificial piers rise from water of about 4 fathoms. 
It is quite possible that we have lit upon the forgotten site of the old 
G^^eek colony of Parthenope, which became Palrepolis when Neapolis 
wBfl fonnded; for the extremity of Posilipo is jnst siich a site as the 
Greeks would have chosen. 

2. The Foriiotlen Coaii Roail. — Along the greater portion of the Posilipo 
shore the low cliffs now rise directly from the water. The evidence of 
"the former existence of a road nnder the clifFit on the edge of the sea is 
derived partly from the absence, until quite recently, of any proper 
SieaoB of CO mmnni cation between the many ancient buildings which 
line the shore ; partly from the existence of ancient columbaria along 
"the BDpposed course ; and partly from the occurronce of several ancient 
-tonoele or cuttings piercing the more exposed headlands, through which 
"the road is believed to have passed. The floors of two of these ancient 
'tunnels are now some 6 feet under water. Suoh a coast road would 
mot only have afibrded means of communication between the Gaicla 
(PalBepoii8?)and Eosebory regions and Neapolis, but would also explain 
-the purpose of the tunnel of Sejanus through Coroglio, Hii yards in 
length, and with a larger cross-section than the Grotta Vecchia, a 
^nnnet made to carry all the traffic between PuteoU and Neapolis, in 
'the time of Augustus, ^^'c Jiave assured ourselves that no material 
obstacle to the road existH, always assuming that the land-level was 
-At least some 10 feet higher than at the present day. The ancient 
«oa8t road, on emerging from the tunnel of Sejanus, would have fol- 
Howed the Vallone di Gaiola to the bead of the harbour, and then have 
skirted the sea, passing in front of the Casa degli Spirit and the other 
Roman louses on the shore, until it reached the region at tlie Capo di 
Piflilipo, where, after bending to the north-east, it would finally have 
reached Neapolis. 

:i. The Flooded Quurriet. — Under the precipitous cliffs whioh skirt 
the Gala di Trentaremi, are several vast caves, wbicb we believe to 
have been the ancient quarries whence the Roman masons drew their 
stoDfi for the many buildings along the shore. Aooording to a rough 
estimate, some 200,000 cubic feet of stone must have been taken out of the 
oliffa here. The antiquity of the excavations is proved by the oon- 
tinnation of the opper erosion-line into them. The floors of the Grotta 
dei Tuoni and delle Palumbe are subniei^ed to a depth of 15 to 20 feet, 
and the distance through whioh the land has sunk may be estimated 
by the depth of these old quarry floors bolow the surface of the water. 

Let us state our reasons for thinking the caves to be artificial rather 
than of natural origin, 

n. The tufa rock in whioh these oaves have been excavated does 
not, like the limestone of Capri, lend itself to natural cave- formation. 




148 



KARTH-MOVKMBNTS in the bat of NAPLES. 



fi. Gskvea, when they are duo to erosion by water, are widest at the 
surfaoe of the water. But the walU of certain of the Trentaremi cavei, 
by eloping outwards tindor the water, make them eoinewbat wider 
bolow than at the surface. 

y, A paBsage with walls which have been artificially cut by a tool * 
leads out of the side of the Grotta dei Tuoni, but, being entirely sub- 
merged, it has been impossible to follow it. 



Lindillp 


*"'"""""'" 




^f^^M'^^B/^M 


^I'l';^ 




1^ 


BCg^tjC^ ' ^i^^^^l^^^^^l 



rin. ll.—Tvrk ourra, cal& di tbihtakehi. 

TAr iijTDic inlicala llu vpprr muim linr. 

4, The Sunkeit Harbour of PautHypon. — Arranged in line and parallel 
to the shore are the inner artificial barriers of this ancient harbour- 
Like the defences of other Roman harbours upon this coast, they tak^ 
the form of isolated square^shaped concrete piers, known as opus pilartim^ 

The tops of the piers are now 2 fathoms below the eurface, altbougb. 
they must have been raised considerably above it when they were built. 
Further out to sea a group of four piers rises from a depth of 3 J fathom» 
to 2 fathoms below the surface. These and a shoal beyond marked the 
entrance to the harbour. If we may assume that the concrete piers were 
carried up to a height of 4 feet above the Homan water-level, the land 
must have subsided lli feet at this point. 



• Reported tc 



^?^ 



d 



0800RAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF YKQETATION IN TORKSHIRE. 149 

The ntility of a harbour at the southern extremity of Posilipo in 
Boman times is obvious, for there are very many indications of a 
numerous and wealthy population. 

{To he continued.) 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN 

TORKSHIRE. 

^y I>r. WILLIAM G. SMITH, Yorkshire CoUege, Leeds, and W. MUNN 

RANKIN, B.Sa 

PART II.: HARROGATE AND SKIPTON DISTRICT.' 

^^M observations necessary for the present map and survey of the vege- 

^tion were made during the same period as those in the Leeds and 

"^^ifax district (Part I.). The detailed survey cf the western hill 

'^S^n was carried out chiefly by Mr. Rankin. The district lies directly 

^ the north of Part I., the eastern and western boundaries of the two 

^'^pB being continuous. The western limit lies in the hill mass of 

CiaveiD, and excludes the Ribble basin on the west of the Pennine 

^v^terslied. The drainage areas included are those of the Aire, 

^Hiarfo, and Nidd, with portions of the Ure and Swale in the North 

Biding, and part of the Ouse. The north-western part is a plateau, 

^ih an altitude from 1500 to 2300 feet (456 to 700 metres), cut up 

^ deep valleys, locally known as dales. Towards the east, the 

Country declines gradually into the Plain of York, which is bolow 

lOO feet (30 metres). 

The factors which determine the character of the vegetation in this 
district may be conveniently considered as — 

(o) Edaphic or Soil Conditions ; (6) Climatic or Aerial Conditions, 
(a) Edaphic Conditions. — The geology of the area is somewhat 
^**iplex, and reference to a geological map is advisable. We are 
i^a^ebted to Mr. P. F. Kendall, of Yorkshire College, for the following 
*etch of the salient features. 

*' The rocks of the district exhibit the following succession : — 
(7) Trias ... ... ... Soft red sandstones. 

(6) Permian... ... ... Magnesian Limestone, with lenticular 

beds of marl. 
(6) Coal Measures ... ... Shales, with occasional sandstones. 

(4) Millstone Grit Thick beds of felspathic grit, with 

intervening shales. 
(3) Yoredale Rocks... ... Alternations of limestone, sandstone, 

and shale. 



* Map, p. 236. Continued from vol. xxl. p. 401. 



150 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBOTION OF VEGSTATION IN YORKSHIRE. 



(2) CarboniferouB Limestone HaaiiiTe white limeBtone. 
(1) Silurian and older rocks Chiefly slates and hard grits. 

" The Silurian rocks make a small outcrop on the high plateau about 
Malham Tarn, and are in part responsible for a change in the yegetation 
perceptible there. This will, however, be best considered in connection 
with a map to be produced later. The Carboniferous (or Mountain) 
Limestone is not clearly marked off from the Yoredale series, which is, 
indeed, a modification of the upper part of the Carboniferous Limestone 
produced by invasion of sedimentary materials from the northward. 
The sedimentary rocks (sandstones and shales) form a succession of 
wedges, whose thin ends are directed southwards. From Malham to 
Threshfield, in Wharfedale, the Mountain Limestone is abruptly cut off 
by a great dislocation, the Northern Craven fault, which can be dis- 
tinguished for a long distance by the sharp contrast between the grassy 
pastures of the limestone and the dark heather or grass heath vegetation 
of the Millstone Grit. In the valleys of the Upper Wharfe and its 
tributaries, as well as in Upper Airedale, the limestones of divisions 
2 and 3 (see table above) occupy a large area, and attain altitudes of 
about 1500 feet. From the main outcrop, tongues extend from Thresh- 
field eastward to Eeld Houses, near Fateley bridge, and from Skipton 
across to the Wharfe near Bolton Abbey. 

*' The Millstone Grit forms a cap on the hills above 1500 feet in 
the north-western part of the map, and extends as a continuous sheet 
over an area roughly defined by Bradley and Lamb EEill on the northern 
edge of the map, and Thomer towards the south-eastern comer on the 
southern edge. Small inliers of the Yoredales rise through this rock 
in Upper Nidderdale and at Harrogate. Three small patches of the 
Coal Measures appear on the southern margin at Yeadon, Baildon, and 
Laneshaw. The ^lillstone Grit declines to the eastward and disappears 
under the Magnesian Limestone of the Permian series, whose western 
boundary is indicated approximately by Mickley, Azerley, Fountains 
Abbey, Markington, Brearton, Bilton, Starbeck, Plompton, Spofforth, 
East Keswick, Bardsey, and Thomer. The eastern belt is occupied 
by Trias, but it is deeply covered by Drift and Alluvium, through 
which it emerges only in a few small patches near Bipon. The glacial 
deposits are extensively developed, especially in the valleys, and in 
places are so heavily charged with limestoDe debris as to produce a vege- 
tation characteristic of limestone iu a district composed of other rocks." 

The area offers an excellent opportunity for contrastiDg the lime- 
stone vegetation with that of neighbouring sedimentary rocks. The 
task is made easier by what has already been done in or near this 
district by Mr. J. G. Baker (1885) * and Mr. F. A. Lees (1888). The 

* The numbers ia brackets after an author*8 name indicate the year in which a 
book or paper was published. The titles of the works referred to will be found in the 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OP VKQETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 151 

iiitrodnotion to ** North Torkshire** as a whole, and the chapter on 
iithology in particular, deal bo thoroughly with the relation of vegeta- 
tion to soil and olimate, that reference should be made to the original 
itself. Both authors apply to Yorkshire Thurmann's recognition of 
eugeogenoQB and dysogeogenous rocks. The former class of rocks yield 
ft plentiful detritus, and the oTcrlying soils are cool and moist. The 
dysogeogenous rooks— or limestones of this area — ^yield a less abundant 
detritus, and are in Yorkshire much fissured and broken, so that the 
overljiDg soil is comparatively dry. A map, showing the distribution 
of the underlying rooks and their constitution, is included in * The Flora 
of ^Vest Yorkshire.' The value of the work of these authors is sap- 
pot*ted by the evidence of the present survey, the scale of which allows 
ox considerable detail in representing the distribution of the vegetation. 
X^xie vegetation of the district and the geology, speaking generally, 
^^^y together. The limestones especially may be traced from the 
plants with considerable accuracy. The effect of surface deposits, 
'^Hether peat, alluvium, or glacial debris, is to mask the true relation 
^^ x-Qcks and overlying vegetation. In this district, the deposits are 
^<^t coQspicaons where they cause local displacement of the limestone 
^^S<^tation by one more like that of the sandstone rocks. 

The water-bupply is an important edaphic factor. A series of 
^pi'ings emerging from some lock-stratum rarely fails to alter the 
^^getation. The zone of grass heath round so many of the moors is 
du© in part to the constant moisture and the increased food-supply 
brought by springs emerging on the slopes. The wet and dry associa- 
tioriB of the grass heath and heather moor are also correlated with the 
^^ter-supply. The conditions of drainage are no less important. Thus, 
*»ope8 have a vegetation differing from that of a flat, or almost flat, 
plateau. A prime factor in determioing the vegetation of the limestone 
^ the rapid drainage and scanty reserve of water in a soil overlying a 
"^^ch-fissured rook. 

(h) Climatic Conditions. — The variations in climate are considerable 
f • . 

^^ so limited an area, and only the chief features can be indicated 

^OPT. The following table gives the mean annual rainfall for places 
/^hin the district. In order to facilitate reference to the map, the 
'^Gl'-basin in which the station occurs is given. The number in 

J^kets indicates the number of years of observation, and the rain- 
*^*^ are given to the nearest inch. The thirty-year observations (1870 

^° 1 899) were kindly supplied by Dr. H. K. Mill. The other records 

^^^© estimated by us from 'British Kainfall,' generally onlj' for the 



I'^t of References at tbe end of this paper. The authors* names are arranged alpba- 
^Mcally, and the papers of each author in chronological order, with the year-number 
^ brackets. In the case of a periodical, the number in brackets is the year of publica- 
*^^i of the paper referred to. 



152 aEOGRAPHECAL DISTRIBOTION OF VgOETATlOH IN TOBESHiRL 

ten ye*™ 1891 to 1000, aad m© therefore only oorreot for that period. 
The York recoid for fifty-four years is taken from a pamphlet issued 
by MoBBre. H. Riobardsou & Co^ York. 



M Ann DAL BAtsrALL. 



HutloB ud nanlKr of unuitl obMrrttlaru. 


U.^^. 


^"l 


' Zone at teftUtion. 


York (aTenge of Atb gaugei) 


(54) .. 


50 


InctaH. 
2* 


1 


South Hilfotd 


(3U) 


70 


28 






[10) 
<iu) 


120 
200 


27 
27 


Wtieat cnlUvatioD. 


LMd* (Allnton HaU) (Aire) 


(30) 


418 


28 




Hanwood CWhaife) 


<I0) 


189 


31 




SiWen B««tfTOl» (Aire) ... 


(10) 


560 


31 




SUptoD (Aiw) 

Baton AbUj (Wharfe) ... 


(10) 


860 


34 


Near upper limit of 


(<S) 


350 


86 


wheat. 


Ilkl«T(WhMfe) 


<10> .. 


600 


87 




<10) .. 


575 


88 


iCnltintiou without 


PaWey Bridge (Nidd) ... 


(10) .. 


410 


41 


1 whaat. 


Dallow Uoor (Skell) 


(10) .. 
(10) .. 


746 


36 
43 


JHaatber moor. 


OrimiriUk RMerroii (Wbatfe) 


(30) .. 


SBO 


46 


Near ewlem (or tlriw) 
Bdg3 of Hon moor. 


Eaitutuut (Nidd) 

UuhunHoorCUre) 


(10) .. 
(10) .. 


1470 
1412 


48 


Angr»»(Nidd) 


(10) .. 


1150 


55 


Jmom Dtoor. 


Eart GUI Hb«1 (Nidd) ... 


(9) -. 


1710 


55 


HaUiMD Tarn (Aire) 


(10) .. 


laM 


:>8 




Amoliffe (Littondale) (Wharfe) (30) .. 


734 


61 


/ (wMtem ralDrall> 



The meao annoal raiafall is under :W inches (75 cms.) east of a 
line drawn from Masham (Swinton) soathvarde to Riplry (on the Nidd), 
and then ourving slightly westwards between Leeds and Bradford. 
A rooghly parallel line at from 5 to 8 miles west denotes the begioniDg 
of rainfalls over 40 inches (100 cms.). Id the valleys of the Lower 
Wbarfe and Aire, the tone of rainfallB between 30 and 40 inohea is 
deflected np the valleys for a oonsiderable diatanoe. The relation 
between the iminfall and the Eonea of vegetation will be dealt with oa 
the latter come under ooneideration. 

The records of temperatnre are scanty and not always reliable, 
henoe it is hs yet unsafe to make compariaonB between this factor and 
the vegelatioo. The mean annual temperature of lowland stationa in 
Yorkshire given by Dr. Buohan (1698) shows that they are at least 
48° Fahr. ; Leeds (137 feet) is about 4'.'" Fahr., York and Wakefield are 
each aUiut 48'' Fahr. In regard to higher stations, there is approxi- 
mately a deoreaee of l' Fahr. for each 300 feet asoent. Thus Harrogate 
1^344 feet) and Bradford 1^366 feet) are each about 47° Fahr., Aysg&rth 
(65S feet) nearly 4(J^ Fahr., and HaweB(1135 feet) 44" Fahr. The 
oeldest month of the year for Yorkshire stations is January (35° to 38° 
Fahr.); the warmest month is July (^J7° to til' Fahr.). 

Other features of the climate of Vorkahire are described in the 



^^r GE: 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN YORKSHIBE. 153 

introcluotory ohapters in the Floras of Mr. Baker (1885) and Mr. 
ieea (18S8). 

The geoeral situation of the farmland, woodland, and moorlaud in 
-Ihe present &rea agrees with that shown in the ma]) of the Leeds and 
^Halifax district. The chief mH.se of farmland and woodland occupieii 
-the eastern lowlands and the dake ; the moorland Ib almost all confined 
*o the western highland- The dietribution of the vegetation in this 
district varies largely with the natnre of the underlying rocks. It is, 
^Aherefore, advisable to consider the vegetation of the Mountain Lime- 
stone and Permian Limestone apart from that of the Millstone Grit 
«ind other Bodimentary rooks. The moorland and woodland, as will be 
^Kec later, are closely related, and will be kept together. The general 
flan of the following pages is thus arranged : — 

A. The Moorland and Woodland of the Sandstones and Shales. 
, The ^loorland and Woodland of the Limestone rocks. 
, Tbe Farmland. 






A, Vegetation "f the Sandstones and Suam 



I, The Moorland. — In contrast with the moors of the narrow 
IFennine plateau south of the Aire valley, ihe moors of the present 
<liBtrict are broad and extensive. The country is wilder and more 
desolate, and, being remote from large centres of population, shows few 
iSndications of interference by man. The various forms of moorland 
'Vegetation are found on a grander scale, and, whilst showing new 
^ffe&tares, they serve to check opinions formed in the Leeds and Halifax 
^ietrict. 

TuK Ojtton-orass Moss hk M.kh;. — Stretching from the north-west 
Xitnita of the map beyond Unokden Pike, southwards for 18 miles to 
locking Moor, there is a broad area of cotton-grass moor, broken only 
\>y two narrow tongues of limestone pasture near Eettlewell and Dry 
<TiU. The range of elevation is from 1250 feet (38u metres) to 2000 
Toet (606 metres). Over this extensive and high moorland, the domi- 
'Xiauoe of the two cotton-grasses {Eriopharum vaijinuluin and E. aii'/usti- 
^otiam) is undoubted ; and conhrms the earlier recognition of these as 
"the dominant plants of the higher Pennine plateau (see Figs. 1 and 
■4). Crowberry (Empntntin ) and Bilberry ( YacciniuTH Mijrlillut) are 
Ireqnent, though variable in quantity from place to place. Other 
sMociates are such as already detailed in Part L, but in addition, in 
this lees-frequented locality, more records of the rarer plants have been 
obtained, including Sabv,* Chamwiiwma, Droaera rotundi/olia, Arelotla- 
phi/loi Urti-ursi, and Lijeopodium Stlago. An area such as this, covered 
almost entirely by cotton-grass, is dreary in the extreme. The peat 
is rarely less than 5 feet in depth. The rainfall is high and frequent. 
Id the wet eeaBon, the moor is a soaking mass, with small pools between 
-AU»3U9T, 1303.] u 




154 QEOQRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VKOETATION IN TORKSHIBE. Tj 

the tufts of Dotton-grase, and soft dangerous peat-banks friaging the 
numerous wateroooraea (see Pig. 1 , Part I.). 

Near the margin of the moss the domioauce of cotton-grass is 
frequently shared by Heather {Gdluna) and Pink Heath {Erica Tetralix). 
This asBOoiation, indicated by "EH" on the map, is well developed 
at the head of Nidderdale and Coverdale. The commoner afsooiAles 
are Empetruvt nigrum, Vaccinium Myrtillus, V. VUis-Idtea, and Rubug 
Chameemorua. The situation is at the mix>r-edge, on the plateau jnst 
above the steeper slopes occupied by the heather moor. The sah- 
stratum is peat, varying iu depth from 6 to 8 feet, and nearly always 
wet and boggy. Erica Tetralix is most abundant where the bog i» 
constantly wet. On the other hand, drier conditions favour Catlunn. 
The Kone, being found near the lower limits of the cotton-grass moss, 
may he regarded as transitional between this and the heather moor. 

Tlw Vcgelalioii of Sammils.— The Bilberry (Vaceinium MyrlUlug) was 
found to be the dominant social form on the rocky wind-swept summits 
of the Pennines described in Part I. The peaks of several of the lower 
moorlands in the preEent district were also found to be occupied by 
the bilberry and a few associates adapted to withstand the drier and more 
exposed conditions of that situation. The best example is on Earl 
Seat, a peak of Harden Pell rising to 1474 feet. The corner of the fell 
rises abruptly from the valley as a dry rocky slope, scantily covered 
with Vacciwum MyrtiUtis, V. Vitts-Lltea, Cidlana, and oooasionally the 
bracken fern. The Vaceinium summit is more completely occupied 
by the bilberry, and in one direction changes gradually into cotton- 
grass moea. 

On the summit of Great Whernside, the Vaceinium association is 
quite absent. This is a long narrow ridge with steep sides, set oon- 
spiououslyon the general mass of moorland (see Fig. 4). It is surrounded 
by deep peat with cotton-grass vegetation, which rises to over 2000 
feet on the eastern side, but not so high on the steeper western slopes. 
The Bummit-ridge from the edge of the peat-bog iipwarda is rocky, 
with a scanty soil which supports a meagre vegetation consisting 
chiefly of grasses. Here and there are patches or islands of peat. The 
peat is loose in texture and scantily covered with cotton-grass and 
orowberry, which as peat-binders are largely responsible for ihe main- 
of the islands. The few plants occurring on the pent islands 
belong to the cotton-gra^s moss, but the grassy or alpine pasture is 
quite distinct. The following plants were reoorded : — 

Alpine Pawcbe. i Peat Plahts. 

■ Hardut tlriBtti, L. I Eriophorum nngaali/oUum. 

Dctchumpiia Jtexuota.'Ttiti. i E. vaginatum, li. 

~ ~ SmpelTtim w'gntm, I.. 

* Tlie namenolalDre of the London Ontelogtie, 9tli edit., u roilowed thrv 




6S0QRAPHIGAL DISTRIBUTION OP YEOETATION IN TORKSHIRE. 155 



ALPim PAffnnus. | Psat Plahtb. 

F, ovina (/. vivipara), i Vacdnium MyrtUluB^ L. 

Jgrotiit vulgari$. With. ' Calluna Erica, DC. 

Anihaxanthum odoratum, L. Bubut Chamasmorus, L. 

Poa eUpina, L. ScirpuM emipitoiUB^ L. 

/tifictM $quarro»u$, L. I 

X«s«2a ereeia, Desr. I 

GbresB fiaeea, Sobzeb. 

Calluna Erica, DC. Dwarf. 
i^miMx AcetotOj L. 
i2. AeHoBcUa, L. 
(3ciZ€iim taxatUe, L. 
J»o<«nls72a ttZvMfrif, Neck. 
CSerotfo'um trivialej Link. 
Ijyoopodium Selago, L. 

The occnrrenoe of ibe alpine pasture is interestiog as indicating a 

^^etation of a higher zone than the cotton-grass moss. The majority 

"the species occnr in the grass heath of lower elevations, below the 

^^^t.±on-gra8S, and are absent in the intermediate peaty zone. In the 

*^^«^ of Bnckden Pike, a few miles further north, the summit is closely 

^^^T^peted with Juncua squarroaua and cotton-grass with associates, in- 

^^"^ding those found on Great Whemside. The type of summit repre- 

^^"O.ted by these two peaks is one recognized by Mr. Baker (1885). The 

^^^ociation is that of most of the summits over 2000 feet, including 

^^^^gleboro, Penyghent, Whemside, acd others visited by us to the north 

^ti^ west of this area, and will be further considered in a future paper. 

Heather Moor. — A comparison of the present map with that of Part 

^ '^ll show at a glance the greater development of Ihe heather moor 

(a^« Fig. 2). Altitudes above 1250 feet, which in the Halifax district 

a*"^ covered with cotton-grass and thick peat, are in the present area 

^^*^^5npied by heather moor or shallower peat. Barden Moor shows this 

P^^icularly well. This lack of agreement merits closer attention. It 

^^^« suggested in the previous paper that the chief factors which deter- 

^'^^^ed the existence of the Eriophorum moss, as distinguished from the 

^^lluna moor, are (1) a higher rainfall ; (2) defective drainage favour- 

^^B the accumulation of water and the development of thick peat; (3) 

^^8 interference by man. The present district offers an opportunity for 

^^mining these conditions, and at the same time obtaining information 

^^ the oecological features of the heather moor. 

^Rainfall, — Reliable statistics for the moors are somewhat limited,. 
^^ from those already given (see p. 152 ; also Part I.) it will be seen that 
^^ larger expanses of heather vegetation occur on that pait of the 
^^H>Tland which has the lower annual rainfall, whereas the moss moor 
^®^^ives more rain. Dallow Moor and Barden Reservoir are stations 
^^ the heather moor, and they show 36 and 43 inches respectively, 
^^er stations which are near heather moors are Ilkley, with 37 inches, 
*^^ Blubberhouses, with 38 inches. Comparing these with stations 

M 2 



156 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 

on the moBS moor, it will be seen that a lower rainfall prevails on the 
heather moor. 

Drainage. — The better drainage of the heather moor is apparent ; as 
a rule it ooonpies well-marked slopes, excavated in many parts by 
streams. The peat is shallow, varying from a few inches to 4 or 5 feet. 
Continuous tracts of deep wet peat are rare. At the base of the peat 
there is frequently a distinct " moor-pan," consisting of sand or grit 
massed with oxides of iron and humus into a hard, impervious stratum 
of dark-brown sandstone. Graebner has recently (1901) indicated the 
widespread occurrence of this pan in the heaths of North Germany, and 
the method of its formation. Our observations amply confirm his, 
though it is not uncommon to find the moor-pan replaced by a layer of 
yellowish-white clay of close texture. 

Influence of Man. — The heather moors are chiefly preserved as 
gprouse-shootings, and in a less degree as sheep-walks. The moors on 
which ling (Calluna) is most dominant are regularly burnt in patches 
of a few acres by the keepers, for the purpose of maintaining a vigorous 
growth of young heather. Where the heather is slow in recovering 
on a burnt patch, Vaceinium MyrtiUua and F. Vitis'Idseus may temporarily 
secure dominance. Near the upper limits of the heather moor, as on 
Rocking Moor, man has obtained large tracts from the cotton-grass 
moors, and there fostered heather. The process seems to have been — 
grazing the cotton-grass heavily by sheep, burning, deep drainage, and 
clearing away peat. 

The vegetation of the heather moor is uniform over considerable 
areas (Fig. 1). The ling is knee-deep when growing luxuriantly, and the 
close growth allows but few associates. 

The following are typical species : — 

DoMiXAST. Common Associates. 

Calluna Erica, D.C. Poientilla HlceglrU, Neck. 

SuB-DOMDrAHT. Oalium MaxoHU. L. 

r» . . ,^ .« T £nea ctnerea^ L. 

faccimumVyrtaiuK L. ^^^ Aoeto^Ua, L. 

L T l^,"*' Y ^'*^« ^«^*' ^^• 

Artoa letrattx, U Scirpu* attpUonu, L. 

Juneu*, spp. j^^^ ndgarU, With. 

Xardu$ ttrida. L. Molinia rario, Schrank. 

De*rhamp»ia iUxuo^ Trui. LomaHa Spicani, Desv. 
Pten$ aqmUimay L. 

The sub-dominant species aie noteworthy, because under suitable 
conditions they become more or less dominant, and, competing with 
Calluna, they disturb the uniform tone of the heather moor. The 
oonditions which favour each are somewhat different. The bilberry is 
present throughout every heather moor, but along the moor-edge 
escarpments, and on the drier summits, it increases so as to become a 
conspicuous dominant form. The cowberry (Vacdnium VUU-idwus) 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEG&TATION IN YORKSHIRE. 157 



ftcoompanies the bilberry, attaining its roaximnm development on dry 

Tocky ground. The bracken (PtertB) is often found growing Inxnriantly, 

breast-high, on the steep slopes of a stream ravine. The rocky fell- 

Bides are similarly frequently covered with this fern. Occasionally it 

grows so free from admixture with other plants, that areas, often acres 

^ extent, are annually mown by freeholders of the townships for use 

^ cattle-bedding. The moor mat-grass (Nardus $trieia) may become so 

^conspicuous that its intrusion is visible a long distance away. Occa 

Bionally, where little attention is paid to the heather by the keepers, 

the matrgrass seems to be struggling successfully with it and to choke 

it out. 

The taller rushes (Junetui) form dose associations or Junceta, and 

ftiB a prominent feature of a heather moor. The habitat is the marshy 

iiqUows or flats, the first gathering grounds of the moor streams. Many 

o' the larger Juncus marshes are indicated on the Ordnance Survey maps, 

^ough too small for representation on our map. Good examples occur 

^Gar the Woolstones on Denton Moor, and on Dallow Moor. Small 

®^toples are to be found where springs emerge. The dwarf shrubby 

^^Setation of the drier heather moor is so little present in these Junceta 

*"*t they are mown by scythe or sickle. The close growth of the tall 

''^ties is exclusive of other plants, but on the ground beneath and 

'^"^nd the margins the following occur : — 



^uncu$ effu$u$, L. 
^. conglomerattu, L. 
J. nipintUt Moench. 

J. lampoearptif, Ehrh. 

/. acutiflorvSy Ehrb. 

Banunculus Lenormandi, F. Schultz. 

R. Flammula^ L. 

SteUaria tUiginoia, Murr. 

Moidia forUana^ L. 

PotentUla paluiiH; Scop. 

Broiera rotundifciia^ li. 

Bifdroeotyle vulgaris, J a. 

Oalium palustre, L. 

Cnicua p(dtutri$, Willd. 

SehcUera Oxyeooctu, Roth. 



Andromeda Poli/olia, L. 

Erica Teiralix, L. 

Veronica icut^llataj L. (iincoinmoD). 

Pedicularia paltutrisy L. 

Pinguicula vulgaris, L. 

Narthecium Oai^i/ragum, Huds. 

Juncus squarroius. I.. 

Potamogeton polygonifoHus, Pour. 

Scirpus cwspitogus, L. 

Carex pulioariSy I.. 

C. curta, Good. 

C. eehinata. Muss. 

C. Goodtnowiij J. Gay. 

Molinia varia, Schrank. 

Nardus ttrictaj L. 

Sphagnum, spp. 



Around pools of standing water on the moor, the dominant forms 
e frequently Juncus squarrosus and Erica Tetralix, while the taller 
^^8hes are much lets conspicuous. Such places are also favourable to 
^^any of the above plants. 

Cotton-grass also occurs locally on wet parts of the heather moor. 
*^ Borne cases the cotton-grass bog may lie at a lower level than the 
Wther moor, and thus apparently contradict the view previously ex- 
pressed, that the cotton-grass moss occupies the upper zone of a moor- 
^M, and heather the lower. Where the moss is developed at a lower 



158 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IS TORKSHIBE. ^^ 

level, it is in eome badly drained trough. Cases occur od RumboldB 
Moor and Barden Moor. 

Ghass Heath ( H Pa). — The graaa vegetation ja which there is an 
admixture of the heather moor aasooiateB is dieUnguiBhed on the maps 
from the natural pasture, or graaa without the heath plants (Pa). 
The former, or grass heath, occurs oa poor soils ; the latter ia very 
oharacteriatio of the limestone, and ia regarded as part of that vegeta- 
tion. The graaa heath generally replaces the heather at the moor-edge, 
and forma a fringe round the moorland (Fig. 2). It may occur as a 
close turf of grasses and other plants, on the steep, well-drained elopes, 
where peat is not formed, and the soil conditions favour u vegetation 
adapted to a dry situation. On the other hand, the presence of certain 
grsases may iudioate a place kept couatantly moist. The constitation of 
these two extremes of the grass heath has already been given in detail 
in Part I. The dry grass heath is dominated by the grasses — Deackamptia 
Jlexiiom, Ffituca otinu, and Nardvs slricla, with their asaooiateB. The wet 
grass heath has frequently 3rolimii varia as the dominant grass, with 
sedges, rushes, and other moisture-loving moorland plants as associates. 
The presence of a grass heath is thus determined in some measure by 
natural causes, but enclosure and grazing are responsible for its existenoe 
in many places. Theexteneive tract of grass heath cast of the Washburn 
valley is worth a detailed oon si deration. Almost all this area haa at 
some time been enclosed as farmland or grazing- ground. Before en cloen re 
it was probably a heather moor with a broad margin of grass heath. 
The map shows it at the present day with many fields and farms 
abandoned and reverting to moorland. The soil is poor, the farms 
small and not very productive, but the abandonment has been hastened 
because much of the area has been thrown out of culiivation as a result 
of purchase by the corporation of I^eeds as a gathering- ground for a 
water-supply. Ling and gorae (Ulcj;) are typical of the vegetation 
which intrudes on the fields left uncultivated or ungrazed. After a few 
years, same fields are invaded by palches of ling, bilberry, nishea, 
and other plants of the heather moor. In other fields gorse becomes 
established along with birch and hawthorn. Where the soil is natarally 
peaty, Calluna with its associates takes possession at once, Gorse is 
the intruder when the grass vegetation remains, or when Calluna oomes 
slowly. It was noted in several places that after the gorse bad grown 
tall and thin, Callona had become eatabliehed beneath it. A later stage 
is presented by places where the heather vegetation ocoopiea the moor, 
except on the knolls and rocky edges where gorse still holds on. 

2. WiMDi.AND or THE .Sasiistone-s AND isHiLts. — Wherevor the soil is 
formed of weathered sandstones or shales, the woods are those in which 
oak is the most common deciduous tree, and Scots pine the most 
frequent of the conifers. In contrast, the woods of the scars and valleys 
of the Mountain Limestone are characterized by ash and hazel, while 



J 




wood, Aud tneadow-lBDd at Agill Iloubo |S00 to 000 (ect), inUkeii 
from KuiToundiiig heather moor. The heather E^xtende upwards to 
l.d50 feet : the light patches are portions which have boon burnt. 
CottongrB^ss moBs on the (.ky-line, above l,2fiO fact. 





From Bolton Park looking HOuth-east. Comer of upland oak wood 
(about 800 feet). The moorland is graRS heath, which on the lurthor 
slopes is strongly mixed with heather. The farm ia named 
"Intake" on the map. 



OlOGRAPHIGAL IWTRIBUTION OF YKORTATION IN TORKSHIRK. 159 

^6 Pennian maj also claim the beeoh as a dominant element. On the 

ioirland and in the sandstone parts of the dales of this district, the 

«aooe88ion of oak woods agrees generally with that already described in 

^a &rea south of this (Fart I.). Pine woods are, however, more numerous 

«ncf merit notice. 

^Ihe following woods are recognized on the Sandstone area : 
C 1) GiU woods. 
C 2) Upland oak woods. 
O) Lowland oak woods. 
C^) Pill© woods. 

I^ese t3rpe8 of woodland may be conveniently observed near each 

otlix^r in the extensive woods in Wharfedale near Bolton Abbey. About 

^a^ Abbey itself, the Wharfe has eroded the sandstones and shales of the 

^ ^=^^v~edale series, forming a valley with alluvial terraces in the bottom. 

'I'^^^SQ ^YQ occupied by mixed deciduous trees, including beech and other 

^^^^and species, many doubtless planted round this old abbey. The 

^''^^'iitid vegetation is varied, and includes many plants which prefez 

^^e and moisture. It is a lowland oak wood, modified by the presence 

^x^troduoed trees. Within the range of the river-floods, it is not 

j^^'Os^ial to find plants of the Mountain Limestone vegetation washed 

^"'"''^ from Upper Wharfedale; amongst these may be noted Oeranium 



iim, Saxifraga tridaciyliies, Cochlearia alpina. Primula farinoaa, Melica 

<%9M, and Sesleria axrulea. The valley higher up the river is a narrow 

^^e cut through the Millstone Grits. On the steep rocky banks about 

^^ Strid, the oak becomes more abundant, the ground is less shaded. 



moorland plants like bilberry, bracken, and even heather, take the 

*_ ^^^e of shade plants. Leaving the river, and passing upwards on the 

bank, the same characteristic vegetation — that of the upland oak 

►d of Yorkshire— -will be -found to prevail throughout the upper parts 

^Xe wood and the tributary valleys. Still higher up these tributaries, 

the moor edge, the gill wood is found as a scattered copse of birch 

^ thorn. Plantations of Scots pine and larch, with other conifers, 

^^"^e replaced the gill wood in places, and have been carried on to the 

^^^r round the slopes of Simon Seat and Earl Seat, beyond an altitude 

^^^ 1000 feet (see Fig. 1). 

OiU Wood, — The steep descent from the moor plateau, known as a 
^^Ough in the district described in our former paper, is in this area 
^^^led a " gill." Many of the gills, especially those of Upper Wharfe- 
^^le, are eroded from the Mountain Limestone ; their vegetation will be 
^Qalt with later. Gills excavated from sandstones or shales occur in 
^he course of streams flowing into Wharfedale, from Bumsall down to 
Otley, and on the tributaries of the Nidd. The dominant plants form a 
loose scrub consisting of birch, mountain ash, holly, hawthorn, black- 
thorn, and willows. The undergrowth is, in part, intruding plants 
from the moor, such as ling and other heaths, bilberry, bracken, and the 



160 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETAIION IN YORKSHIRE. 

moor grasses. The vegetation of the olongh, given in detail in Part I., 
may be found where the conditions are similar, that is, when the stream 
descends abruptly from the moor. But, as already indicated, much 
of the moorland is of the drier heather type, and in gills there, the 
undergrowth is limited, lacking especially those plants which require 
moistare ; the trees are widely scattered, and thb undergrowth is that 
of the open banks of a moorlaud stream. 

The gill wood of this district is interesting, because there is evidence 
that its distribution at the present time falls far short of what it was 
formerly. A series of observations in " Studies of Nidderdale " (J. 
Lucas, 1881) has been particularly useful in completing our notes. 
The author concludes that the moors of Nidderdale were formerly 
covered by an ancient forest, which consisted chiefly of birch. He 
recognizes an upland oak forest, the upper limits of which are about 
1200 feet, and above this a birch forest. This evidence is valuable 
because it indicates the presence in Yorkshire of the sub-alpine birch 
forest, recognized as the uppermost zone of woodland in the valleys of 
the Grampians in Perthshire and Forfarshire (R. Smith, 1900). That 
the clongh wood was a modification of the Scottish birch wood, was 
suggested in Part I., but sufficient evidence was not 'available to confirm 
it. Mr. Lucas gives Birk Gill (600 to 900 feet), on a tributary of the 
Burn (just beyond the northern boundary of our map), as the most 
typical existing example of the birch wood in this district. Other 
examples, mentioned by this author, were noted by us before seeing his 
book. Ama Gill (800 to 1000 feet), on a stream from II ton Moor into 
the Pott Beck, shows a birch wood of the gill type, which includes one 
or two oaks, ash, thorn, and bird cherry. A copse of birch, alder, and 
willow is to be found near Pry House on the right bank of the Upper 
Nidd, at an altitude of 11 00 to 1 200 feet. The existence of the birch wood 
at higher altitudes is shown chiefly by the occurrence of buried trees in 
the peat. The details given by Mr. Lucas are here briefly sum- 
marized : — 

(a) Moors east of Great Whemside, i.e. Black, Biggs, and Stone 
Moors. Birch thicket up to 1250 feet. In the peat, birch stems up to 
1725 feet, oak stems 1000 to 1050 feet, and hazel nuts at 1650 feet 

(6) Woogill or North Moor, north of the Nidd. Thicket with birch 
up to 1275 feet ; isolated mountain ash at 1550 feet ; and hazel 1350 feet. 
In the gills of Steel House Moor, north of Woogill (and beyond the 
map) : thicket in Birk Gill up to 900 feet ; isolated trees of birch and 
mountain ash to 1175 feet, and thorn to 1100 feet; in the peat, birch 
stems at 1600 feet. 

(c) Fountains Earth and Dallow Gill Moors. Thicket with birch, 
thorn, and mountain ash (also isolated trees of these), with holly, alder, 
and oak, from 800 to 1100 feet ; in the peat, birch stems up to 1525 feet. 
Juniper occurs at 925 feet in one place. 



GEOGRAPHICAL mSTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 161 

These &ot8 so &r oonfirm the snggestioii of Mr. Lnoas, tbat a oon- 
tinnoiu thioket of birch and its associates covered the present moorland 
edge, and attained an altitnde much beyond the upper limits of anj of 
the existing woods. 

Upland Oak Wood. — This zone, already recognized in Part I., is well 

^presented in the sandstone valleys of this area, but is absent in the 

numerous valleys on tiie Mountain Limestone. The lower limits of 

Ae upland zone is about 500 feet (152 metres). The upper limit occurs 

^hen the oak ceases to be a dominant tree — that is, from 800 to 900 feet 

(see Fig. 2). Isolated living oaks are recorded by Mr. Lucas up to 

1100 feet, and dead stems occur in the peat up to 1250 feet. The 

Upland zone of oak is best represented in the gently sloping valleys 

o^ the Skell, Laver, and other streams draining the eastern 6ide of the 

leather moor. It is less extensive in the short, steep, lateral valleys 

^^ the Wharfe and Nidd. The dry, upland, rocky wood is favourable 

^^^ the growth of Scots pine and other conifers ; and in this area, where 

'^^Ay of the woods are systematically tended, there is a considerable 

^mixture of these trees in the oak wood, and this is shown on the 

^^p. In many cases the original woods have been completely 

'^placed by pine wood. The effect of the conifers is to alter the 

^^racteristic vegetation of the upland oak wood, and in an extreme 

^^^^ the ground may be almost bare. The plants of the upland oak 

^ood are given in detail in Part I., and need not be repeated here. 

"he subdominant species are generally birch, wych elm, holly, hazel, 

^^>Untain ash, blackthorn, and hawthorn. Sycamore may be introduced 

^Hi seeds, or planted ; beech is also sometimes planted. The chief 

^^tinction between the upland oak wood and the birch thicket is the 

^^0:iinance of oak, and the more varied ground vegetation resulting 

^tJi moister and more sheltered conditions. 

Jjowland Oak Wood. — Woods of this type occur below an altitude of 
^^H^ut 500 feet. In the district already described (Part I.), the oak 

^^H>d formed a broad zone on the lowlands of the Coal Measures. In 

tK • 

^^^ district, however, the lowland oak wood is almost confined to the 

^'^^^d valleys of the larger rivers before these enter the Permian tract. 

^^ Wharfedale they extend from Hare wood upwards to Burnsall, where 

^^y cease on the Mountain Limestone. In Nidderdale, the woods in 

^*^^ valley bottom round Pateley Bridge and down the valley to Ripley 

^*^ also of this type. The oak {Quercus Bohur, vars. pedunculata and 

^^^liflord) is distinctly the prevailing tree. Sycamore (^Acer Paeudo- 

P*<»<aniw) and wych elm (JJlmus montana) frequently share dominance. 

**^och grows well where planted, and if abundant has a marked effect 

^Jii the dependent vegetation. It is, however, considered as an introduc- 

^on into the oak wood, although where beech or other lowland trees 

*^o strongly represented in a wood, it is indicated as mixed decidu- 

^^8. Alder and willows are abundant along the streams. Ash is not 



r I 

162 GEOQRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGtlTATlON IN YORKSUIBE. ^^| 

nnoommon. Poplars and horse-chestnut (JEiculiu) are more abnndant 
than Bweet-oheatnnt (Cagtanca) and lime {Tilm). Conifers have been 
planted amongst the decidnona trees in many woode, hut pure pine 
woods are less frequent than in the npland oak zone. 

The dintinotion between the vegetation of the upland and the 
lowland oak wood was shown by lists of assooiates in Part I. The 
outstanding features are snmmari^ted thns : The upland oak wood is 
usually dry and rook}', and deliaieiit in hnmus ; the lowland oak wood 
is damp, shalf, and rioher in humua. Tho ahade oast by the tiees is 
much greater in the latter than in the former. Henoe the flora of the 
latter is much riohor in speoies, especially of the hulhoua and early 
SoweriDg kinda: the flora of the upland oak wood conlaina a high 
proportion of late- flowering, moorland xerophytee, which are practically 
absent from the lowland oak wood. This difference is also obeervable 
in regard to mosses and liverworts. 

Triaa Oak WooJ.^On the Permian tract the woods loss the dis- 
tinctive features of the lowland oak wood, and are dealt with as part 
of the limestone vegetation. East of the narrow Permian tract, the 
oak again becomes a conspicuous tree in the woods. The underlying 
rocks belong to the Trias formation, but the soil is generally derived 
from the glacial and alluvial deposits, which are here bo prevalent. 
Woods of oak and mixed Soots pine are a characteristic feature, and, 
with plantations of conifers, form the coverts of this well-known hnnt- 
ing area. The Trias ojttends eastwards of the present map, and, until 
the remainder has been Burveyed, it is advisable to defer consideration 
of it. 

PiHE WooD.s. — In contrast with the Leeda and Halifax diatriot, the 
present area shows nnmerous woods of Scots pine and other coniferous 
treea from Wharfedate northwards. These woods begin near the moor 
edge, sometimes on the heather moor itself (see Fig. 1), and may he 
frequently met with as pure plantations. On the limestone the conifers 
are not much in evidence, and a well-grown plantation in that area 
generally indicates glacial or alluvial debrit. On the Trias, conifers 
again become a conapicuoas element in the woojs. 

The Soots pine {Finu» aylvettrit), the only native 8j)ecie8, is the one 
most frequently seen, but larch is often planted in mixture with it. 
Sprnce is not uncommon. Other species occur occasionally in the 
plantations, but as a mie they are confined to the parklands. The 
pine wood is beat represented in the following habitats : — 

(a) The heather moor with a well-drained peaty soil ; never on the 
cotton-grass moss. 

(b) Dry rocky places, saoh as occur on the moor edge escarpments, 
or along the rocky banks of a stream ravine. 

(c) Sandy plains where some peat accumulates; this is the habitat 
of the Trias pjne woods. 







FlQ. 3. Undergrowtli dI a Pius nood. 
From photograph by Mr. W. B. Crump, M.A. (Halifax). 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IK VORKSHIBE. J 63 

TheBd habitats are almost similar to tbose given by Robert Smith 
in the Tay basin (1898), and he also mentions similar ones in Norway. 
Pror. E. Warming in Denmark, and M. Christ in Switzerland, also 
reojgnize these as habitats of Scots pine in their respBctive part* of 
Europe. 

The relationship between the distribution of pine woods and that of 
heather moor is now generally admitted. In the present district the 
largest pine woods aro fouud near the edge of the chief heather moors. 
Mr. Baker meutioua that Huttun Moor, near Hipon, was formerly a tract 
of sandy heather land ; it its now almost entirely cultivuled, but it is 
interesting to note that the numerous small plantations are almost 
exclusively conifers. This also obtains on heather moorii east of York, 
e.g. Strensall Common ; and ako at Pilmoor (just beyond the north-east 
comer of the map). 

The occurrence of pine woods on or near the present heather moors 
snggests that they may represent a zone of natural forest at an altitude 
above the upland oak wood. In Scotland this is proved not only by 
the oocnrreace of living Soots pine at altitudes up to 2000 feet and 
over in Ferthshiro and Aberdeenshire, but also by the presence of pine 
stems in peat up to the same altitude. There is also ujuch evidence 
that heather moor in the North German I'lain (_Graobner, 1901), and in 
Saotland, represents at the present day what has formerly been pine 
forest. In regard to Yorkshire, we give the opinion of authors dealing 
with the district. Mr. Baker (1835, p. 373), in referring to Scots pine, 
says, "This is a tree of the post-glaoial peat-swamps. Whether an}' 
of the trees now ia existence are the descendants of the aboriginal 
possessors of the soil may be doubted, and it is quite impassible to decide 
oonfideutly." Mr. Lees (1888) doubts whether this tree is native any- 
where in the West Riding, except in Thome Waste, a lowland moor 
(about 20 feet), near Goole. Mr. Lucas (1881) does not refer to Soots 
pine at all, and he never recognized it in the peat of Nidderdale. Thus, 
although the Scots pine ajipears to be iu favourable conditions on the 
heather moors at the present time, there is no evidence that it is 
indigenous or ever formed a primitive forest within the area of either 
of our maps. In connection with afforestation of moorlands, it is gene- 
rally admitted that heather moor may be planted with Scots pine, larch, 
and other conifers, and it is the opinion of the foresters in cbargu of the 
pine woods on the Bolton Abbey and the Masbam estates tljat the 
heather moors adjaoent to the existing plantations could, after some 
little preparation, be planted with conifers (see Fig. 1). The highest 
existing woods in t.his district are those on Earl Seat and Harden 31oor, 
where they rise to 1350 feet, while one small plantation in Upper Nid- 
derdale is somewhat above this altitude. 

The vegetation of the pioe wood is scanty, and consists of plants 
from the heather moor and grass heath. Where the canopy is close, the 




164 OEOGBAPHICAf, PISTRIBUTION OF VEOKTATION IN YORKSfflEE. ^| 

gronud ia deeply shaded and covered witb fallen needlea, which decay 
slowly, forming a humus which readily dries up. The Tegetation in 
such cases cODBietB almost entirely of patches of mosses {PoijJnVAMiiij'ini- 
pi^rinum and DieTaniiin tenparluiit heing common). Near the leBS-shaded 
margins of the wood, bracken fern is abundant, along with the plants 
of the grass heath. The moor origin of the pine woods above Bolton 
Abbey ia easily traced from the ground vegetation. Heather occurs 
where the ground is peaty, remaining even in the deep shade beneath 
closely planted young trees. In open dry places and along the rides, 
a loose sward is formed by grasses from the grass heath, including 
Deachamimn Jlexuusa, AgroBlis, Huleue, and FasUca. Where the drainage 
is deficient, plants of the wet grass heath or small Juncus swamps occur. 
Self-flown pines occur in the clearings and on the moor near the woods, 
but they are not so numerous as self-sown birch or mountain ash. 

The vegetation of the pine wood may be regarded generally as that 
of the neighbouring moorland associations. The species characteristic 
of old pine woods in Scotland are either rare or absent in this area. 
Tricntalia europa-a, Fyrola minor, P. metlin, and Listera cordata are found 
occasionally on Sawley, Dallowgill, and other moors between the VVharfe 
and Ure. Linnsea boreaiis, CiTalliirhizn intinta, and Goudyera repcna, the 
latter especially typical of Scottish pine woods as far south of the 
Tweed, eeem to be entirely absent from this district. These facte 
appear to support the view that the pine woods are not natural along 
ihe edge of the heather moor, but have been established by man. 

H. YeUETATION OC THB LlMESTONB EOCKS. 

The distinctive vegetation of the two widely separated areas of 
limestone, the Mountain Limestone of Craven, and the narrow 
lowland tract of Permian Limestone abutting on the plain of York, 

has added much to the interest of this district. The sharp contrast 
with the vegetation of the neighbouring non-limestone formations 
ia quickly noticeable oven where the limestone outcrop is small 
and local. The higher altitude and greater rainfall of the Mountain 
Limestone area produces conditions very different from the lowland 
and drier Permian tract. The two areas may therefore be discussed 
separately, although it may be observed here that they have some 
features of the vegetation in common. 

The MoL-NTAis LiMi^srnNE, — The main mass of limestone developed 
in the north-west of this map ia continued northwards into Wensleydale 
and westward into Eihbleedale and Lonsdale. The chief ceoological 
features of the limestone vegetation may be observed within the limits 
of this map. Our conclasiona, however, are baaed, not on the survey of 
this part only, but on what has also been found in neighbouring parts. 
Upper Wharfedalo and Airedale give the beat examples of the limestone 
vegetation. In Nidderdnle the limestone comes to the surfaoe only in a 






11 

i ^ 

t!j 

Ii 
III 

iji 

1 

lit 

01 
111 

a 






/ 



/ 




S. Gordolc Scar : height nearly 300 feet. The long scree on the right 
with a thin copiio of hazel aod hircb. On the left, vertical Ecara with 
debrig B,ai copse vegetation on the ledges; the dark shrubs ace jev>. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 165 

few localities. The range of elevation on Malham Moor (High Mark) 
is from about 500 feet (150 metree) in the valleys, to 1750 feet (530 
metres) on the moor-top; but in Upper Wharfedale, the upper limit 
may be taken on the average at about 1500 feet (456 metres). 

The valleys are narrow, and the farm-land extends along the river 
Aa a narrow tract of grazing meadows (see Fig. 4). A few fields distant 
fjTom the river, steep scars rise sharply up. In places these scars, with 
tine trailing screes at the base,* are almost bare, but commonly they are 
covered with a loose copse, which shelters a grassy vegetation. Above 
tlxe first line of scars there are pastures, often flat, sometimes steep and 
i^ocky, which again give place to higher soars ; and so pasture and scar 
alternate, until the plateau is reached. Deep and rugged gorges have 
^>^en cut in tbe hill-sides by torrents. In summer these are dry, or 
small streams run in them ; in a few cases the volume of water is large 
^nd. constant. Like the scars of the main valley, these gorges are often 
^ringed with a loose copse. The view from some favourable hilltop 
do^^m into the valley would take in the main features of the vegetation 
C^Hg. 4) : precipitous white scars and narrow ravines, white stone walls 
often running straight for miles, light green pastures, rich in the valleys, 
\>U't thin in the pastures and slopes of tbe uplands. Trees are repre- 
sented by scattered woods in the bottoms, and thin copses fringing the 
BOATS. The contrast between this vegetation and the dark green or 
brown heathery slopes of the Millstone Grit hills can be seen plainly 
Jttiles away. 

Hill Pastures. — Where the Millstone Grit caps the summits of the 
bigh ridges, cotton-grass and heather prevail, while the limestone hill 
pasture occupies the slopes below (see Fig. 4). On the extensive 
pla.teau of High Mark (Malham Moor), the limestone rises to the summit 
(1 7f)5 feet). So permeable is the limestono that, except where deposits 
^^ boulder clay occur, the moor is dry, although the annual rainfall 
H^proaohes 60 inches (150 cms.). The few streams that arise either 
^^^k into underground channels which come to light again often many 
^iles away, or cut for themselves deep narrow gills. An example of the 
^^mer case is the stream from Malham Tarn, which, as soon as it leaves 
^^ Silurian slates, sinks into the limestone to reappear nearly 3 miles 



A^y^^y- -A.n example of the latter is Gordale (Fig. 5). The monotony of 

^ Avide expanse of pasture is relieved only by the bare white scars and 

^Qments and the long lines of limestone walls. The moor is practi- 

^^^ treeless. On the edge of the scars, a few straggling mountain 

rj^^^s, thorns, and yews have established themselves in the clefts of the 

^^thered rocks. Small groups of sycamore and ash indicate some 

^^-^nd farm, or a sheltered position on the lee side of some hill. For 



^ ^^y years Mr. W. Morrison has endeavoured to afforest the grounds 
>^^ ^nd his residence at Malham Tarn (1300 feet, and off the map almost 
^^t from Middle House on the western edge). A million trees have 



166 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 

been planted, and of these scarcely fifty thoasand snryive. The owner's 
experience is that the locality is unsnited for larch and Soots pine, and 
that sycamore, beech, birch, alder, thorn, wych elm, and mountain ash 
grow, bnt exceedingly slowly. 

Craven has from time immemorial been famons for its sheep-walks. 
Though the soil above limestone is somewhat thin, the short, crisp grass 
forms good pasturage, consisting chiefly of sheep's fescue {Festuea ovina). 
In early summer the yeUow mountain pansy and wild thyme are present 
in profusioD. The following plants occur generally on the dry hill 
pasture of the limestone : — 



Limestone Hill 

Ranunculus hulbo8u$, L. 
TfUofpi oeeitanum (Jord.). 
Viola lutea^ Huds. 
Polygala vulgaris^ L. 
Arenaria vema^ L. 
Linum cntharticutnt L. 
Geranium sylvaticumy L. 
Anthyllia Vulneraria^ L. 
Lotus corniculatng, L. 
Poterium Sanguisorha^ L. 
P. officinale. Hook. 
Saxi/raga granulatay L. 
S. hypnoides, L. 
Ocdium rertim, L. 
Scahiosa ColundMria^ L. 
Antennaria dioica, R. Br. 
Carlina vulgaris, L. 
Carduu« nutans, L. 
Cnicus eriophoruSy Roth. 
Primula reris, L. 
Oeniiana Amarella, L. 



Pastures. 

Thymus Serpyllumj Fr. 
Stae^ys Betoniea, Benth. 
Plantago medta^ L. 
Sumex Aeetoseila, L. 
Hahenaria oonopsss^ Benth. 
E. albida^ B. Br. Bare. 
JET. viridis, R. Br. 
JET. bi/olia, B. Br. Bare. 
H. ehlordeuea, Bidley. 
Lusula eampestrisy DO. 
Anthoxahthum ordoratum, L. 
Avena puheseenSy Hads. 
A. pratewit, L. 
Sesleria ccsrulea^ Ard. 
Cynosurus eristatus^ L. 
KoBleria erisiata. Pen. 
Briza media, L. 
Festuca ovina, L. 
Ophioglo»8um rulgatum, L. 
Botrychium Lunaria^ Sw. 



In moist places where springs arise, or by the sides of streams, the 
following may be found : — 



TroUius europxus, L. 
Cochlearia alpinOy Wats. 
Parr^assia palwtris, li. 
Valeriana dioiea, L. 
Primula farinosa, L. 
Pedicularis palustris, Jj. 
Orchis latifolia, I.. 
0. maoulata, L. 



Junrus compressusy Jaoq. Bare. 
Scirpus CariciSy Roti. 
Carex dioiea, L. 
C. flava, L. 
C. hirta, L. 

Glyceria Jiuitans, B. Br. 
Selaginella selaginoidM^ Gray. Un- 
common. 



On this same moor-plateau there are numerous troughs in which 
boulder clay has lodged, and here the vegetation assumes more or less 
the character of a heath. On the summit of High Mark, the oap of 
Millstone Grit, io frequent on neigh bouriDg summits, is absent, and 
any glacial dShris which may have been present is reduced to patches. 
The bilberry ( Vaccinium Myrtillus) and the heath-moss (Polytrichum) may 






OEOORAFmCAL DISTRIBUTION OF YKOETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 167 

be found along with plants of the limestone pasture. On the shonlder 

overlookiDg Cowside Beck, within a single square yard may he found 

Sederia ccendea^ Fesiuea ootna, Viola lutea^ Tliymus SerpyUum^ Vaccinium 

MyriiUui^ Calluna Erieay Nardus iiricta and Polytrichum ; representatiyes 

of the limestone hill pasture and the heath growing in mixture. This 

place is oyer a mile distant from the nearest heather moor, from which 

it is separated bj a deep limestone gill. Again, on the steep slopes 

irom Hawkswick Moor into Littondale there are, below the Fcars of 

limestone and ooTeriug Ihe screes, large tracts of heather co-extensiye 

with those on the grit cap aboTC. The ling has been found here and 

elsewhere growing from clefts in limestone sink-holes, with its roots 

frequently closely pressed sgainst the rock itself. On the flat spurs of 

Ingleboro, a little west of the present area, large tracts of limestone 

pavement bear a heather yegetation, which includes many plants of the 

heather moor. In face of these facts, it cannot be overlooked that 

Heather may, under certain conditions, establish itself on limestone, but 

a fuller discussion is reserved for a future paper. 

Limestone Pavements, — The pavements or flat summits of exposed 
limestone, bare of soil and weathered into a maze of narrow and deep 
cleftf, form a striking feature of the Mountain Limestone. They occur 
generally on the exposed summit of a limestone scar, but others, isolated 
in the midst of hill pasture, are the remains of some weathered rocky 
ndge. At first sight apparently barren, except for an occ€usional 
dwarfed shrub emerging from a cleft, the pavements on closer examina- 
tion reveal an interesting flora. The conditions of plant-life in the 
pavement clefts are very distinct from the adjoining hill pasture. 
There is shelter from the rigours of wind and sun, excessive evaporation 
during the heat of summer is checked, moibture is retained by a soil of 
considerable depth lodged in tho numerous crannies, and throughout 
the year the shade is such as to favour shade-loving plants. Many of 
the plants found are those of the valley woods. In passing upwards 
from the moist valley woods, the plants abundant there are either 
absent or rare in the open pastures and the loose open scar woods, but 
reappear in the pavements above the scars, at an altitude seldom lower 
than 1000 feet (300 metres). The commonest plants are wood sorrel, 
wood garlic, anemone, hart's-tongue fern, and the green spleen wort. 
The following is a more complete list : — 

Thalictrum ealeareum (Jord.). Hedera Helix, li. 

Anemone nemorosa, L. Lactuca MuraUt, Fr. 

Actma tpicata, L. Corylm AvtUanay\j, Dwarf. 

Vicia Riviniana, Reich. Liitera ovata, R. Br. 

Oeranium Robertianum, L. Allium urtinum, L. 

Oxalii AeetoieUa, Ij. Aiplenium viride, Hudfl. 

Rubu$ Idmue^ L. A, Trichomanet^ L. 

CratMguB Oxyacantha^ L. Dwarf. Scolopendrium vuJgore, SymoDS. 

Ribe$ petrmum (Sm.). Rare. Polystichum lobatum, Presl. 

Cirema luteliana, L. Laitraa rigida, Presl. 

Heradeum Sjpondylium, L. Dwarf. 



lliS GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IS YORKSHIRE. ^^ 

T^B Limestone Scan. — -The scars are either walled uEf frutn the ad- 
joining hill pasture, ur they are in themselves su precipitouB that even 
goats seldum invade them. An opptirtunity is therefore given for the 
development of a natural vegetation, quite distinct frum that of the 
grazing grounds. The precipituus soar-i'aoe, however, ofiers conditions 
very different from the scree uf weathered debrit at its base. At 
Malham, Gordale (Fig, 5), and Kilnsey, the scar-faces are almost 
vertical for nearly 300 feet, yet the numerous joints and crevices of the 
weathered limestone shelter a varied flora, consisting chiefly of compact 
dwarf plants, with at the most a few stunted trees. The screes are 
more favourable to vegetation, and where, as is often the case, the soars 
consist of a. eertes of broad ledges Uttered with d£bri», the vegetation 
assnmes the form of a shrubby tbioket, with hazel and other ehrubs 
dominant. The vegetation of the scar itself must, therefore, be dis- 
tinguished from the scar wood. 

Vegetation of lite Scan.— In clefts of the roek and on ocoasiuna] 
ledges on the scar,a scantysoil is formed. Such pUnts as can establish 
themselves are exposed to the direct raj's of the bud. and those reflected 
from the rook. The amount of wnter available is scanty. Ir. the deap 
narrow valleys the winds go up and down the trough. The scars do 
not, therefore, receive the full blast in front, and plants in the orevioee, 
sheltered by the inequalities of the rock face, do not experience that 
rush of wind fislt i>n the meadows below, or the upland pastures of the 
hillti.>p. The trees on the soars are few and stunted, liuch as hazel, 
yew, hawthorn, and mountain ash. 'I'he following plants are found 
here and there amongst the scars : — 



rB{Jord.>. 



Draba ntunilia, L, 



D.i 



1, i,. 



Erophilti viilgarit, DO. 
TAIutpi oan'lanum (Jord.). 
Hulehituia petraia, B. Bi. lAtei 
Beliantlitmum Chani«eittm, Hl 
Arenaria vtnta, 1.. 
Oeraniuni tanguineam, 1>. 
O. Ituiidnm, L. 
Bippoerepii eomoM, L. 
Spirml Filipmdula, L. Bare. 
Dryai oelopetata, li. LtioaL 
PolenliUa rubent, Vill. Bare. 
CrcUjcgut Oaj/aeantlin, I,. 
ryriii Aucuparia, Ehrh, 



^ari/rnga triiiaatylilei, L. 
Sibe$ patrKum (Sm.}, Rare. 
Sedtm Tdtphium, L. 
Galium tylveitre. Poll, 
Hieraeium PUoteUa, L. 
S. aiuilieam, Fr. Bare. 
II. cctium, Fr. 
Lactttea muralU. Fresen. 
Corylui Andlarta, L. 
Taxut haceata, L. 
Suleria car alia, Ard. 
Feituai oiHna. h. 
Aiplmiiim viride, HqiIb. 
A. Trichomanet, I.. 
A. flula-muran'o, L 
Cyttoplrrii fragilit, Oemh. 
Phegoplerit ealairea. Fee. 



Scar WocmU. — These are a characteristic feature of the limestone 
dales, and are especially well developed round Kettlewell (Fig, 6; and 
.\rnolifFe. The lower scars are more favourable than the upper, but 
occasional examples occur on the higher scars and even on a limestone 
pavement on. the plateau. The hazel is the dominant element most 





Fia, G, Limestone soar^ aud scar-^ood at KattleweU. 




Pio. 7. The Wharffl uL Grasaiugtoii Bridge. Grass Wood^iu the background. 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF YfiGKTATION IN TORESHIRE. 169 



oo'znmonly found ; but the ash occurs frequently, and sometimes close 

ezM.oiigh to reduce the hazel to a sub-dominant form. The scar wood is the 

Iftji^hest zone of tree vegetation in the limestone area, and takes here the 

j>X;Bce of the birch zone of the Millstone Grit. Its occurrence on the map 

ii^, indicated by the letter '* A " over the wood colour. The number of 

ill trees present determines whether the hazel is to be a dominant or a 

l>-dominant form. As a rule the ash occurs but sparingly, because, 

ing almost the only timber tree in the limestone dales, it is generally 

moved. In this district few of the woods receive any attention, and 

l^'fctle is done to check disforesting. Almost all the scar woods are 

i^Xi^erefore to be regarded as shrubby thickets, under which the ground 

^^^"^getation is only slightly shaded, but fairly well sheltered. Hazel, 

^>^li, mountain ash, hawthorn, and holly are the chief plants of the 

^•liicket. Sycamore occurs, but is not abundant. The ground vegetation 

^^^ rich and varied. It is in this association that the almost extinct 

X-«ady's Slipper orchid occurs. The following plants are representative : — 




^^^orylus Avellana, L. Dominant. 

^Ta acinus excelsior, L. 

•^ocr Pteudo-plantanuif, L. Not abandant. 

'*^'unui ipinosa, Jj. 

^ •f^adw, L. 

^tf^jiB Aucnparia, Ehrb. 

^fztjcgus OxyacanVMj L. 

"'*^-*? Aqui/oliumj L. 

"*<*.jiinM« cathartieus, L. 

GitorND 
-^Jialictrum coUinum^ Wallr. 

<piilegia vtdgarU, L. 

cUbq spieataj L. 
^^rdamine impatieM, L. Local. 
dianthemum ChamascistuSy Mill. 
^iola odoratay L. 
^. hirta, L. 
^- Riviniana, Beicb. 
Hypericum hirsutum, L. 
J^. mofUanum, L. Local. 
Geranium ianguineumy I a. 
^. tylvcUicumy L. 

O. Rdbertianumj L. 
^n'rasa Ulmaria, L. 

^- Filipendula, L. 

^(utifraga umbrosa, L. Rare. 

^< hypnoides, L. 

Sanicula europma, L. 

(^ium boreale, L. Rare. 

^. Oruciaia, Scop. 

^tpenda odorata, L. 

Cnieus heterophyUus, Willd. 

Centaurea Scabioia, L. 

Laetuea muralia, Fresen. 

Primula aeaulis, L. 
No. n. — AUGL-ST, 1903.1 



Trkks and Shrubs. 

Roia, spp. 

Ruinu idseuBf L. 

R, fruiicotui (agg.). 

R. aaxaiilis, L. 

CornuB sanguinea, L. Local. 

Sarnbueus nigraj L. 

Viburnum Lantana, L. 

Ligusirum vtUgare, L. 



Vegetation. 
j Primula acaulis X verit. 

Polemonium coeruleum^ L. 

Laihr»a Squamaria, L. 

Origanum valgare, L. 

Teucrium Scorodonia, L. 

Ajuga reptanSy L. 

Mercurialii perennis, L. 

Listera ovata^ B. Br. 
I Epipactis latifolia^ All. 

Orchii mascula, L. 

Ophrys apifera^ Huds. 

Hahenaria chloroleueay Ridley. 
' Cypripedium CkUceolui, L. Very rare. 
I Polygonatum officinale^ All. 

ConvaUaria maJaliB^ L. 

Allium Scorodopratumy L. 

Scilla feitaliSy Salisb. 

Paris quadrifcliay L. 

Luzuia vernalist DC. 

Carex paUetcent^ L. 

Sesleria camZda, Ard. 

Melica nutans^ L. 

M. unifiora^ Betz. 

Atena prcUensiSy L. 

Polystichum lobatum, Presl. 

N 



170 GSOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF V£OETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 

Woodland of the Limestonbs. 

The limeetone soar wood has already introduced some of the featnres 
of these woods. The weeds of the Moantain Limestone and the Permian 
are so distinct that they cannot be included in either of the forms of 
oak wood already described on the non-limestone area. The oak is not 
abundant enongh to merit recognition as the dominant element Pine 
woods are also by no means abundant on the limestone. The charac- 
teristic trees are ash and beech, the former on the Monntain and 
Permian limestones, the latter on the Permian only. 

The ash occnrs in the lowland oak woods, bnt its increase on the 
limestone is very marked. An opportunity for testing this opinion 
occurred in an excursion (May 18, 1901) in Upper Airedale : the trees 
were in foliage except the ash, which in its leafless condition was 
distinguishable from a long distance, and its abundance was conyinoing. 
The Eev. Mr. Shuflfrey, of Amcliffe (1891), states that in Littondale, 
a limestone valley about 8 miles long, there are only seven or eight 
oaks. The ash is equally characteristic of the Permian tract, and on 
passing to it from neighbouring formations we have repeatedly observed 
a distinct increase in the proportion of ash trees in the hedgerows. It 
is also a conspicuous element of the Permian woods. The ash is 
generally recognized in forestry as a tree suited to limestone soils, and 
in Yorkshire this is amply confirmed. We have been told by the 
forester on the Duke of Devonshire's Bolton Abbey estate, that the aah 
of Grass Woods on the limestone is much superior to that in the sand- 
stone woods. 

The hazel is the forerunner and associate of the ash on the limestone. 
It is by no means uncommon on the sandstone areas, but its pre- 
ponderance on the limestone soils makes it an important element. The 
dry nature of these soils is favourable to hazel and unfavourable to 
birch. The hazel copse is recognized in plant geography as a stage in 
the formation of forest, and as a rejuvenator of wood clearings. This 
is evidently the case in the scar woods already described. The hazel 
copse is in some cases the transition stage between the treeless soar 
dSbri8 and the forest condition; in other cases it is the evidence of 
disforestation of the ash. On the Permian tract the prevalence of hazel 
in many of the uncultivated places and disused quarries is similarly 
explained. 

The folio wiog types of wood on the limestone have been observed : — 

(1) The scar woods of the mountain limestone; 

(2) The lowland woods ; 

(3) The hazel copse of the Permian tract. 

Lowland Woods. — These occur on the Permian tract and in the 
bottoms of the Mountain Limestone dales. In Grass Woods near 
Grassington (Fig. 7) the transition from a scar wood to the lowland 



QIOORAPHIGAL DISTRIBUTION OF YSOETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 171 

limestone wood is to be fotiod. Bastow or High Orass Wood oconpies 
the lower series of limestone soars, and is considered to be a scar wood 
altered by planting. Another dxtenstye scar wood occnrs on the 
opposite bank of the Wharfe, and it presents all the characters of the 
nar wood of Upper Wharfedale and Littondale. No scar woods occur 
lower down the Wharfe. The lower part of Grass Wood descends to the 
alluvial river terraces, which are here broad and mostly nnder cultiva- 
tion. Beech, oak, sycamore, and other deciduous trees have been 
planted with a considerable admixture of Scots pine, larch, and other 
conifers. The character of the wood is altered, and the ground vegetation 
indades many plants which prefer more moisture and shade than is 
iTiilable in the upper scar wood. Amongst the associates, however, 
there are plants of the limestone, which become less frequent in the woods 
OD the sandstone rocks. The latter occur on the Wharfe from Bumsall 
downwards, and have the characters already referred tq in Bolton Woods. 
The rich soils of the Permian, in conjunction with the favourable 
olimatic conditions of a lowland district with a low rainfall, are suited 
to the growth of almost all trees. The woods are therefore varied in 
ooDBtitution, and no greater variety of native and introduced trees 
ooonrs in the present district than is found in the Permian woodland. 
ThuB, in Stud ley Park, on the western edge of the Permian near Bipon, 
one may find good examples of almost all the woodland trees grown in 
Britain. 

The prevalence of ash has already been emphasized, and although it 
forms no extensive woods, it is a conspicuous element in all. The 
beech is undoubtedly very abundant, and wherever a careful examina- 
tion of the constitution of the Permian woods was made it was always 
one of the most common trees. The oak is not uncommon, but it is 
scattered amongst the other trees, and is rarely the dominant element 
it was in the lowland Coal Measure woods. With such a range of 
prsralent trees, the conditions offered to the ground vegetation vary 
horn the deep shade of a beech wood to the open canopy of oak and 
ash. A complete list would include most, but not all, of the species 
given for the lowland oak wood (see Part I.). The following plants are 
oharacteristic of the Permian woods; others (placed in the second 
oolnmn) are more abundant there than in the lowland oak wood. On 
eomparing the li(»t with that of the scar wood of the Mountain Lime- 
stone, it will be seen that a certain proportion occur on both limestone 
formations, though rarer in the intervening sandstone woods. 

Lowland Mixed Woods. 



l%aUetrufn flavum^ L. Near water. 
AqmUqia vulgaris, L. 
AeUea wjpieaicL, L. 
FMiMr(a,L. 



F. Silveriris, Reiob. 
Hypericum hirsnium, Jj. 
Euonymui europsBuSf L. 
€hrnu$ aan^iiifiaa, L. 

N 



172 GEOGRiO'HICAL DISTRIBUTION OP y£Q£TATIOK IN TORKSHIRE. 

I^WLAND Mixed Woods. 

Inula Conyza, DC. NeoUia NtduB^vU, Bidh. 

Atropa Bellctdcnna^ L. LuUra ovatcL, B. Br. 

Daphne Laureola, L. EpipactU laUfoUa^ All. 

Narcissus Pteudo'naroissuSj L. Habenaria oUoroIenco, Bid. 

Polygonatum multiflorum^ All. ConvaXUuria majalU, Weber 

Carex digitata, L. Arum maetdatumy L. 

CalamogrostU epigeios. Both. Carex syZooiioa, Huds. 

Scolopendrium vulgare, Symons. Festuca tylwUiea, Vill. 

Ranunculus auricomus^ L. Hordeum sylvaticum, Huds. 
Atloxa Moschatellina^ L. 

The prevalence of the beech on the Permian suggests that it may 
be native there. This is the opinion of Mr. Lees (1888), who oonsiders 
it as a denizen on the other formations in West Yorkshire. Mr. Baker 
(1885) says, ''The beech is less likely to be indigenous with us than 
the sycamore ; " he regards it as a denizen in North Yorkshire. Mr. 
Robinson (1902) gives it as native in the East Biding : " the tree of the 
Wolds, and, although much planted now, is most likely aboriginal, as 
on the chalk further south." He also gives old place-names in confir- 
mation. It seems, therefore, possible that in or near the eastern part 
of this district, the beech is indigenoua The subject is worthy of a 
fuller examination than we can give it here. Dr. Hook (1892), in a 
series of papers dealing with the associate-plants of beech forest, points 
out that these are difficult to distinguish from those of (1) the oak, 
and (2) the alder associations. This we have also experienced in 
Yorkshire. In order to determine the true associates of the beech, 
Hock examines the distribution of sixty-eight plants found in beech 
woods of Northern Germany, in comparison witli that of the beech 
itself. He distinguishes twenty-one species which are closely co- 
extensive with the distribution of indigenous beeoh in Europe, from 
forty-seven species which have a wider distribution, and probably 
belong to the associations of the oak or alder. We have compared 
Hock's lists with the Floras of the West and East Hidings, and find 
that of the twenty-one close associates of the European beeoh forest, 
only ten are admitted as natives of the West Elding, while only eight 
are natives of the East Riding. Whether this method is the best one 
for determining the range of native beech requires confirmation ; but 
if it is reliable, then it does not support the claim that beech is native 
in Yorkshire. The beech is, nevertheless, a common tree in the low- 
land woods, and grows well. It is also frequently found in the valleys, 
where it has been planted. In the valley of the Burn on Lord Mas- 
ham's estate beeoh is successfully grown in close plantations with Soots 
pine and larch, up to an altitude of 850 feet. The highest altitudes for 
beech in this district are : 1000 feet (304 metres) between the Wash- 
burn and the Nidd, where it is planted with other trees in shelter-belts; 
and about 1300 feet (400 metres) at Malham Tarn House. On Bainstang, 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 173 

in Upper Nidderdale, there is a small olnmp planted by the roadside 

in an exposed position about 1350 feet; when or why these beeches 

have been planted we could not aecertain, but at present they are about 

20 feet high, and have remained about this height for thirty years 

at least. 

TAe Hazel Copse of the Permian. — The Permian soils are good farm- 
land, and few unoultiyated places large enough to show on the map 
aie to be found. Hook Moor, near Alerford, is almost the only moor- 
like locality on the Permian. The vegetation found on it (see Part I.) 
18 that of a grassy common, but the presence of indigenous shrubs 
indicates the rudiments of a copse vegetation. Uncultivated places of 
imall extent are to be found along steep banks and in numerous 
disnsed quarries from which limestone was at one time extensively 
quanied. Wherever grazing is restricted, these waste places tend to 
lieoome open thickets of hazel, hawthorn, bramble, and rose. In the 
conditions thus formed, there is a varied vegetation, which includes the 
fdlowiug, as well as plants of the Permian pasture. 

Corylui Arellana, L. Dominant. Scahiosa Columlxiria, L. 

Ranurtculu* AurieomuSy L. S. arvensii^ L. 

BeUehorus viridity L. Local. Carduus nutans^ L. 

Arabis hirsuta. Scop. C. Crispin, L. 

Reteda liUea, L. Centaurea scabiosu, L. 

R. Luteola, L. Hieractum Pilo»ella, L. 

Uilianthemum Cham«ci$tuSy Mill. Ligwdrum vulgare, L. 

Viola odorata, L. Blaclcstonia per/oliata, Huds. 

V. hirta, L. Cynoglossum officinale, L. Hare. 

CeraHium arvenae, Ij. Lithospermum officximle, L. Local. 

Syperieum monianum, Jj. Echium vnlgare, L. 

Geranium ianguineum, L. Airopa Belladimna, L. 

a. eolumbinum, L. Verbascum Tfiapsw, L. 

Euonymus europsdus, L. Origanum vulgarey L. 

Rhamnu$ catharticut, L. Calamintha officinali$y Moenrli. 

Ouonit ^pinosa, L. Listera ovata. R. Br. 

AfUhyUU VulnerariOy L. Orchis pyramidalis, L. 

Astragalus glycyphyllos, L. Ophrys apifera, Huds. 

Utibtu emsiuSy L. O. mutciferay Huds. 

Rosa ipinosissimOf T^. Carex sylvatioa, Hads. 

B. mollUy 8m. C flaeoa, Schreb 

Craimgus Ojyacanthay L. Bromus ramosus, Huds. 

Sazifraga tTtdadyltteSy L. B. erectu9y Huds. 

Galium Mctlugo, L. Brachypodium pinnatum, Beauv. 

Asperula eynanehieay L. Asplenium Ruta-muraria, L. 

The Permian Hedgeroto, — The hedges of the numerous old lanes on 
the Permian tract merit a passing glance, because they are a charac- 
teristio feature, and frequently enable one to determine with considerable 
•oouraoy the limits of that formation. In the upland districts of 
Yorkshire, there are few hedges and many stone walls (dark on the 
Millatone Grit, white on the Mountain Limestone), and behind these 
a limited number of plants are sheltered. The hedges of the lowland 



174 aSOQRAPHICAL DISTaiBlTTION OF VEGETAnOK IN TORKSHIBE. 

Goal Measures oonsist chiefly of hawthorn, and are not rich in asso- 
ciates. The following are constituents of the hedges on the Permian : — 



Sambucui nigrOt L. 
Lonieera Peridymanumj L. 
FraxinuM exeeUior, L. 
Liguslrum vufgare, L. 
Convdtvului Mptum, Janger. 



OorpUu Avtikma, L. 
Tamu9 eommmmiSf L. 



GematU Vitalba, L. Rare. 

Berherii vutgaris^ L. 

EuonymuB europmuBt L. 

RJiamntu oathariietu, L. 

Acer campettre, L. 

Rubus^ 8pp. Soianum Duleamara, L. 

Rota, spp. Daphne Laureoia^ L. 

Frunu$ tptnoto, L. Vlmu$ montama, Stokes. 

Oratmgut Oxyaeantha^ L. U. suberota^ Ebrh. 

Bryonia dioiea, Jacq. Humului lujndui, L. 

Comu$ ianguinea, L. 

Vibumum Opulu$^ L. 

V. Lantana, L. 

The hedgerow vegetation is a composite one. Trees, shrubs, and 
climbing plants from the woods and copses make up the hedge itself. 
The undergrowth consists of plants from the woods and copses, weeds 
from the farmland fields and meadows, and ruderal or wayside plants. 
The elements of a hedge thus represent the common associations of a 
locality, and by observing them one may obtain information useful in 
a botanical survey. 

C. The Farmland or Area of Cultivation. 

The Board of Agriculture returns, already given in Part I., indicate 
the crops of the farmland. The rich warm soils of the Permian tract 
are amongst the best in the West Hiding, and here the greatest pro- 
portion of arable land occurs. The soils on the Trias are so variable, 
from the presence of glacial or alluvial dSbrtM, that one finds fields 
capable of carrying good crops quite close to those with poor soils. 
This is very marked along the river Oase, and round York rye is 
a common cereal crop, while everywhere rough derelict pastures may 
be found. West of the Permian, the grassland increases as the moor- 
land is approached. The highest enclosed farmland occurs on the 
tract of limestone between Grassington and Pateley Bridge at an 
altitude of 1400 feet, and at the head of Nidderdale at 1500 feet (466 
metres). The cultivation of wheat in this district is carried on almost 
up to the eastern edge of the moorland, and far up the bottoms of the 
dales. The occurrecce of wheat cultivation so far up the eastern moor 
edge is partly due to the low annual rainfall, which along this tract is 
not much above 30 inches. The favourable exposure and the long 
undulating slopes are also important f8U)tors. The upper limit of wheat 
here varies from 600 to 700 feet. A crop in 1901 at High Skelden 
(700 feet) was a successful one. We have also a record on good 
authority that wheat is regularly and successfully grown at 800 feet 
at High Bramley Grange, near Masham. The climatic conditions of 
these eastern slopes seem suited for wheat, and, with a more favourable 



GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF YEGSTATION IN YORKSHIRE. 175 

market, it oould be grown on the better soils even higher than we 
have indicated on the map. In the dales, wheat is at present rarely 
grown. The records in Airedale ronnd Skip ton were kindly placed 
^ oar disposal by Mr. B. B. Cragg, who obtained them from old and 
trostworthy doooments. Thus we have been able to give the wheat- 
limits in this neighbonrhood with considerable aoonracy. In Wharfedale 
the highest reoent reoord obtained by ns was at Ukley, bnt from 
iBiiable information the wheat zone has been carried np to Bomsall, 
irhere it was grown about forty years ago. Mr. Cragg also obtained 
records of wheat onltivation on the allnvial lands by the Wharfe near 
Ghxtssingtoo. In Nidderdale it seems improbable that wheat was ever 
o^iltivated farther np than Pateley Bridge; the limits shown on the 
are based on oar own reoent observations. 

The Permian PMiures, — In early summer the vivid bright green of 

le pastures, and the reddish soil of the ploughed fields of the Permian, 

distinct from the darker pastures and soils of the Coal Measures. 

On the Permian pastures the grasses are short, and form a compact 

v^nrd, which includes many plants besides grasses, the soil is easily 

"^vanned by solar radiation, and spring growth begins early. The Coal 

Measure soils, on the other hand, are retentive of water, remaining oool 

t^ moist, and growth begins later ; the grasses are more tufted (e.g, 

Agrostis and Cocksfoot), and retain their dead leaves till early summer. 

^e vegetation of an old Permian pasture contains many plants which 

&^w best in dry well-drained places, and are either absent or rare on 

Ae adjoining formations. The pasture consists of plants able to with- 

ttand moderate grazing. In the absence of grazing, other plants 

appear, and the vegetation becomes that of a grassy common, like Hook 

Moor (Part I.), or that of the hazel copse. 

The following are found chiefly on Permian pastures : — 

Itanuneulut htdbosiM, L. Plantago mediae L. 

Fciygala vulgarU, L. Orchis utttdataj L. 



AMyllii Vulneraria^ L. 
AttragaluB danicui^ Betz. 
SpirsM Filipendula^ L. 



O. Morio, L. 

Habenaria eonoptea, Benth. 

JET. viridii, B. Br. 



PotentiUa vema, L. Allium Scorodoprasum, L. 

Poterium Sanguiiorbci^ L. i A. o2erao6«m, L. 

P. qfieUiaie, Hook. \ Colchieum autumndUt L. 

Saxifraga gronuZoto, L. Carex vema^ Cbaix. 

PimpineUa Saxifraga, L. Anihoxanlhvm odorcUum, L. 

SoahioM Coiumbaria, L. Aira caryophyllea, L. 

SmKio eruci/aliuM, L. Tri$eium pratense. Pen. 

Carduui critptUy L. Avena pubeteeM, HacU. 

OntcHf eriophorui. Roth. Cynosurus criUatus, L. 

Campatiida glomeratay L. Koeleria criitatay Ten. 

Primula verif, L. Briza media, L. 

ErythrsBa CSentounum, PerB. Fe$tuca elatior, L. 

Gentiana AmareUa, L. Bromus erectus^ Hads. 

RhifMnthuB Crista-galli, L. Hordeum aecalinum, Schreb. 

Thymus S^rpyVumy Fr. Foa pratentis. L. 



176 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 

TTnoultivated Lands. — Here and there amidst onltiyation, patches 
of land are met with whioh have never been cnltivated. The heaths 
or oommons of the Millstone Grit and the Coal Measures have already 
been referred to in Part I. Examples also occur in this district. The 
uncultivated lands of the Permian are examples either of the hazel 
copse, the grassy pasture, or the Permian common. 

Aquatic and Marsh Vegetation. — The chief features of this in its 
upland and lowland aspects were given in Part I. In this district, 
however, there is a much better development of the lowland type. The 
rivers, after traversing the Permian limestoDe through wooded gorges, 
such as those at Enaresboro' and Boston Spa, pass on to a flat plain, 
through which they flow slowly and with many windings. Owing to 
drainage and cultivation, the aquatic and marsh vegetation is now 
almost restricted to small areas. Askham Bog, near York (not included 
in the present district), probably represents what was formerly a 
common feature in the Plain of York. It has been briefly described 
thus: ''Pools bordered by flags, sedges, bulrushes, and marsh ferns, 
jungles of Osmunda, with birch, willow, and blackthorn. . . . The Bog 
is a tangled mass of flags and sweet gale, and various low-growing 
trees" (Rev. W. C. Hey, Trans. Y.N.U., 19q0). Within the limits of 
our map, the Ure from Ripon, and the Ouse Vith its tributaries, famish 
good examples of aquatic vegetation. Still reaches of water offer 
suitable conditions for floating and submerged aquatics, and the reed- 
swamp of tall grasses and bulrushes, while willow thickets shelter 
many plants of the marsh. Representative lists have already been 
given in Part I., but in this district the species named are more 
abundant, and the number could be considerably increased. Amongst 
others which might be added are — the white and yellow water-lilies, 
and several species of Potamogeton ; and of the marsh plants the greater 
spearwort (Banunculus Lingua), marsh buckthorn (Ehamnua Frangula), 
marsh rue (Thalicirum flavum), and water-dock {Euniex Bydrolapathum), 
Further consideration of the aquatic and marsh vegetation is deferred, 
in view of its extensive occurrence in parts not included in our 
maps. 

The geographical distribution of the vegetation in Yorkshire has 
now been described in two districts, includiDg about a fourth of the 
county. These districts furnish a general view of the vegetation of 
the Pennine range and its eastern slopes. In each direction beyond 
our maps, the vegetation undergoes other changes in its distribution. 
It is, therefore, convenient to summarize the chief facts presented in 
Parts I. and II. 

I. Farmland. 

A. With Wheat (Cultivation : upper limits, 600 to 700 feet (182 

to 213 metres), except in the dales. 

B. Without Wheat Cultivation : upper limits, 1000 to 1100 feet 



GIOGBAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN YORKSHIRE. 177 

(304 to 333 metres), with occaBioDal extension up to 1500 
feet (456 metres). 
II. Woodland. 

A. Deoidnons Woods : — 

1 . Lowland Oak Wood and Mixed Deciduous Woods : upper 

limits, 500 to 600 feet (152 to 182 metres) ; occasional 
mixed woods (planted), up to 1000 feet (304 metres). 

2. Upland Oak Wood : upper limits, 800 to 1000 feet (243 

to 304 metres); isolated oak, up to 1100 feet (333 
metres). 

3. Birch Wood of Clough and Gill : upper Umits, 1250 feet 

(380 metres); isolated trees, up to 1550 feet (470 
metres). 

4. Scar Woods : upper limits, 1000 to 1200 feet (304 to 364 

metres). 
B. Pine Woods : upper limits, 1250 to 1400 feet (380 to 424 
metres), 
lir. Moorland. 

A. Natural Pasture (Limestone): upper limits, 1500 to 1746 

feet (456 to 530 metres). 

B. Heaths : — 

1. Grass Heath : upper limits, 1000 to 1500 feet (304 to 456 

metres). 

2. Heather Moor: upper limits, 1250 to 1660 feet (380 to 

603 metres). 

C. Cotton-grass Moor : lower limit, about 1250 feet (380 metres), 

upper limits, 1500 to 2000 feet (456 to 606 metres). 

D. Summits : — 

1. Vadoinium : upper limits, 1500 to 1900 feet (456 to 576 

metres). 

2. Alpine pasture: lower limit, 2000 feet (606 metres), 

upper limit, 2300 ftet (700 metres). 
. ^ J^^® following natural zones of altitudinal rarge of vegetation are 

^^•ated from the above : — 
.. C 1) Zone of Wheat Cultivation and Lowland Oak Wood : upper 
^^t, 500 to 700 feet. 

tj^^C2) Upland Oak Wood and greater part of Cultivation without 
^*^^at : upper limit, 900 to 1000 feet. 

C3) Birch Wood and Pine Wood: upper limit, 1250 feet, which is 
^^ the lower limit of the ootton-grass moss. 

(4) Heather Moor, Grass Heath, and Limestone Pasture : ui>per 
^^ir^ 1500 to 1600 feet. 

(5) Cotton-grass moss and Yaccinium Summit : upper limit, 1800 to 
^^ feet. 

(6) Alpine Pasture, from 2000 to 2300 feet. 



178 THROUGH THE BARRKN GROUND OF 

In conclusion, we hope that the contribution contained in these two 
papers may have advanced knowledge in regard to the plant-geography 
of Yorkshire, and may have suggested methods of observation applicable 
elsewhere. Defects and oversights must exist, but we have tried to 
reduce them to a minimum, and trust that they do not affect the main 
features of the survey. 

REFERENCES. 

Baker, John Gilbert. — (1885.) "North Yorkshire: Studies of its Botany, 
(Jeology, Climate, and Physical Geography." 2ud edit Trans, of Yorki, 
Nat. Union^ 1886-1891. The work is complete up to Grasses, but further 
parts are to be published. Apply, Hon. Sec. T.N.U., Museum, HulL 

BucHAN, Alex.— (1898.) " The Mean Atmospheric Pressure and Temperature of 
the British Islands.'^ Jourti. Scot. Meteorol. Soc.^ vol. zi. 

Davis, J. W., and Lees, F. Abkold.— (1880.) 'West Yorkshire: Geology, 
Physical Geography, Climatology, and Botany.^ London. 

Graebner, p.— (1901.) 'Die Heide Noiddentschlands.' Part v., Engler und 
Drude, ' Vegetation der Erde.^ Leipzig (Engelmann). 
A Review, with special reference to work in Britain, by W, G. Smith, Soot. 
Oeogr. Mag., November, 1902. 

Hock, F.— (1892.) ' BegleitpBanzen d. Buche.' Botan. Centrattlattj liL, 1892, 
p. 353. Also other papers. 

Lees, F. Arnold. — (1880.) See Davis. 

(1888.) 'The Flora of West Yorkshire.' London, 1888. See also 

Davis. 

Lucas, Joseph.— (1881.) 'Studies in Nidderdale.' Notes from 18ed-1872, 
Pdteley Bridge (Thorpe). A summary of the observations on trees is given 
in Proceedings of Yorks. Oeologicai and Polytechnic /Soc, 1881. 

MiALL, L. C— (1878.) * The Geology, Natural History, and Antiquities of Graven, 
in Yorkshire.' Leeds (Dodgson), 1878. 

Robinson, J. Fbaser. — (1902.) * The Flora of the East Riding of Yorkshire.' 
London and Hull (Brown), 1902. 

Rothebay, Listeb.— (1900.) * Flora of Skipton and District.' Skipton, 1900. 

Shuffrey, Rev. W. A.— (1891.) "Flora of Littondale." ^a<tira/i«^ February, 
1891. Also included in ' Littondale Past and Present.' Leeds (Jackson). 

Smith, Wm. G., and Moss, C. E.— (1903.) 'Geographical Distribution of Vegeta- 
tion in Yorkshire.' Pait I. Leeds and Halifax District. The Geographical 
Journal, April, 1903. Pocket Edition — J. Bartholomew & Co., Edinburgh. 

YoBKSHiRE Naturalists* Union, Transactions of. Hon. Sec. Y.N.U., Museuna, 
Hull. 



THROUGH THE BARREN GROUND OF NORTH-EASTERN 
CANADA TO THE ARCTIC COAST. • 

By DAVID T. HANBTJRY. 

Fort Resolution, near the mouth of the Great Slave river, may be taken 
as the starting-point in this sketch of my journey through the Barren 

♦ See map, p. 236. 



KOKTH-EASTERN CANADA TO THE ARCTIC COAST. 



I7y 



Oronnd of Nor tii- Eastern t.'anada. From this statiun.on July 13, 1901, 
I and the twti companions whom I h»l engaged set out in two light 
oanoes, with a small acieutiflc equipment and with ouly such supplies as 
were strictly DecesBnry for tbe earlier part of the journey. For the 
<!K]jedition to the arctic ooa^t I hiid arranged ihat ample stores should 
l>e waiting in winter on board u whaling schooner, the Franein Align, 
i^mewhere near the month of Cbesterfield inlet, probably at Marble 
island. 

The first eveuing we camped un Stony island. In crossing the lake 
"s passed a long group of small islands, which I had not seen on any 
'nap. On the north Hhore. as we paddled along, we found traces of the 
iioia bulible which had risen and burst a few yi^rs before. On July 20 




VBreaoheil the eastern end nf the lake. Then we made the nine portages, 
one of them '2^ miles long, and on the 23rd reached Artillery lake, 
'hose lovely blue waters ripplod in bright sunshine, while on either 
Jwud the so-called Barren Ground stretched green and gay with number- 
less wild flowers. Ascending the stream which flows into the lake, we 
readied the watershed on the'JTtb, and in the evening camped on Camp- 
bell lake, on theheadwatersof theArk-i-linik. The divide is only a !ow 
moss swale, about :100 yards across, where one could just observe the 
water trickling here to the west, there to the east. Next day we reached 
the irregularly shaped lake which 1 have called Abbott lake, and, on 
the following morning, proceeded down the western branch of the Ark- 
i'Jiuik. A few miles east of Abbott lake, I found, as I had fonnd in 
1899, that my compass would not work ; but after trying a few blind 
inlets, w© made nut the proper course. On the 29th we saw (he fii-st of 




i ^ 



180 THROUGH THE BARREN GROUND OP 

the Bpmce trees which diBtingmsh the Ark-i-linik down to about 20 
miles west of Ti-bi-ilik lake, forming in many plaoes a belt or fringe 
of woodland, the trees being sometimes as mnch as 2 feet thick at the 
ground. 

On August 2 we reached a portage where the river cuts its way 
through felspathio granite (quartz in Eome places, in others biotite), 
whose beds dip at an angle of 60^ At the foot of the portage the 
formation changes to white sandstone, which continues with little 
interruption to the mouth of the main river. By August 5 we had 
passed all the portages, including that at a fall 30 feet high, and com- 
menced (August 6) the descent of the main river. 

On the 15th, near Ti-bi-elik lake, we met the first Eskimo, or Huskies, 
as I shall call them. Descending the lake, which is 13 miles long and 
5 or 6 miles broad, we reached the mouth of the Dubawnt river, whose 
name is then given to the united stream. Accompanied by two Huskies, 
we held on our way, and on the 20th reached Udi-uk-tellig, a Husky 
camp, where, in conversation with my old friend Amer-or-yuak, I 
recovered my knowledge of the Husky language. We were detained by 
rain and wind (north-north-east and north-west), usual at this season, 
till August 25, when we resumed our journey. The river connecting 
with Baker lake is wide, deep, and swift, with steeply sloping banks, 
the country, especially on the north, being hilly and rocky. Halfway 
down the lake we were delayed by bad weather, then we had fog ; but, 
steering by compass, we reached Maur-en-ek-uak, at the foot of the 
lake, on September 3. 

Here the tide from Hudson bay rises 6 or 8 feet. Chesterfield inlet 
commences about 20 miles further down, at the end of the southern 
outlet of Baker lake. This channel, the la^t portion of the Dubawnt 
river, is deep, and the water flows with a strong current. With a fair 
wind we descended the inlet in three days, and (September 8) camped 
on the mainland coast, south of Fairway island. Back from the coast 
the land was undulating, stony, and rocky, dotted with small lakes and 
moss swamps. Birds (ducks, etc.) were numeions, and one day I stalked 
and shot a swan belonging to one of the flocks I had seen overhead. 
Having gone southwards looking for the whaler, we set out, on September 
17, in calm weather, and crossed the channel (about 10 miles) to Marble 
island, rounded its south-western point, and entered the narrow passage 
leading to the harbour, but no ship nor any living creature was there, 
though barrel hoops and staves were Ijing about, and there were many 
graves. The island is of quartzite, white at a distance, but rusty or 
yellow close at hand. The harbour is good, except that its anchorage is 
insufficient, and we saw a track leading up the rocks to a small fresh- 
water lake. 

Ketuming to the mainland, we resolved to go back, in the mean time, 
to Baker lake. Near the coast we found indications, chiefly in the form 



NORTH-EASTEHS C-ISADA TO THE ARCTIC COAST. 181 




182 



THROUQH THE BARRIO OKOUAD ( 




of old Husky camps, that the Hudson bay Huskies are 1 
than formerly, and my inferences on Ihis subject ■were confirmed by 
Amer-or-yuak. Proceeding up the inlet, I mot at NelUynk-ynak, on 
September 28, Uttungerlah, an old Husky friend, and received from him 
letters which informed roe tbat the Francis AVyn was lying at Depot 
island, a small, low rocky islet about 40 miles north of the mouth of 
the inlet. He had oome in one of the whale-boats, and in this craft I 
reached the whaler on October 2. Three days later we set out in a fully 
laden whale-boat, and took a short out along a shallow channel dog by 
the Huskies behind the peninsula (which mapa do not show as & 
peninsnlaj at the north-end of the inlet, thus saving 20 milee. On 
Ootober 12 we reached the Husky camp at the fcot of Baker lake, and 
landed through heavy slob ice, just in time, for next day the river was 
frozen thick. 

In the winter we bad several hunting expeditions, one being towards 
Pelly lake, over new ground, which in this brief sketch I must leave 
un described. 

My next move (December 2S) was towarda the Franch Allyn, where 
I had to prepare for the jonmey to the arctic coast, I made arrange- 
ments with Amer and Uttungerlah for their company to the north, 
settled on the route and other details, and then went to fetch the 
supplies. Prom the head of Chesterfield inlet to the ship the direct 
distance was about 140 miles, which, in travelling, wo made about 180. 
The country was flat or undulating, and oontained lakes, but neither 
our going nor returning need he described here. For the month of 
January, ltlO:i, the mean temperature was — 30°'6 Fahr,, and the loweet 
reading for the whole winter was —57° Fahr. 

On March 9 we started on our long journey from the foot of Baker 
lake with two sleighu laden with stores, and a third carrying two 
canoes "nesting" on a frame, the three being drawn by twenty dogs. 
All of us walked, even the women and children who were to accompany 
us to Pelly lake. We- went by easy stages, and on the IBth reached 
King'ak, near the lake- head. Here the minimum temperature was —5]° 
Fahr. The whole southern shore of the lake is low, but about 2 miles to 
the south, a ridge parallel with it runs from near the Kazan river to 
Eing-ak, and opposite the middle of this ridge, but 6 or 10 miles to the 
sonlh, is a conspicuous bill called No-a-shuk. 

Eing^ak stands on a bay, into which flows a very small etream. 
This is probably the place referred to by Captain Christopher, seat in 
176! to ascerlain whether a north-west passage could bo found by 
Chesterfield inlet. He mentions, as at the head of a large fresh-water 
lake (Baker lake), '-a small river full of falls and shoals, not water for 
a boat," and seems not to have seen or heard of the Dubawnt river. 

Travelling slowly past the shores of Schultz lake and Aberdeen 
lake, we reached Ti-bi-elik lake on April 3. Here three thermometers 




184 



THROUGH THE BAREKN OEODND OF 



gave 21 1 "'4 as the boiling-poiot, the temperature oFthe air being 32°. 8o 
that the altitude was about 313 feet. On April 5 we crossed the lake 
(6 miles), and next day set ont due north, intending to follow the 
meridian of 101° as uearly as we could by dead reckoning. The 
country was flat, without rocka in siVu, but red sandstone dehria appeared. 
In i' miles we found only one lake. Further on (April 7), the sandstone 
d&riB gave plaue to granite bouldere and fragments. The boiling-point 
of two thermometers here was 211°, the air being at 28°, so that tlie 
attttnde was about 515 feet. 

On the 8lh we crossed two small lakes and a low ridge, apparently 
dividing the waters flowing south from those flowing north to Back's 
river. The country was siiil flat, with low ridges and sand-hillocks. 
Next day we struck and followed a river flowing north. It proved to 
be the Buchanan, with banks usually low and eloping, but high in some 
places, with sandy hills back from either side. The ice on the river was 
7 feet thick. On the 1 0th we camped in snow huts on a lake, to the 
west of which was a flat-topped gravel hill about 120 feet high. As 
we descended the river, its bed oF granite boulders widened, and was 
now from 300 to 000 yards across. I could not determine my longttnde, 
and was puzzled by the discrepancies between Tyrrell's map and the 
latest Admiralty chart, the mouth of the Buchanan being put on the 
former ut 102° 10' W., and on the latter at 103° 10' W. 

On April 12 we fell in with a Back's river Husky, who took us to 
his camp. On the 14th we left the Buchanan, and, going o miles north' 
ea^t, reached the eouth-west shore of Fully lake, across which we 
travelled 6 miles to the north shore, Here the boiling-point given bv 
two thermometers was 211°-5, the temperature of the air being 30% so 
that the altitude was about 260 feet. We searched for, but, owing to fog, 
did not find, a stream which we were told flows into I'elly lake from 
the north. On the 18th wo followed an arm of the lake running north ; 
then struck north and north-north-west, where the land became rugged 
with granitic rocks. On the 1 7 th the maximum temperature had reached 
32° Tahr., and on tho 20th 36' Fahr. On the 2lBt an observation of the 
meridian altitude of the sun showed we were in lat. (jij° 25' 25" N, 
Here the boiling-point was 211^-2, the air being at 29", and the altitude 
therefore about 414 feet. 

Then the country became flat, and on the 22nd we reached Ta-her- 
uak lake (but this seems to be a common word for " lake "). Travelling 
8i miles from about the middle of the shore, we reached the foot of the 
late, which, confined within low rocky shores, was irregular in shape, 
and contained many roc'ky islands. Next day we found the outlet, 
marked with Htones set on end by Huskies. As we travelled northwaida, 
April 23, it was difficult to tell whether we were on the river, or on 
lakes or moss swamps. An observation gave our latitude as 66" 42' N., 
so that from Ogden bay in 67' 36' N. we were distant 54 geographical 




KORTH-EASTERN CANADA TO THE ARlTIC COAST. 




oilei. The rooks bere were pinkUli felspathio, emooth, bat not etiiated 
B fu aa we observe'l. On the :25th we travelled on the river and lakea 
wroes a barren country with neither moss nor liohoo, but we found 
bnther for fuel. For several days we wen' detained by blizzards, but 
on Hay 1 we continued our way down tho river past several frozen 
npidg, the rocky banks being GoiuetimeH liO feet high. On May 2 we 
were in lat, 67" 18' N. We made long halts to avoid outstripping 
the deer in their migration to the north, and on one of these days I 
killed two arctic hares on rough broken ground. On the 8th we were 
Dsuly at the sea-level, two thermometers giTing 212° as the boiling- 
poiat, and one 212°'l, 

On the 10th we were about '57° 126' N., or about 10 geographical miles 
from Ogden bay, and I sent two liuekies north to prospect, giving them 
P'Mants for the coast natives. Neit evening they returned, bringing 
with them two coast Huskies, tall, strung, cjuiet men, differing in no 
wy but in the out of their clothes from the Hudson bay men. They 
M^ned timid at first, but gained confidence, gave me tnuoh iuformatiou, 
>»d agreed to accompany us. 

On May 12 we were in lat 67° 29' and two days later we struck 
tk aiotic ooast in lat. 67° 44' ; and (as I snbEeqnently puzzled out) 
Maspot alittle to tho west of MoTavish point. The river had widened 
out, and the land was very low. Seven miles out on the ice we found a 
Boaky camp of two snow huts, or " iglfls," and three tente, containing 

Ko. II.— ACGUST, 1903.] o 



I 



188 



THRODGH THE BARREN GROUND OF 



five families and tome visitora, forty-five persons in all. From th&t 
point our direction was weatwards. Setting out on the 16tb, we paeeed 
many bare, rocky islets, the distant mainland ooast being visible aa a 
low nndnlating ridge. On the ITtli we camped beside rooky islets 
showing deep grixives and atriie, and broken off abruptly to the nortb. 
Otber two days' travelling brought ua to the tents of Haakiea, strangers 
to my Arctic coast companions, and bearing a marked resemblance to 
the Mongolian typa They were friendly enough, but did not Invite 
U9 into their tents. On May 22 I found we were in hit. 68° 5*. Here 
we boiled three thermometers, which showed respectively 212", 212'''I, 
and 211!^ as the boiling-point. 

After being detained by blizzards, we out across While Bear point. 
and held for two days westwards, inclining slightly to the north. On 
May i? we camped in our tent on the west of the portage across Bear 




XOKTH-EASTERS lA.VAUA TO THE ARiTK' ''OAST. IS' 




some ilaya earlier. The mainland lo the south seemed high and rocky ; 
Melbourne island appeared as a long low streak (o the north. 

On May 'J'J I fonnd our Utilnde was Sf^' 2i)'. That day ive reached 
the emat coast of Kent peninsula, whi'te Huskies were busy catchiug 
codling with copper hooks through holes in Die ice. The weather was 
now warm ; the blazing sun melted the enow on the land, pools of water 
lay ou Ihe ice, and birds and beasts i'ccame more niimerons. 

The little inlet from f^byriuth bay on wliiuh we were camping was 
almost too small to have a name, bat as, from its pubitioD, it seemed to 
deserve one, I called it Portage inlet. From its head there is ouly one 
mile's distance overland to It-Ib-lair-ynak lake, which is 6 miles long, and 
hae at its west end an outlet flowing into the inlet E-lu from Warrender 
Bay, ou the west side of Kent peninsula, which is thus almost an island. 
With esoeplioD of the one-mile portage, there is an excellent canoe route. 
Dot only much shorter, but more fihelterod than that round Kent 
peninsula. 

We resumed our journey on May 31 , and camped at the fcot of the 
lake in a rocky country. A mile to the south-south-west was a basaltic 
hill (Har-li-ftr-li) 360 feat high, as I made out by the Watkiu aneroid, 
and precipitonsly cut on the east and touth. On the rii3gcs and hills 
here beds of marine shells were noticeable. Travelling ulong ihe south 
shore of the inlet E-ln, we passed on June i a hill called I'-wti-yn-uUn, 
and oo Jane 6 a similar hill, both being precipitous nearly all ronnd, 

2 



IBB 



THROUGH THE BARREN GROUND OF 



aod thougL lees than 600 feet high, very protume&t l&Ddmarks. Aboui 
miles further on, the E-lu inlet, which ie about 12 miles aorosa at its 
widest part, contracted to about Ij mile. The following day (Juae 7), 
after going 8 miles, we reached Warrender bay. The entrance to E-la 
inlet is obscured by islands overlapping one another, and this fact 
accounts for its having been passed unnoticed by the surreyoro of 
Melville Bonnd. Crossing Hope bay, we went S. 30" W. to the high and 
rocky south shore of Melville sound, travelling 22 miles over smooth ioo, 
on which a Husky killed five arctic hares with hie bow and arrow. On 
the Sth we travelled west along the coast of the sonnd, and camped at a 
creek with a shoal sandy beach, where there was a Husky encampment 
called Sarkor-wark-tUk. A longish hill, 8'tO feet high, overlooked our 
camp. Dwarf black birch was abundant 

On the 15th I and two Huskies on a sleigh set out for Bariy island 
(Iglor-yn-nllig), and next day reached its north shore. We found two 
small pieces of copper, and the rock formation showed that the metal 
was abundant and widely distributed. In retarniug (June 18) ire 
made for the nearest land on the eastern shore of liathurst inlet, and, 
oroesing mountainous ground, reached our camp on the I Sth. On the 
22nd we journeyed 18 miles westwards, and camped on the west aids 
of Cape Croker, which is an island separated from the mainland by 
a channel half a mile wide. Next day, in crossing Bathnrst inlet, we 
reached a flat-topped precipitonB island, basaltic, bat with a bftd of 
limestone as mnch as 60 feet thick underlying the columnar basalt. 
On the 25th, passing many other islands, we reached one where we 
searched for copper, and, though we found little, saw from the stains 
on the rocks that copper was present. On the 27th, at the north-west 
point of Lewes island, we found cop[Kir in flakes wedged vertically 
in the rocks, and also in small chunks. We picked up between 2 
and 3 lbs. in less than three-quarters of an hour. The rock was easily 
cleft by a slight tap with an axe. The summer was now well advanoed, 
birds, butterflies, and floweriug plants being common. 

On the 29th we reached Cape Barrow, off which are preoipitons 
basaltic islands, and inland from which the country is rugged. Next 
day, 8 miles along the coast, at Utkiishik Earlflk, we found a soft etone 
from which the Huskies make kettles (^Ulkaakik'). It occurs, grey and 
powdery -loo king, among granitic rocks. On July 1 we camped a short 
distance east of Uni-a-lik, a river with a reputation for salmon. Here, 
in Gray bay, the ice was very rotten; but next day, beyond Hepburn 
island, the ice was good. As we advanced, however, it got worse. We 
all went through it several times, and the cracks liecame so wide that 
in crossing them wo had to launch a canoe. Two of us were suffering 
from snow-blindness, and when less than 60 geographical miles from 
Ihe Coppermine river mouth, I resolved to wait for open water. On 
the IJth we set out in the canoes, but the strip of open water was not 




NORTH-EASTERN CANADA TO THE ARCTIC COAST, 1 

«>DtiDi]ous, and it waa not till tho 18th that, after many portages, we 
reacbed the CoppeTmine. 

Nest day we pad)lled 9 miles up to Bloody fall, where we fonnd 
* EnBky camp, from which the occupants had fled on oiir appioach, 
'having everything behind. The atone kettles with boiled salmon were 
■ ttll warm. I took some half-dried salmon, and left for payment i 
'triivee, files, needles, etc. 

The fall ia in fact a rapid, requiring half a mile's portage. Above 
^*>is is a stretch of shoul ('now and then deep) water with a swift 
°** Trent, which it took U8 all day to ascend, wading and walking the 
'^^-fcoes. Higher up there were rapids, where tho water was too swift 




rVi^S" padiUing and loo deep for poling, and where the ateep banka gave 
EK «=> footway fur tracking, so that portaging oonld not he avoided. At 
>■'«:■ ch places it took all six of us to handle a canoo. We ascended the 
ri-^wer for al>out 100 milea to the place where, nearly opposite each other 
ffc* « Uouse river and the Diamal Lakes river flow into the Coppermine. 
'*-~ iie river to the weat offered fair canoe navigation, and we reached the 
C*ismal lake (there is only one) on August I. About lli miles to the 
^-•^i^rtli-west we found the narrows, in lat. 67" 21' N., aa I made out. 
'*-""" Aie altitude of the lake ia about 8i!0 feet, which is alao, within n few 
■*= «t, the altitude of the divide between the Coppermine and Great Bear 
'^^^te waters. The portages across the divide were numerous and lengthy, 

*'"*^ i after having passed them I bade good-bye lo the three Hudson bay 

^^'vukies who had attended me ao far. 



190 THROUGH THE BAKREN GROUND OF NORTH-EASTERN CANADA 

On July 2ii and August 3 the inaumiim temperature was 65° Fahr., 
the higbest regietered during the journey. I wished to eonneot tha 
survey of the east oud of Great Bear Lake wilh that of the Coppermine, 
but Hoaroity of fjod and the difflciiUy of the ahoal and stony Deaaa 
river required that we should push od. Oa the IlHh we reached Great 
Bear lake, and on the JOth the long journey ended at Fort Nonuan, on 
the McKenzie river. 



Geuerally speaking, the geology of the nortliland of Canada is not of a Tery 
ioteresting character, except perhapa to the student of glacial phenomena. 

Plutonic Tozkt, granite for the moet part, prevail. However, I came on lime- 
stone on the arctic coa^t, but I failed to diHcover any fossila, though I searched 
diligently for them. Large quantities of native copper were found on the islands 
in B^thurst inlet. It was in bassltic formatjun. 1 may be wrong about tbjf, as 
my collection of geological specimens hae not been Biamioed yet. As it will be 
•erne time before 1 bIibII bare fiaished writing up my notes, 1 have written the 
following short eesnine of the different formations met with. 

At the foot of Baker lake (Maur-en-ek-uak on my map), red or brown sand- 
stone, cUflsiGed Cambrian by tbe Canadian Geological Department. Ko fouils 
have ever been discovered. Between the north shore of Baker lake aod Like Garry 
on Back's tivsr, the usual plutonic rock* occur, chiefly felapathic granite. About 
'!<) miles south of L»ke Oury are some exposures of white or grey quarlaite, 
similar to that found on Marble island, which has been reported upon by Dr. Bell 
(Canadian Geological Sirvey Dspartmeot). This quartzite 'n classEd Uuronian. 
As we approached Lake Garry, eiposurea of reck became less frequent ; the 
land is of a enndy nature, and small snud-billii numerous. Between the head 
of Chesterfield inlet and Depot island (near Whitney inlet, on the coast of Hudson 
biy) are massive granite rocks, and the country is rugged. 

Klarting from the north shore of Ti-bi-elik lake, we travelled over flat or uadn- 
latlng country for 20 roilas : no stEpssures of rook were seea, but sandstone ilebrii 
scattered around. We then came on granitic boulders, but still no rock Tii stfu. A 
short distance further north there na^ an outcrop of grey quartzite (Alarble island). 
We then struck the headwiters of Duchansn river, a tributary Sowing north into 
Baok's river. Along Buchanan river arc no rocks in tiiii ; land sandy. Granitic 
rocks are in liln on Buchanan river, claao to its junction with Back's river. North 
of Pelly lake, felspathic granitic occurg, smoothed but not striated by glacial 
action. A similar formation \i found tight up to Ogden bay on the arctio ooaat. 
The granite varies considerably in composition. Felspar is so much in tbe ascendant 
in some coses, tliat the whole country has a pink appearance ; in other cases, horn- 
blende is io the aacendmt ; in others, quartz. Tbe rock is bighly crystalline in most 
coses. Schists arc conspicuous by their absence. Plutonic rocks are in evidence 
all along tbe arctic coast to Kent peninsula. 

A peculiarity which 1 have noticed in a great many places on the northland 
of Canada is the occurrence of beds of shells (marine), on the tops of hills or niwei 
Bjwts at altitudes varying from 50 to 500 feet above the sea-level. These beds of 
shells were very common on Kent peninsiils. Specimens of these sheila, which I 
brought bick on my lost journey, and which were found to the south of Baker 
lake, were named for me by Dr. Dawson— Lni,iV'iif a Tw/osa (L.), Pecttn laUindimu, 
AilarU Tiankfii, var. sliiala, fragments of Bucclnum and Balanus. It baa alwayfr 



THE TERMINOLOGY OF THE FORMS OF SUB-OCEANIC RELIEF. 101 

been a puzzle to me to account for the presence of these beds of shells. I quote 
from Lyally p. 16S. '' The occurrence of patches and beds of marine shells at alti- 
tudes Tarying from a few feet to 500 feet is probably due, 1.0. their present elevated 
condition, to the action of great glaciers or ice-shests pushing up portions of the 
sea-floor, possibly in a frozen condition, to the hill slopes on which they are now 
to be found.** 

Basalt was observed on Kent peninsula, which continues with breaks almost to 
the Coppermine river. N itive copper is always vertically placed in basaltic forma- 
tion, much disintegrated, and easily broken up. This formation, containing larger 
or gmtUer quantities of native copper, prevails on all the islands in Bathurst inlet 
(or rather, I should siy, all that I visited). I have several specimens of this rock, 
showiDg exactly how the copper occurs. It is generally in the form of flakes which 
are always wedged in vertically, never horizontally. Why this should be so I shall 
Qot venture to guess. The copper is also found in lumps or nuggets, some of them 
▼try Urge. 

Near Lewis island, in Bathurst inlet, is a bed 15 feet thick of limestone under- 
lybg 20 feet of basalt ; no fossils in the limestone. In the islands north of the Cape 
Barrow limestone was seen, but not visited. Eight miles west from Cape Barrow, 
and about 5 miles inland, there is a spot or patch of soft grey reck, which occurs 
in felspathic granite formation. I call this rock kettle-stone, for it is the stone 
Qied by the Eskimo to make their stone kettles and oil lamps. It is most peculiar 
ttd its presence and origin are not very apparent. It is quite soft, and can easily 
^ cut with an axe or knife. It may be the result of the kaolinization of the 
felspar, caused by deep-seated chemical action. I do not advance this theory, 
ltowe?er. Why it should occur at certain spots, or at all, is a geological puzzle. I 
IttTe specimens of this rock, which is in situ, and also a kettle and a lamp made 
oat of it. 

The geology along the Coppermine has already been reported u]X)n, I believe. 
^0 signs of gold were seen. The only other metal, other than the native copper 
net with, was iron, which is common everywhere in small quantities. 



THE TERMINOLOGY AND NOMENCLATURE OF THE FORMS 

OF SUB-OCEANIC RELIEF. 

The firat meeting of a Committee of the Sixth International Geo- 
graphical Congress appointed at Berlin in 1899 to consider a 
wheme of international nomenclature for the forms of sub-oceanic 
relief was held in the Hotel Nassau, Wiesbaden, on April 15 and IG, 
1903. 

There were present, H.S.H. The Prince of Monaco ; Prof. Krunimel, 

Kiel; Prof. A. Supan, Gotha; Prof. 0. Pettersson, Stockholm; Prof. 

Thoulet, Nancy ; Dr. H. E. Mill, London. M. Sauerwein, aide-de-camp 

io the Prince of Monaco, acted as secretary of the Committee. Sir John 

Mnrray and Dr. Nansen, members of the Committee, were unable to be 

present. 



192 THE TERMIN0L0G7 OF THE FORMS OF SUB-OCEANIC RELIEF. 

The Committee was charged with two duties — 

(1) To draw up an authentic map of the oceans, embodying the 

results of all existing deep-sea soundings, for presentation to 
the Seventh International Geographical Congress at Washington 
in 1904. 

(2) To consider a system of international terminology and nomen- 

clature for the larger features of sub-oceanic relief. 

(1) Prof. Thoulet brought forward a scheme for constructing a chart 
of the oceans on the equatorial scale of 1 : 10,000,000 (approximately 
160 miles to an inch), two diflferent projections being adopted. From 
72** S. to 72° N. the chart would be on Mercator's projection, and 
would comprise twenty-four sheets. From 72° to the poles the gnomonic 
projection would be employed, each polar area including four sheets, so 
that the whole map would consist of thirty-two sheets of a convenient 
size. All soundings of greater depth than 1000 metres would be 
entered upon the chart, and isobathic lines drawn so far as the data 
warranted. The unexplored part of the oceans would be left without 
isobathic lines, and it was proposed to issue the map uncoloured. It 
was understood that the Prince of Monaco would be responsible for the 
production of this map, should the Washington Congress approve of the 
scheme. 

After a prolonged discussion of the scale and the projections, the 
Committee unanimously resolved to recommend the Congress to adopt 
Prof. Thoulet's scheme in its entirety. It also recommended that the 
data of the new map should be published on an equivalent area projec- 
tion on a smaller scale, suitable for the use of oceanographers in plotting 
various distributions for the purpose of measuring areas. It was 
suggested that this might be undertaken by private enterprise. 

(2) As regards terminology, it was resolved to ask the Grerman 
members of the Committee to draw up definitions of the terms used for 
the more important forms of sub-03eanic relief, and to communicate 
them to the other members for consideration and for consultation with 
other geographers. When the definitions are adopted, the Committee 
should decide as to exact equivalents of the terms in French and 
English. 

It was resolved to recommend that for the larger features names 
descriptive of their geographical positions should be exclusively adopted, 
as has been done in Prof. Supan*s bathymetrical chart published in 
1899. For smaller features and for special points the names of persons 
or of ships might be freely used. 

The following is the terminology (with definitions) of the most 
important forms of s ib-oceanic relief, proposed by Prof. Snpan, with 
the English equivalents suggested by Dr. II. I?. Mill, and the French 
by Prof. Thoulet. 

I. The Gueater Forms. 



THE TKRMIKOLOGT OP THE FORMS OP SUB-OCEANIC REUEF. 193 

1. The Shelf (Gter. Schelf; Fr. Socle or Plateau continental) is the 
only form of the continental border which is of independent importance. 
It is the portion of the continental border which extends seaward 
from tide-marks, sinking very gradually, as a rule, to the depth of 
ahout 100 fathoms or 200 metres, and then suddenly falling steeply 
to a great depth. Examples : the British, Suuda, and Newfoundland 
shelves. 

2. The Depression (Ger. Vertiefung) is enclosed on all sides by eleva- 
tions of the sea-bed. 

(a) The Basin (Ger. Becken ; Fr. Bassin) is a depression of approxi- 
mately round form, in which the horizontal diameters are 
about equal. 

(h) The Trough (Ger. Mulde ; Fr. VallSe), an elongated and wide depres- 
sion, with gently sloping borders. A trough may be divided 
by transverse elevations into basins, as, for example, in the 
Atlantic 

(c) The Trench (Ger. Grahen; Fr. Bavin) is also an elongated but 
proportionally narrow depression, with steeply sloping borders, 
one of which (the continental) rises higher than the other (the 
oceanic). Trenches are the ends of un symmetrical basins, and 
lie beside the continental border or island chains. The Cayman 
trench alone rans between islands, but in its c^tse also the 
borders are of unequal height. Slrictly speaking, the trench 
is only a secondary form of the great depressions of the ocean 
floor, but on account of its considerable length, its depth, and 
its genetic importance, it may well be reckoned as one of the 
principal forms. 

The extension of a trough or basin which penetrates the land or a 
Bubmarine elevation, either with a uniform or a gradually diminishing 
depth, or which is bounded on the one side by land and on the other 
by a submarine elevation, may be — 

(fl) An Enibayment (Ger. Bucht ; Fr. Golfe), if wide, and of a rounded 
or triangular form, as, for example, the East Australian 
embayment. 

0>) A Gully (Ger. Binne ; Fr. Chenal\ if long and narrow {e.g, the 
Faroe gully, the Norwegian gully). 

3. The Elevation (Gter. Erhehung) is either entirely surrounded by 

depressions or is a prolongation of the continental border. 
(«) The Bise (Ger. Schwelle ; Fr. Seuil) is an elevation which rises 
gradually with an angle of only a few minutes of arc, irrespec- 
tive of whether it is wide or narrow, or of its vertical develop- 
ment. On account of its flatness the rise apparently plays 
only a subordinate part, but rises carry the chief features of 
suboceanic relief, so that if the ocean floor was changed into 
dry land they would act as the main watersheds. 



194 THE TERMINOLOGY OF THE FORMS OF SUB-OCEANIC RELIEF. 

(b) The Bidge (Ger. Bucken ; Fr. Crete) is a relatively narrow eleva- 

tion whioh is prominent on acoonnt of the steep angle at 
which it rises. It is thus narrower than an extended rise^ the 
distinction being clear where a rise assumes in some parts the 
character of a ridge, as, for example, the Atlantic equatorial 
ridge. The category of ridges includes both greater and 
minor forms. 

(c) The Plateau (Ger. and Fr. Plateau) is a steep elevation of large 

extent in which the length and breadth do not greatly differ. 

It may rise from the depressions of the ooean floor, or from a 

rise (e,g, the Azores Plateau). 
4. A Deep (Ger Tief; Fr. Fosse) is tbe deepest part of a depression 
{e.g, the Nero Deep). A Height (Ger. Boh ; Fr. Haut) is similarly the 
highest part of a rise, ridge, or plateau, if it does not belong to the 
base of an island or is classed as an independent minor form C^.g. 
the Yaldivia Height on the Walfisch Eidge). 

II. MiNoii FoKMS which are of smaller extent, but, on account of 
steeper slopes, clearly distinguished from their surroundings, include — 

1. Elevations: 

(a) Elongated elevations usually of irregular surface : Ridges. 
(h) Single elevations or submarine mountains, particularly — 

(tt) The Dome (Ger. Kuppe; Fr. Dome), an elevation of small 

area, but rising with a steep angle to a depth more than 

200 metres from the surface. 
(P) The Bank (Ger. Bank ; Fr. Banc) rising to within 200 

metres of the surface, but not so far as within 1 1 metres 

(e.g, the Porcupine Bank, or Prinoesse Alice Bank). 
(y) The Shoal (Ger. Grund ; Fr. Haut fond) and Beef (Q^r. Biff; 

Fr. B^cif), which come within 11 metres of the surface, 

and so are dangerous to shipping (e.g. Paraoels Beef, Adler 

Shoal). 

2. Depressions: 

(a) The Caldron (Ger. Kessel ; Fr. Caldeira), a more or less steep 
depression of relatively small extent (e,g. the Monaco Caldron 
on the Azores Plateau). 

(h) The Furrow (Ger. Furche ; Fr. Silhm), a valley or channel-like 
hollow in the continental border, and more or less at right 
angles to it (e.g. the Indus Furrow, the Ganges Furrow). 

The opinion of geographerd as to the appropriateness of this termi- 
nology, or as to the best synonyms of the German terms is asked for. 



( 195 ) 

MAP OF SOUTH-WEST CHINA, TO ACCOMPANY CAPTAIN 

RYDER'S PAPER.* 

The map of Souih-West China and parts of adjaoent conntries, which 
appears in the present number (p. 236), is intended to accompany the paper 
ly Captain C.H. D. Ryder, r.k., read before the Society on November 24 
list, and published in the February number of the Oeographical Journal 
for this year. It has been reduced from thirty-four sheets of the North- 
Eastem and South-Eastern Frontier surveys, on the scale of 4 miles to an 
inch, now being published under the direction of the Surveyor- General 
of India, through whose kindness the Society has been furnished with 
advance copies. These sheets have been drawn from the recent surveys 
of Captain C. H. D. Eyder, r.e., Major H. R. Davies, oxford l.i., Captain 
W. A. Watts Jones, u.e., Captain L. D. Fraser, r.a., Major T. F. B. 
Benny-Tailyour, r.e,, and other officers of the Indian Survey, supple- 
mented in parts from the route surveys of the late Captain W. J. Gill, 
K.K., Mr. C. Baber, the Pandit " A. K.," Prince Henry of Orleans, Dr. 
logan Jock, and other travellers. No attempt has been made to show 
boundaries, except where they have been definitely fixed. 

In the spelling of the place-names care has been taken to follow as 
far as possible the 8i)ecial rules for Chinese names laid down by this 
S<jciety. 



THE GERMAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

The official report of Dr. von Drygalski bas been received in Berlin, and was 
printed on July 10 as a supplement to the Reichsanzeiger, It begins with the 
departure from Kerguelen on January 31, 1902, and describes the voyage via 
Heard island (wbere a landing was effected, and a study made of the glaciers, 
Mimal life, etc.) to the poeition in which Termination Land had been thought by 
^ilkea to exist, though the voyage of the Challenger had thrown some doubt on 
tbe sabject. The voyage was not made without difficulties ; the pack-ice, which 
WM reached on February 13 in 61® 58' S., 95° 8' E., for a time preventing any 
S^at progress in a southerly direction. Dr. von Drygalski is of opinion that the 
belief of the existence of Termination Land originated in the deceptive appearance 
of the icebergs, of which many were seen in the neighbourhood by the German 
explorers. Although the soundings showed smaller depths than had been met 
^th previously, they were still too great to allow of the supposition that land was 
close, though from the nature of the icebergs it is thought probable that it existed 
^ no very great distance. On February 18 a more rapid advance began, and on 
^e 2l8t a previously unknown land was sighted. After describing the course of 
the navigation during February 18-20, Dr. von Drygalski proceeds as follows : t — 
Oq February 21, at about 3.30 a.m., the announcement of land was made. After 
P^ing between many table-topped bergs, we found ourselves in front of a coast 

• See Geographical Journal^ February, 1903. This map may br inserted cither in 
the present volume, or at p. 220 of the Journal for February, 1903. 
t What follows is a condensed translation of the original report. 



1 



196 THE GRRMAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

entiraly oarered with ice, evidently the terminatiao of sa inliad ice-sb«t. Tbe 
ice riaea at first Htaeply and then mora gently tovarda tha Bouth, and appeara to 
co?er a. hilly lind. Approaching the edge of the inland ice, we sounded, at a 
distance o( 2^ miles, a depth of 219 fatboma. We then sailed weBtwards, taking 
magnetic obBervatioos and dredging. On the morning of the 22nd we found 
ouraelves enclosed by heavy ice-blocks, in which we remained imprisoned till 
Febrnary 8, in03. 

Snow continued to fall with eome intervals until February 25, when it was 
first posBibls to look around, Tbe inland ice lay far to the south, and open water 
was ceen in various directions, a wide lead being only half a mile diGtant, Attempts 
were made to release tbe ship, but it was embedded fast in blocks 16 to 20 feet 
thick and more, and when the snowstorm ceassd, the temperature fell in the night 
to li' Fahr., BO that the mass of ice and snow was firmly f^o;^en together. On 
March 1, the international term day, magnetic obeecTations were made hy Dr. 
Bidlingmaier iu a hastily erected ice-house oa a floe. 

Tbe wioter station of the Oawsa was, then, situated in pack-ice, and not close to 
the land. At first some doubts were entertained with regard to the branches of our 
work which demand a stable ])oaition for satisfactory execution; but these were 
soon allayed by the discovery that the mass of ice was perfectly firm, and remained 
so until Jannary 30, 1903, that is, a few days before our release. Sometimes 
small variations were at first observed in the levels of the aattonomical and mog- 
nttic instruments, and these recurred during the violent storms of winter. A 
slight rotation EOBma to have occurred of tbe whole maits of ice, which was 
afterwards fully determined ; but in the courfle of the year it never amounted 
to more than half a degree, and continued slowly and steadily in the same direc- 
tion. Otherwise the mass was as stable as land, and atforded tbe same condilions 
fjr ecientifio work, so that oven pendulum observations could be carried out. 
Tbe situation was more convenient for free movement than a land station, and 
tbe close connection with tbe sea which could be established at the ship itaelf or 
through the floe ice bad advantages for the biological work, and indeed also fur 
the magnetic and meteorological, which a station on land could not have afforded. 
[.The great stability of the station was due lo the formation of tbe aea-boltom 
above which it lay, and, secondly, 1« the easterly wiuds which prevailed almost U> 
the exclusion of those from other quarters. The aea-bottom, 160 to 220 fathoms 
deep, ascended gently southwards to 100 fathoms at the edge of the inland ice .'JO 
miles away, and was studded with banlcs on which icebergs were stranded. Such 
a bank, at a depth of G5 fathoms, lay to the west of tbe Qauas, and was corered 
with a number of stranded berga which stretched in a continuous ctuun nearly 
K miles northwards, and then bent round sharply to the east, forming a beiy in 
which we lay. Against iliis bank the pack-ice around the Oavsi waadriTea by 
the easterly winds and storms and there stopped, so that till January 30, 1903, tha 
cnrrenta running to and fro in the sea could eiTect no alteration. We had, more- 
over, a few miles south of us a compact ice-pack, which must have lain there more 
than a year, and some 19 miles further to the south still older packs wiib numerous 
groups of icebergs which had been a long time stationary. Thofa and various 
other ciroumatanoes combined to give to our position that fisity it mMnlained 
throughout tbe year, though all the time there were leads in tbe ice 4 miles east 
of the Oauu, with floes drifting along them. The heavy and continuous enow- 
itorma filled up the crevices between the blocks and fragmenU of icebergs, render- 
ing them more oaay Ic traverse. The whole comjilei lay in a great bay, tbe east 
coast of which was formed bj the lofty inland ice we aighted on the morning of 
February 21, while on the coast it was bordered by a long tcingue of floating icr 




THE GERMAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 197 

which I thall haye to refer to again, and will call the West Ice. I have called the 
newly discoTcred coast of the Antarctic land Kaissr William II. coast, and the 
great hay in which we lay PosadoTski hay ; while the hare volcanic peak which we 
found at its southern edge, at a height of 1200 feet, received the name of Gkiussherg. 
The installations of our scientific station were as follows : (1) Two magnetic 
oheervatories, of which one was set apart for the photographically registering 
variation apparatus, while the other served for ahsolute magnetic measurements. 
These were at first erected on a great floe ahont 350 yards south-west of the Oauss, 
and were huilt of ice-hlocks, the first receiving a lining impervious to light. In 
the middle of June a removal hecame necessary, because the increasing snow-drifts 
pressed with exceptional force against these houses, and weighed down the floe 
more and more, so that the variation house was knee-deep in water. They were 
accordingly built anew in a small iceberg 250 yards south-south-east from the 
ClatM, and were kept in regular working order till January 30, 1903. (2) The 
meteorological station with all its accessories was erected about 40 yards south- 
south-east of the Oauss, but on January 10 was removed to another site east- 
iK)rth-east of the ship, as the hut in the first situation had melted away, and its 
position had become less acceesible. (3) An astronomical observation hut of wood, 
erected for meridian observations, and also serving as a gravity observatory, was 
^et up 200 yards west of the Oauss, encircled by a double series of sights, which 
alflo surrounded all the other installations of the station for the purpose of deter- 
niinlDg their displacements. (4) Two holes in the ice at the bow and stem of the 
Gau88f with blocks and windlasses to raise and lower the nets for biological work, 
^rom the beginning of January a fissure was generally used for this purpose, which 
W been opened 600 yards south of the Gauss, (5) An arrangement for tidal 
^^hservations at the bow of the Oauss, consisting of a scale fixed to the jib-boom, 
^hich rose and fell with the tide, beside a pointer connected with the bottom 210 
^thorns below by a wire heavily weighted. Apparatus was also fixed fore and aft 
^ determine the direction and strength of the currents. (6) Two apparatuses for 
^xxe measurement of the temperatures of the ice and sea by a combination of the 
^l^ctric and ordinary thermometric methods. One of these was placed on an iceberg 
"•^lly half a mile from the ship, and reached down to a depth of 100 feet below its 
5^^i sarface, the other on an ice-block, and then on the drift that accumulated over 
^ firom the stern of the vessel eastwards. The latter experienced many changes ; 
^"^ first it reached down to 30 feet below the surface — that is, below sea-level. Its 
^wer parts sank beyond recovery in consequence of an enormous increase in the 
'^ft caused by a snowstorm in the middle of July, 1902, and was then kept 
rking for some time at depths down to sea-level until in December it was 
^^Ltended down to 100 feet below sea-level. The smithy, kennel, magazines, etc., 
frequently to be moved owing to the snow and the sinking of the ice under its 
eight 

The distribution of the work underwent many changes from the original plan, 

or the long- continued heavy snowstorms in winter added to the labour. This was 

^3)trticularly the case with the meteorological service, in which it proved impossible 

^0 keep the registering apparatus for temperature and humidity in order at all 

Regularly, so that in May, 1902, I introduced hourly observations. The ship's 

^cers were enlisted as assistants, being able easily to arrange their own duties so 

•8 to leave free time for this purpose. 

The life of the members of the expedition was determined to a great extent, 
if not altogether, by the climate, for nowhere else on Earth do extremes of 
good and bad meet so closely as in Antarctica. The fine weather of the summer 
iDCDths would be suddenly interrupted by snowstorms, which made it impossible 





THE GSRMAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDiTlON. 

to work, nud ftlmoat to stay out-of-doorB at all ; but from the begintuiig of September 
lo the end of April wo could reckon on days generally clear and often Qae, and 
make our ptaoB accordingly. From the end of Apiil to the end of August it naa 
juBt tlie oppoeite. In these winter montba ooe enowatorni followed closely on 
another, especially iti May and August, choking up OTerytbing outside that was 
left unhDished, and burying the ehip so tbat it had each time to be cleared again. 
In Bucli weather all work outride the ship liad to be left undone. The abort 
rounds of (lie meteorological obeervers to record the liourly readings were very 
toilsome, especially nith the lanlom in tbe long dark winter, but the five men 
on mbum it devolved always peTlornied this duty with tho same care. There were 
timep, however, when it was quite impoaaiblp, and theiefore for such casea special 
arrangements were made close to the ship foe reading ihe thermometers. Those 
for recording ice- temperatures were deeply buried, and arter tbe snow&torin bad 
ceased were found again after a long search and set afresh. AL these timea the 
magnetic observatories had to be visited four times B day, and this Dr. Bildingmaier 
and his assistant L. Iteuterskjiild did with self-denying devotion to duty, feeling 
their way along a cable, A cable was also laid to the astro iiomieat hut, where the 
□hronometers were compared once a, day. 

On March 20 three balloon ascents were made in fine clear weather by the 
leader cf the expedition, the captain, and Br. Pijilippi. From a height of IGOO 
feet a very ina tractive view over the surroundings and tbe position of the Oaats was 
obtained. Tbe Oausaberg, discovered at the edge of the inland ice on the first sledge- 
journey that lad been meaowhile accomplished by Dr. Philippi, second oflicer 
Valbsel, and the seaman Jobaneaen, appeared as the only spot free of ice, as the 
only conspicuous point In the neighbourhood. Thence the edge of the inland ice 
could be traced eastward and westward, the rows and groups of icebergs running out 
from it, tbe sheets of pack-ice, and the direction of tho le;idB in it. This survey, 
obtained at a height of 16iX) feet, was a guide in [nany of our subsequent under- 
takings. During tbe first two months of our impriaonment small excursions were 
often made froot the Gauss to ttudy the ice, erect geodetic marks, explore the 
neighbourhood, photograph, collect specimenB of rock Iransported by the ice, to 
kill seals and [lenguiDB, nnd as holiday trips for tbe men. The ice at that Mason, 
the autumn of the southern hemisphere, being too rough, di^s and sledges were 
ntit used. Dogs were taken by the meu simply as companions, hut they were 
so delighted with their freedom that they went off by themselves, leaving on 
their nay the traces of their murderous prociivities, so tbat it was neceasary, 
for the protection of the penguins, to restrict their freedom by leashes. 

It was particularly delightful in these excursions tu observe animal life in its 
original state quite uniuiluenced by contact with human beings. We met with 
two species of penguin, the small Ad«lia penguin and the Emperor penguin. The 
former we noticed on our way through the pack, and for a short lime in autumn 
(February to March) at the station before tbe ice had quite come to rest, and 
again from November onwards when it began to get loose again. The Emperor 
penguins were less common in the pack, increased in numbers aouthwarda towards 
the fixed ice, and were our cooEtant companions at the station throughout the 
year. Both showed the same uq suspiciousness of man, and only on our return 
voyage through the pack were they at all shy of up. They diSered, however, 
decidedly in temperament. While the small penguins hurried towards us full of 
life and movement, croaking, almcst snarling like angry dogs, and barring our 
way as if ready to attack ub, though merely ocling in absolute innocence of danger, 
and many got among the dogs and lost their lives, tbe larger penguins made off 
slowly with philoaophioaJ composure. They stopped before stringq objects, making 





THE GERMAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 199 

their praMnoe known by trumpet-like tones or loud croaking, and only attempted 

fo escape, if at all, when one stood close to them. Then they let themselves down 

on to ^e ice, and skimmed over it quickly, using their feet for propulsion, 

and steering with their wings. We noticed the small penguins only in small 

^ronpi^ while the larger ones passed hy the ship in spring and autumn in flocks 

numbering as many as two hundred. We found especial pleasure in watching 

ihem in the leadp, whence they would spring up on to the ice, and there continue 

on their way in a swimming posture. The spectator had need to take care that 

the birdsy some of them as much as 75 lbs. in weight, did not strike him in 

springing out of the water. 

The larger penguins were very useful to us as food, especially for the dogs. 
These consumed for some time three penguins a day. The skins and fat were 
homed, and so saved our fueL The consumption of the expedition amounted in all 
to more than 500 penguins. Others fell a prey to our dogs. 

We had seals — Weddell*s seal — with us from October, 1902, in large numbers, 

and during our voyage through the pack saw leopard seals, chiefly at the outer 

edge, and further in towards the stationary pack the crab-eating seal — a distribution 

ilio confirmed on the home voyage. Seals were scarce in winter near the station. 

They were easily caught when they rested on the ice, and only raised their heads 

toitare with their large eyes at the approaching enemy, then calmly lying down 

igtin. In October they began to bring forth their young, and were then seen 

tuembled on the ice with their young ones, though never in such large flocks 

u in the northern regions. The seals, too, were of great service to us. Their flesh, 

lod especially the liver, was liked by every one, and was preferred to that of 

pengums, so that after October the latter almost ceased to appear on our table. 

The fat yielded good oil for illumination, and the skies were often used as clothing. 

Altogether we perhaps consumed 150 seals. 

1 shall not enter into details about the other forms of animal life, which were 
the special study of Prof. E. Yanhoflen. The bold and pugnacious skua gulls were 
CQDBtantly with us in autumn and spring ; to hunt the greedy giant petrel, when it 
wai too satiated with food to fly and could only ran away, was a favourite sport. 
Of the characteristic petrels of the southern polar sea, the snowy petrel, in particular 
wheeled round us in flocks with their rapid active flight at their nesting-place, the 
Gtosiberg, while the other, Thalassaca antarctica^ appeared there and near the ship 
in nnall groups. The small Wilson^s petrel was common in the summer, and single 
specimens of the Gape pigeon were seen. Of the sea-fauna, besides seals, a species 
of Kototenia attracted general notice because it was so common in January and 
Febroary, and was caught in bow-nets, so that we had very tasty meals ; while 
another species of fish, a Lycodes, was only caught once, though its flavour, some- 
what like that of eel, made the members of the expedition long for more. 

The interval from the beginning of May to the beginning of September, the 
period of winter storms, and consequently of indoor occupation, may be considered 
the second period of our imprisonment. Our third sledge journey took place partly 
within its limits, and therefore was made under the least favourable circumstances. 
When we returned to the Gauss we found her prepared for the winter. A very 
important event during our absence before the middle of May was the discovery 
sod repair of the leak. It was in the rudder well, and was discovered by sawdust 
thrown into the water. Then followed attempts to establish electric lighting. We 
had with us a small windmill, which, in connection with our accumulator, would 
maintain sixteen electric lamps. It was set up, and on July 3 the electric light 
for the first time illuminated the ship to general satisfaction. The wind, however, 
£uled, and at the end of August oil lighting was introduced, every one being 



200 



THE GERMAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 



funitstied with a lamp. These lamps were of great Mrrice to ua, and wero used up 
to the time we left the ice in April, 1903. 

Speaking of work outside iho elatiao, I may refer to a number of Boundings 
taken b; Captain Itufer duriog short sledge eicurstons of a daj's duration, which 
gave UH an insight into the configuration of the surrounding «ea-floar. The short 
intervals of fine weather were also taken advantage of for the colleotion of rock 
apoaimeos on icebergs, studj of the icebergs themaelves, for pbotogiaphic surrey b, 
etc. I may also mention the formation uf a depSt, first on a floe, and then on an 
iceberg 2^ miles distant, as a precaution in cise of ice-pressure and a oonsequent 
mishap to the Gausi. Otherwise our occupations were conducted indoors. We 
did not floffer from cold in the ship. The steam -heal iiig appaiatus wag never 
brought into use, etoves burning anthracite being found sufficient. Social meetings 
were most auccesefiil during the winter storms — celebrations, lectures, diacussiona, 
muflic, games — in which ollicera, staff, and crew took part. The excellent state 
of health that prevailed among the members of the eipedition contributed greatly 
to this redult. 

The third period of our life at the station gave ua oppottuulties for longer 
sledge exoursiona. It began in September and ended at the begioning of December. 
The excursions involved tbe prolonged absence of several members of the ex- 
pedition — eight at most. But no interruption waa caused in the regular course of 
work at ihe station. Almost every day, except when there were snowstonns — 
and these became less frequent, though they did not cease altogether— individual 
members or parties made abort eicuraions. Dr. Oazert and I rpeat these in 
measuring and examining tbe icebergs and Soes in the neighbourhood, Dr. Gazert 
tuking vaiitable photographs. Prof. Vaubiiffen observed the Eoala, which appeared 
on the ice in greater Dumbera from October onwards, tending tbeir young, and 
alrio the bird life, which increased in number and variety as the winter storms 
abated. Dr. Philtppi collected the erratic rock detritus on the icebergs, and took 
some valuable photographs. Captain Rufer executed additional soundings, and 
other officers measared the thickness of the ice, and noted tbe changes in its 
position, and the opening out of fisauree and leads. Movements occurred in 
tbe ice 4 miles east of the Gauss, and there were leada in it all through tbe 
winter, and 600 yards to the west a fissure had existed from the beginning of 
September. Otherwise the condition of the ice, except for trifling variations, 
remained the same till we were released on January 30, 1903. The light in spring 
was very good for photographic work, and Dr. VaQhiJEPeQ, Dr. Oazert, and Dr. 
Philippi obtained 308, 386, and 830 photograplis reapectively. 

Tbe fourth and last period of our stay at the atatioo extended from the 
beginning of December, 1902, to February 8, 1903. Tbe condition of the ice pre- 
vented us from going far from the ship, not ao much because tbe ice was dangerous, 
an that its surface bad become so disintegrated that one sank deep into it at 
every step. Then snow-ahoes were brought out, especially the Norwegian iki. 
Sledging woa continued for a time, the team being increased from seven to nine or 
eleven dogs, and short excursions were made till the ice began to break up on 
January 30. In December, pools were formed in tho hollows between the snow- 
drifts and the ioequnlities of the ice, and here and there holes were sunk by 
melting right down to the water. In January they froze over, though thaning 
still proceeded below. Through these cijnnections with the sea, seals appeared in 
til parts of the ice, and not only at the well'known fissures, so that our sportsmen 
fonnd plenty of game close to tbe Oanst. 

ITie work of the station was carried on without interruption till January 30, 
and wss then stopped because iLo icebergs in the immediate neighbourhood begBQ 





THS GERMAN ANTARCTIC SXPEDITION. 201 

to more. At this time the vessel was set in order ready for our departure, and 
works were started for the purpose of helping the ship out of ica herth. A path 
of rubhish 10 or 12 yards broad was laid from the bow of the Oaitss east and west 
cfW9t the ice in order to promote the thawing. It was 1^ mile loug, and ended on 
the east at a field of level ice where, as we perceived on our imprisonment, there 
was a frozen-over lead, and therefore an opening might be looked for ; to the west 
it sLded at a fissure which was formed at the beginning of September, and had 
gradually spread to 2 or 3 yards at the end of December. Ashes and refuse had 
been collected since June. At first much doubt was entertained as to its usefulness, 
bat afterwards all agreed that the result was most satisfactory, and regretted that 
mors had not been collected. However, enough refuse was dug out of the snow- 
drifts on the west side of the vessel to finish the path. Two to four men were 
constantly at work at it from the beginning of December. The effect was striking. 
The ice beneath melted away rapidly, and in January a steep-sided trench 6 feet 
deep was formed in the pack-ice, which was in parts filled with water and could 
float canoes. In some spots the whole mass was broken through, and seals and 
hlocks of ice came up. In January the channel froze over, but the ice continued 
to melt beneath, and, at any rate, a line of small resistance had been formed, where 
finally the ice broke and we escaped. Still, this work was insufficient, for the 
psck-ice lay quite immovable, and only slight changes were observed at its outer 
border towards the east. As January drew to a close, tbe opinion spread that it 
would not break up at all, and indeed, considering tbe prevalence of easterly 
wisds, could not break up. 

We therefore began to dig out the Gauss^ and first on the west side ; but it 
proved an impossible task, as the drifts were fully 35 feet deep, and our work was 
rendered useless by a snowstorm. Then the east tide was attacked, and from 
Jtnnary 26 to February 7 the whole crew and officers worked hard, digging, 
lawing, and blasting, and excavated a hole by tbe middle of the ship 21 jards 
long and 6 broad. Ice 18 feet thick on an average had to be removed, and there- 
fore the mass excavated amounted to about 1240 cubic feet. It was a great feat, 
but little in comparison to what must be accomplished if we were to get free. 
Gslcolate how we might, and taking into account all circumstances that might 
lighten the labour and accelerate the progress of the work, we could not estimate 
its duration at less than a year. 

On February 8, 1903, we were relieved from our toil and set free. The increased 
power of tbe currents at full and new moon had, on January 30, enabled tbe 
icebergs around us to move northwards through the loose pack and to break it up. 
Oa February 2 we ourselves began to drift amid a pack 2 A miles long by 1^ broad, 
which had separated in the west along the before-mentioned lead. We drifted with 
this pack a bttle to the east, a little to the north, and then back again among the 
icebergs we knew eo well, some of which we kne^ to be stranded. Tbe pack 
leemed unable to break its bounds. We had, however, frequently noticed move- 
ments of the ice within our pack caused by swells. On the morning of February S 
these were stronger than ever ; sea-water forced its way through the fissures into 
oar artificial channel and fell back again. The ice groaned and bent; it could not 
withstand this force. About midday an east wind again arose and threatened to 
drive us westward against the bank of icebergs and once more imprison us, but at 
about a quarter past three two short shocks were experienced, and we knew that 
the ioe had broken. The dogs were quickly got on board, while the meteorological 
station and all the apparatus which still remained in the ice was packed up. By 
five o'clock the rift had so widened that the people on the icd had to be taken on 
boiid by means of ropes. The machinery was free, and at 7 p.m. (February 8, 
No. ILr— August, 1903.] p 



202 THE GERMAN ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION. 

1903) we left out wioter qiinrters amid three hearty cheere, steamiog alaii°: ilie 
lead which bad opened toivardB the west, until, turning northward, we rounded the 
end of the bank of 6zed hergs which had bo long held ux, and proceeded on our 
voyage. 

Beforedeacrihing the further course of the espeditioD,! propose Co giveaayaopiis 
of the Bledge-joumeys undertaken from the Oausa. These were as fallows : — 

1. March 18-26, 1902.— Dr. Philijip;, second offioar Vahse), and one seainan. 
Two sledges. Ascent of the Gausaberg. Photographs taken aud geological speci- 
meos collected. 

2. Jpra 4-lG, 1902.— Dr. Philippi, first officer Lerche, and seamen. Four 
sledges. Geologictl research on Gaussbei^. Photographs taken. Ice-hut built at 
foot of mountain, Meieorulogioal instrumnnta set up there. 

3. April 22 to May 15, 1902.— Prof, von Drygalaki, Prof. Vanhoffeo. Dr. 
Gaxert, second officer Ott, nud seamen. Four sledges. System of marks lixed and 
measured up on the land-ice near Gaussberg. Fishing, sounding, and dredging in 
ihe aea near the Oauseberg, and the edge of the land-ice. Meieorologicsl and 
aiittDnomical observations ; zoological, botanical, and geological spectmeiu coUecled. 
Photographs. 

4. BepUnAer 16 to Oitober 11, 1902.— Prof, von Drygalski, Prof. VanhQffen, Dr. 
Qazsrt, Dr. Bidlingmaier, second officer Vahsel, and seamen. Four sledges. Westerly 
route to Qanssberg. Further measuring of mark-system on land-ice. Supple- 
mentary measurement of Oaussborg. Fhcti^rani metric work. Fishing, dredging, 
sounding. Supplementary astronomical observations, meteorological and magnetic 
oluervatiocs, and photographic register of magnetic variations. Photographa. 
Record left in cairn on north-west declivity. 

5. Odober 20 to Noi-cmber 5, ] 902.— Dr. Philippi, first officer Lerche, and 
seamen. Twoaledgea, South-westerly route to ascertain trend of the edge of the 
laad-icB westerly towards Gauasberg. Discovery of an ice-mass (West Ice) attikiog 
south to north ; eastern edge follotyed south to neighbourhood of Gaussberg, and 
back to neigbbouriiood of its northern end. 

6. November 18-21, 1902.^Dr. Bidlingmaier, Captain Rufer, second officer 
Ott, one seaman. Two sledges. Magnetic measurements west of winter station. 
Position of northern end of west ice ascertained. Sjundlnga. 

7. Deumier 1-4, 1902.- Prof, von Drygalaki, Dr. Gaa?rt, Dr. Philippi, Captain 
Rufer, and seaman. Two sledgee. West Ice followed up to its northern end. 
Soundings. 

Fifty-seven days were occupied by Prof, von Drygalski and Dr. Gazert in sledge 
expeditions, flfty-tliree by Dr. Vanhoffen, and lesser periods by other principals lo 
the expedition. 

It will appear from the foregoing table lliat the third and four lb journeys made 
at a time when llie winter storms were at iiand, were protracted beyond the rest. 
The value of sledge journeys is manifest. Kew points of interest were discovered 
-with regard to the continental relations of the south polar land-ice, sn exact realiza- 
tion of south polar conditions from our position, etc. When I add that these 
journeys furnished an antidote to the unavoidable solitude of a sojourn in pjlar 
regions, it will l>e understood how much I appreciate the o:tcellont equipment of our 
dog-teams, without which these journeys could not have been prosecuted. The 
land might hare been reached without them, but lengthy journeys would 
have been impossibli>. Seven lo nine dogs were used lo each slelge ; with 
seven, a burden of 6T0 lbs. could be dragged over difficult ice. The dogs 
were harnessed by pairs, with a leider In front. Where no track was obrioua, one 
of us led the way. We lived and slept in tents and sleeping-bags, which afforded 




THE GERMAN ANTARCnC EXPEDITION. 203 

■offieieDt protection from cold as severe as — 30° G. ( - 22° Fahr.). Cooking was done 
with petroleum or naphtha ; on the fourth journey we lost our fuel and had recourse 
to seml-Uubber, and were forced to kill seals for use as food for men and dogs. The 
oght inmates of a tent were once confined to it for forty hours by a snowstorm. 

On b^g freed from our winter quarters on February 8, 1903, our object was to 

inTestigate the coast region to the west. When we had passed the northern end of 

the ice-barrier^ which had obstructed us so long, on the ereniog of February 8, we 

took a course, not easterly or north-easterly (which at first appeared the most 

direct), bnt northerly, with the intention of diverging to west when possible. My 

orders to the captain were to keep the best available course between north and 

west. Meanwhile, a gale which had sprung up at the moment of our release 

developed into a regular snowstorm, and on February 9 we were again beset in 

pid[-ioe. When it cleared, we found ourselves at the north-eastern end of the 

west ice. The time from now to March 16 was occupied in breaking a way 

thzcogh the pack with the engines, the captain taking every opportunity of pro- 

gnodng, first north-westerly, then more to the north and north-north-east through 

drift-ice. Sounding and other hydrographic work, with magnetic observations on 

the pack and on board, occupied us now, and afforded interesting results. A 

marked difference of climate was observed in comparison with the station we had 

006a[Aed only a little further south. We had had easterly winds there, but west 

linds now reached us, and the weather was relatively warmer. 

Our course had been along the northern edge of the west ice. On February 19 
we lost it in 65° 32' S., 87° 40' £. (from Greenwich), having already passed the 
boQodary between the shallow and the deep sea on February 16 in 65° 45' S., 87° 
57' E. On that day we had soundings at 3 a.m. in 371 metres (203 fathoms) ; 
10 a.m., 1103 metres (603 fathoms) ; 8 p.m., 1611 metres (880 fathoms). Here, 
then, there is a rapid fall from the Antarctic shelf. 

Till February 20 we followed fairly long channels, covered already with young 
iee, in a westerly direction. After this channels through the pack were few, 
iDd progress was slow. On February 21 we met with an iceberg which we had 
previously marked ; it demonstrated a westerly and somewhat northerly drift. The 
character of the pack was changing, and we were subjected to some wrenching 
sod squeezing from the blocks. An increasing swell, moreover, hindered and 
fioally prevented astronomical work on the pack. The ship behaved in every way 
latisfactorily, withstanding the ice and boring through it effectively. Oar best 
icrew, however, was broken off against an ice-block. The ice-dSbris, resulting 
^m the collision of the floes, formed our most serious hindrance by stopping the 
momentum of the ship. 

The time was now at hand when, a year previously, we had lain up in the ice. 
We were drifting northward, and were leaving the ice for clear water, and the 
qaestion was, what next ? The possibility that the ship would be overtaken by 
winter storms in loose pack-ice without a firm position opened up the possibility 
of dangers, and of having to remain under steam. For this our coal-supply 
would be insufficient. These and other reasons led some to advise our departure 
from the south polar regions. 

In spite of this, I decided upon a further attempt southward. Our expected 
release took place on March 16, 1903, the pack being loosened, and we proceeded 
under steam. We steered at first north (March 14), then west (March 15), and 
reached the outer edge on the 16th, in 63° 52' S., 83° 19' E. The outer edge 
Ity over 1° north of the position determined in February, 1874, by the Challenger. 
We followed the edge (seeing a few icebergs) at first west, then (March 17, after- 
noon) south, with an open sea before us. The water-temperature was remarkably 

p 2 



S04 



REVIEWS. 



high. The dark gruy albktross {PhncMriafiUiifinota) acd otber birds accompanied 
ua, aod suggested bf their preeeoce Ibe eitistence of an ice-free «ea to tho south. 
On the evening of March 18, however, we were stopped hy an iee-barrior. 
Next day came a slorm frmii i)ie west, aod we ascertained that the open water 
was closing in. Un llarch 20 we coDtiaued, first west, then south, progressing, 
witli checks, through ohaDnels and leads till March 2G. ScientiGc work occupied 
UB during these checks. 

It soon became clear that where we were, surrounded by icebergs (100 were 
counted in a day from the orow'a nest), the sole protection to bo derived from 
the firm freeiiDf! of the whole could not be counted upon. To proceed south was 
impossible, for the new ice conid not be broken, and on all counts the position of 
the ship would be hazardous ; the coal, moreover, would not lost long enough. 
I gave the order to tern on April 6 about midday, and it waa carried oat in ''ii° 58' 
S., and 70° 33' E. It loay be safely a^erled that we should have been in the 
same predicatuent at only a few minutes of latitude north of our winter quarters. 
This shows once more how neatly extremes meet in the south polar r^ion. The 
inflnence of ihe wide glidle of ocean with its westerly storms and heavy swells 
extends across two degrees of heavy pack-ice to the near neighbourhood of the 
fixed inland ice amid (he shallows of [he continental thelf, keeping the ice in a 
oonstant state of unrest. The steady ice-conditions which we had at our winter 
quarters, and to which alone we owed the possibility of carrying out our scientific 
observations there in their entirety, depended principally on tbe easterly storms, 
together with the climatic iDflaoaces of tbe inland ice and stranded icebergs. Snch 
conditions would probably be constantly repeated at the spot in question, and 
might oven last throughout the year, as there are shoals on which some, at teatt, 
of the bergs that break from the edge of the inland ice must be stranded. 

On April wo got clear of the ice. The storm-tossed blocks through which 
we passed made a magnificent picture. The boundary of the pack-ice caat of us 
trended northward, so that till the evening of April 10 the ice-blink was visible. 
We struck single blocks of ice on the 10th. To west we saw no sign of pack-ice. 
The sea- temperature on learing the ice la 61° 3^' S. and 79° 47' E., as usual, rose 
rapidly. Mngnetic and oceanograpbic work was done on the way home, but the 
deep-sea dredge could not be used owing to stormy weather. On April 13, in 
hVP 54' S., 70° 22' E., the last iceberg was passed. Korguelen island was passed 
on the I'.Hh, St. Paul on the 2Gth, New Amsteidam on the 27th. Betweeo April 
30 and May 3 we passed from tbe roaring forties into the calms, and entered the 
trades on May 3. On May II two shipa were seen, and the secood was spoken 
and a message sent to tbe German consul at Delagoa hsy. Port Xatal iras 
reached on May 31, aid on June 9 the harbour of Simons-town, in False bay. 



REVIEWS. 

EUROPE. 

NoHTH-WBaT EUBOPE. 

. ' Compendium of Geography ; Euroiie.' Vol. ii 
London: Stanford, 1902. 



I 



Edited hy G. G. Chishotm. 



Is the new issue of this series, the second volume of Earope it devoted largely 
to an eiabotata treatment of the British Isles. The whole volume (without reckon- 
ing index) contains 720 pages : of these 560 are occupied with England, Scotland, 




REVIEWS. 205 

and Irebnd. The traatment is throughout interesting, Tigorous, thoughtful, and 
minute ; but is somewhat out of proportion to the rest of Europe. In particular, 
ehapCers xi-xiv., on Early Inhabitaots of Britain, on Roman Britain, on The 
Teutonic Settlemmts in Britain, on The Efifects of the Teutonic Settlements, on 
Hie Norman Conquest and its Results, though each and all of high excellence in 
themselTeB, are of a character very different from what is anywhere to be found 
under the other lands of our continent Elsewhere the historical detidls giyen are 
mostly incidental to the description of the towns. The minuteness, also, with 
which the past conditions and phases of British trade are renewed, and contrasted 
with the present, is quite unlike what we find in the treatment of other European 
regions in this series. Thus chapters xyi.-xxii., on The Population of England — 
Domesday to 1800, — and on English Agriculture, Mining and Smelting, Manufac- 
tures, Foreign Commeroe and Ship^nng, and Political Situation daring the same 
period, from the elerenth ceutury to the doie of the eighteenth, together with the 
daborste survey of England in the Nineteenth Century, may be called unique in 
this series. Nothing really parallel to it is even attempted elsewhere; nor could 
it have been without swelling the Compendium to unwieldy size. Very high praise 
must at the same time be given to much of the matter in these portions of Mr. 
Chisholm's work : one only wishep, at times, that he would quote less and give 
his opinions more ; for (as on pp. 274, 275, in his discussion of English population 
Qoder William the Conqueror) these opinions are admirably sane and avoid the 
lidsehood of extremes very happily. In the account of Ireland sufficient direct 
attention does not seem to be given to the American emigration of the Irish race, 
and to the steady drain upon the prosperity of the Green Isle which this involves, 
esosing, in spite of every measure to the contrary, a continuous and still existent 
decline in the population of the country as a whole, and an unarrested decay in 
numy of its industriev. Unstinted praise must be given to the care and zeal with 
whidi Mr. Chisholm has undertaken what is really a separate treatise, involving 
s great mass of work, upon his owo country ; and especial value attaches to the 
itatistical parts of this treatise. C. R. B. 

History of Falmouth. 

* Old Falmouth. The Story of the Town from the Days of the Killigrews to the 
Earliest Part of the Nineteenth Century.' By Susan £. Gay. London : Headley 
Brothers. 1903. 

The title sufficiently explains the scope of this book, which contains a large mass 
of interesting information on the fortunes of Falmouth through the most stirring 
days of its history. Although lacking the antiquity of some of our more famous 
towns, the story of Falmouth has a charm of its own, and supplies an interest- 
ing object-lesson of the vicissitudes brought about by the changing conditions of 
different times. The early history of the site centres in the Manor of Arwenack, 
which came into the hands of the Killigrew family (previously landholders else- 
where in Cornwall) through the marriage of Simon Killigrew to a daughter of the 
Lord of Arwenack towards the end of the fourteenth century. It was through the 
efforts of a later member of the family, who had entertained Sir Walter Ilaleigh 
in his castle on his return from Guiana, and found in him a cordial supporter of 
his proposal to utilize the great natural advantages of the site, that the permission 
of King James I. for the development of the town was obtained. But the palmy 
days of the place were those of the Postal Packet Service, of the stirring history 
of which, and the daring exploits of the captains engaged in it, Miss Gay has much 
to tell. The modern decline of the place as a port of call (though its graving 



206 RSYIEWa 

docks offer unusual facilities for repairs to the largest vessels) has been due to the 
advent of steam-navigation, which encouraged the great liners to make use of the 
short cut across the bay to Plymouth. The future prospects of the place lie in its 
development as a health-resort, in which respect it possesses many of the advantages 
of the more fashionable resorts further afield. But Miss Gkiy makes a well-justified 
protest against the prospective ruining of its natural beauties by the vandalism of 
the modem builder. 

Some notes are given on the earliest msps of Falmouth, one of which, drawn 
in the reign of Henry YIII., is reproduced in facsimile. There are also many illus- 
trations of the old architectural objects of the place, and portraits of its most dis- 
tinguished worthies, including members of the old quaker fiunily of Fox. 



ASIA. 

SiBBBIA. 

* Greater Bussia.' By Wirt. Gerrare. London : Heinemann, 1902. 

This is a new book, and a useful one, added to the now considerable library of 
modem works on Siberia, the Amur, and Manchuria. The style is, it must be 
confessed, rather flat and stale, but the matter is not unprofitable. The arrange- 
ment of the narrative, and of the author's remarks and discussions^ is sometimes 
wanting in cleamess^ in logical precision, and in that brevity which is the soul of 
wit : there are occasional repetitions of a needless character. But a mass of detail 
is given us which is obviously — and professedly — from first-hand observation, which 
is often very interesting and suggestive, and which receives great assistance from a 
series of excellent illustrations. The chief addition Mr. Gkrraie makes to' previous 
Western knowledge is in his account of a new Bussian railway in Mongolia. This 
branches off from the main Siberian-Manchurian line about 70 miles west of 
Ehailar and about 650 miles north of Pekin, and thence drops down southward 
towards Ealgan and the Great Wall of China along the western slopes of the Greater 
Ehingan range, running almost due south at first, south-south-west later. It 
skirts the eastern side of Dalai- Nor and Buln-Nor lakes, and is intended (aooording 
to the information collected by the author while travelling in disguise through 
Manchuria) to follow the old Mongol trade-route from the Ehalkha river to Dolon- 
Nor and Ealgan. It Is a substitute for the Eiakhta-Ealgan railway scheme 
— across the Gobi desert — and is said to have been suggested to the Russian 
authorities, partly by their own travellers and surveyors, partly by Scandinavian 
missionaries flying before the '' Boxers '* and taking refuge within the Bussian lines. 
Only a small part of the new branch was finished when Mr. Gerrare passed along 
the trunk line to the north, but if it has been presEed forward with the same speed 
as the other parts of railway construction in Bussian Asia, it may well by this time 
have reached within measurable distance of Ealgan. If eo, its importance will be 
obvious : strategically, it woold clearly be, when completed, the most important 
part of the whole Siberian system. 

In Greater Bussia, the author, while criticizing freely and sharply, speaks on the 
whole with well-balanced approval of recent developments. Certaioly there has 
been a marked improvement since the old regime, the time of Nicolas I., or even that 
of Alexander 11. ; and the improvement has affected both sides of the Urals, though 
not equally. *' There has been a great awakening of Bussia. The people, debarred 
generally from active participation in politics, have directed their energies towards 
the conmiercial and industrial exploitation of their native land.*' In particular, *' the 
Siberia opened by the railway is a land of much promise," and especially promising 



REVISWS. 207 

are tbe nieWer settlements a?ODg the Ibe, neat railway building^i, immigration homes, 
■chodls, ohnrcheFy mills, f tores, subetintial aod commodious dwellings of all sorts, 
^jrpiealof tbe free colonies which the Russian Groverament has of late been planting 
•o assiduously. In the exact phrase used by J. Y. Simpson, in his ' Side Lights on 
Siberia,' Mr. Gerrare concludes that Russia seems to be " developiog faster than any 
other Eoiopean nation," and notes the Russian passion for the most recent American 
inTentioDS, co-existing, however, with an extreme backwardoess and a blind cooser- 
▼atism in many parts and on many sides of life, and especially of agricultural 
life. G. R. B. 

AFRICA. 

Tbipoli. 

* A travers la Tripolitahie.' Par H. M. de Mathuisienlx. Paris : Hachetle. 1903. 
The modem literate re on Tripoli is so scsnty that even this unpretentious 

little work, written by a trareller who was accorded unusual facilities for pene- 
trating the interior, is a welcome addition to oar knowledge of that country, 
although the preface by M. Bertrand perhaps exaggerates somewhat tbe general 
inaccessibility of the vilayet to Europeans. Much as the authorities are averse to 
permitting the free passage of travellers beyond the walls of the capital, more 
than one recent traveller has succeeded in gaining some first-hand knowledge 
of the country, which towards the middle of the nineteenth century was still 
mors accessible to the outside world. The early chapters of the book give a 
gnipbic description of the city of Tripoli, its antiquities, its motley inhabitants, 
and its relations with tbe far south by the caravan-route a'^ross the Sahara ; 
bat more novelty is perhaps presented by the account of tbe author's two circular 
toors in the interior, in the course of which he visited the Gkiriana and Tiffren 
nj^ds to the west, and the plateau of Tarunha and the Meellata mountains to 
the cast, of the centre line cf the country. The whole of this mountainous zone 
Ms steeply to the north in an escarpment broken by numerous wadis, while to 
the sonth it falls gradually, in accordance with the dip cf the strata, to the stony 
deserts of tbe Hammada el Homrs. As the northern outliers of this elevated zone 
show a reversed dip, the author suggests that the original line of the water-parting 
nm nearer to the sea, and has been pushed back by the effects of erosion. The 
scattered Berber population of the Tripolitan " Jebel " has lost all its old love of 
freedom, and the whole country is under the effective occupation of the Turks. 

M. de Mathiusieulx draws a melancholy picture of the poverty and desolation 
of the country, and considers as a mere delusion the idea that — apart fromBarka — 
aoy great amelioration of its agricultural capabilities is possible. He considers 
that the present state of things is due to the destruction of the forests, which, in 
his opinion, once covered the mountains, though it may be doubted whether the 
evidence is such as to justify this conclusion. He h%s much to say on the most 
interesting antiquarian remains which are scattered so thickly over much of the 
eoontry, some of which be was able to bring to light for the first time. Various 
examples of these are to be found among the author's photographs, which also give 
a good idea of the general surface features of the country. 

Adventures in British East Africa. 

* An Ivory Trader in North Kenia.' By A. Arkell-Hardwick, rjua.s. London : 

Longmans. 1903. 

Although largely concerned with sporting adventure, this book acquires a 
farther interest from the fact that it deals with a country still beyond the outskirts 



208 



THE HOKTHLT RECORD. 



nf ciTilizatioD, and to which but a fen travellers had previously penetrated. The 
author belongs to the class of young and adventuraua EDglishmeD who did so much 
in the earlj pioceering days to extend the bounds of geographical knowledge, 
though with the greater demaoda made on tlie traveller by modern scientific 
methods such journeye must now lake a more or less aubordinate place in the 
scale of merit. Without posseeeing tlie scientiGo traioing which would enable him 
to give a pystemntic acoounC of tbe goography of the diatrlcta viaited, he ahona 
himieir an observer of some ncuteneas, and had he lived some balf-ceotary earlier, 
he would probably have taken a high place among the adventaroua apirits who 
rolled back the curtain of mystery which tlien ouvered the interior of Africa, 

Mr. H&rdwick, wbo bad previously leJ a more or less wandering life, and liad 
gained experience with the Griliah South African Police in Maahonaland, w«Qt to 
Eaat Africa in 1809, and in course of time joined two other Englishman, one a 
hunter of much experieace, whom he names throughout " El Hakim," on an ex- 
pedition to the uorth-eaat of Mount Kenya, along tlio course of the Owaso or Waso 
Nyiro. It will be remembered that this stream vvai tr<iced by Chanler almoat to 
its supposed terminalioQ in the Lorian sivamp. On reaching his furthest point, 
iiowever, after many difBculties owing to [he desert nature of tbe country, no 
trace of Lorian was visible, and though the Gwaso Njiro was followed for some 
distance further, its cud was not reached. Mr. Hanlwick thinks that the svramp 
e^en by Chanler must have been the highest of a aaiies, moat o( which had sinc« 
dried up owing to the three years' drought to which the country bad been subject. 
He drawa a atrikiog picture of the desolation which characterixud the region on 
this account ; travelling over the loose brown soil, varied occasionally with lava- 
blocks, being excessively fatiguing to the traveller. Ttie country produced a 
sup?rabundance of rhinoceros, which caused constant alarms to the caravan, but 
apparently little else. Mr. Hardwick and his friends made the acquaintance of a 
section of the Bendile Gallas, who are still little known to geographers. He was 
agreeably impressed with their physique and cleanliness, as comparcl with the 
other races with which he had come in contact, and gained a more favourable 
impreeeion of them genemlly than had been done by Chanler. The Burkeneji, 
another tribe met with on the Gwasa Nyiro, are mora akin to the Masai, wbow 
propensities they share to a great estent. The caravan eveulually made the com- 
plete circuit of Kenya, thus passing through other little-known districts ; and 
Mr. Hardwick'd descriptions of the country are a eonsiderible help to aa under- 
standing of its characteristic features. 



THE MONTHLY RECORD. 



J 



Tho SchUlmg-See in East Proaiia.— Herr G. Braun of Kiinigsberg, who 
is engaged in the preparation of an important work on the lakes of E isl Prussia, 
has lately carried out soundings of s-^me of the lake<, as to whose contours little waj 
previously koowo. He gives the results as regards the Schilling-See in the third 
number of Ptkrmanna MiUeilungtn for the present year. The take liea on the 
elevated weeiern part of the Prussian ridge known as the " Oberland," and originally 
belonged to the system of the Drewen'i, bat, like a whole series of the Prussian 
lakes, its hydrographical relations have been artificially modified by the making of 
tbe " OberliLodische Canal." The lakes of this series may be divided acoordlag t» 





THI MONTHLT RIOORIX 209 

iSMr depths into two main gronps lying east and west of each other. Those to 

tbe cast are generally deep and markedly furrow-like, while the western lakes are 

ahallow and round in outline. Still further east is another group not connected 

with the canal. The Schilling-See is one of the furrow-shaped group, of which it 

may be ooosidered thoroughly typical. With others it lies on a line of depressioo, 

miming somewhat west of north-west (the normal direction of the long narrow 

lakea of its class), the land>ccntours between the separate lakes continuing the 

▼alley-like form of the parts coYcred by water. The lakes of this clatis occupy 

troughs eroded by the glaci^ water beneath or in froat of the ice-mass, while the 

wide shallow lakes are ground-moraine lakes. The land-contours drawn on Herr 

Brann's map bring out clearly the (at first sight) somewhat singular fact, wliich is 

explained, howerer, by the glacial history of the region, that the lake crosses at 

right angles the depression, little aboYe sea-leYcl, through which the Oberlaadische 

eual passes, both its north and south en is being bordered by comparatiYely high 

ground. One of the main deep basins — in fact, the most extensive of all — lies 

sthwart the line of lower ground. This exceeds the depth of 100 feet for a length 

of orer a mile. .From a- series of temperatures, taken by Herr Braun on August 

22, 1902, the sudden fall of temperature takes place between 11 and 12 metres 

(36 and 39 feet). The surroundings of the lake are marked by seclusion and the 

gneral absence of human actlYity, timber being the only product calculated to 

eill it forth. This clothes the steep shores of the northern end, while those to 

the south are in strong contrast from their bareness. Herr Braun gives some de- 

acription also of the Narieo-See, one of the group of ground-moraine lakes, former 

■oondings of which were confirmed by his o^n work. 



Invaitigationi in Sittan. — Mr. G. P. Tate, of the Indian Survey department, 
wbose previous work in the western borderlands of India is well known to our 
readers, sends us, under date May 30, 1903, an interesting account of investigations 
made in Sistan during the stay of the British boundary commission in that region. 
Owing to drought in Afghanistan, the lowrer Helmund, and with it the Hamun-i- 
8Litan, had quite dried up in the summer of 1902, cauaiog all the fish, as well ai 
the herds of wild pig and numbers of the water-fowl, to perish. The ruins of the 
old city called Sbahr-i-Sabari, which are usually covered with water, were exposed 
to view. They consist of the foundations of houses, all constructed of baked brick, 
tod covering a large area. Copper coins and other curios were obtained from them. 
Mr. Tate was able to study the floor of the lake, the configuration of which is of 
much interest. It consists of a series of shallow pan-like hollows, with low ridges 
betireen, but connected with each other by narrow channels. The ridges are 
covered with water in a normal season, but even then admit of the crossing of the 
Hamun by wading. Levels taken on the dry be i of the lake showed an upward 
inclination towards the west and sjuth. The Helmund began to rise on March 1, 
sod the lake had since been gradually filling, the water entering almost entirely by 
the Bud-i-Pcrian, which, as the Sikear branch will soon be quite abandoned, 
promises to become the main and only branch of the river. (For the Yarious 
changes of the course of the Helmund, of. Major Syke»*s paper in vol. xix. p. 143.) 
When the Bud-i-Perian silts up, Mr. Tate thinks that the river will revere to its 
tncient bed under the cliffd of the Dasht-i-Marp and the district of Sir-o-Tar to 
the east. The Hamun fills up from the east and north, the water gradually 
•praading south into the Snela river and the Gaud-i-Zirreh, a circumstance which 
hesrsout the results of the ItvclUng. At the end of April it wds [>08iible to ride 
scroBs the Hamun, with practically uo water on the way, but on tde returu on May 



210 



TBE HOKTHLt RECOBD. 



8, tbe CTOBBiog was effected on rftfts of bulrushes, the camels wading. A current uf 
2i miles an hour naa then setting south. Both the Farah Rud aud tbe Kbaab 
Rod (north and cast of the HamunJ were alio in 3ood, and helped to Gil the 
depression. At the embouohure of the latter a large area is flooded around 
Cbabansur, producing rioh pasture after the floods have dried. It is called 
Ashkiaak. This term (or '* .\shkin*') la generally applied ta lands only tempo- 
rarily flooded ; " Cbunj; " to water too deep for reeda to grow ; " Naizar " to ahallows 
and reed'heda ; and " Hamuu " to a large espnnae free from reeda, such u the lake 
itself. Mr. Tate says that modem iniprorements and methods now la Dse in the 
Indian Irrigation Service, such as syphon bridges, were employed in olden timea to 
Sistan. The beails of the distributing channelp, etc., were of baked brick set in 
cement, and the old canals have masonry ahutmentf, on which rested wooded 



bridges. Many 
Sasaaniao, Parthi 



interesting r 

itea of towns, fortresses, 
id Scythifi 



with in the Sar-o-Tar district, 
Q>1 Tillages which yield quantities of 
well BB those of the Caliphate and later 



Mohammedan dynasties. Mr. Tnts is making an arcb Geological survey of tbe 
nncient towns and aitts, illustrating these by photographa, which should prove of 
much Interest. He bnpea to continue his work during tbe preaent summer. We 
are also infortned by Major H, F. Walters that, during the itay of the Commis- 
sion in Sistan, the altitude of the Euh-i-Khwaja was independently Gied by two 
of the officers, the result being to place It at 2037 feet above the sea, or 43T feet 
above tbe plain. This agrees weU with Major Sykes's estimate of 400 ftet. 

Stone Figure! in China-— Under date " Hsiaoobang via Te Chou, Tientsin, 
North China, April 27, in03," Dr.SewellS. McFnrJane sends the following communi- 
cation : " lu February, during one of my journeys in the aouth-west provinoe of Ohili, 
North China, I came scrota a numbfr of stone horsep, sheep, lion>, etc., some in 
a fair state of preaervatioD. They were io two parallel row:', and beside them were 




THK MONTHLT RECORD. 211 

aarend * petrified ' BuddhiBt priests, supposed to be on guard. The people seemed to 

know nothiog about them, and cared less. Upon inquiry among the gentry of 

the adjoining village, one old gentleman informed me that it was the entrance to 

a very old subterranean tomb, of one of China's prime ministers who lived under the 

Han Dynasty. This would be about the year a.d. 25. Many years ago a tablet 

stood there, which they unearthed with the above stone figures, giving full 

particulars, but the disinterested inhabitants destroyed it, ' as it was in way of their 

cart track.' How the people came to imearth these huge statues is interesting. 

Duriog the past generations, the severe dust-storms experienced in North China 

have swept over the district and steadily but effectually buried out of sight the 

beautiful tomb and all its accompaniments. The inhabitants frequently dig out 

their land to make mud bricks for their houses, and in this manner the stone 

figures came to light. It is said there are a great many more of them, ere one 

reaches the actual tomb. Had this been in EUigland, these ancient curies would 

bave been excavated and a correct description published centuries ago. But 

in China the country folk, who simply live from hand to mouth, somewhat take 

tfter CMlio, of sacred writ, and ' care for none of these thingp.* I enclose a snap- 

ihot of part of the excavated avenue, hoping it may be of interest to the readers of 

our good old Journal J^ 

Freneh Surrey of the Upper Yangtie.— We announced, early last year, 
thst Lieut. Hourst, previously known for his excellent work on the Niger, had 
ascended the Yangtse rapids in a gunboat with a view to carrying out a survey of 
the upper river. Since that time M. Hourst and his coadjutors have been actively 
tmployed in this work, and the results, which are summarized by M. Boas d'Anty 
in the May number of La Oeographie, promise to be of much value for the naviga- 
tion of the river and our exact knowIlBdge of its upper baiin, though a certMU 
tmonnt had already been done in this direction by the British officers in command 
of the gunboats which ascended the river two or three jears sgo. The precision 
of the river survey seems to have varied to a certain extent in different sections. 
Between Ichacg and Chungking (395 nautical miles), and between Chungking and 
Swifu (230 nautical miles), a careful triangulation was carried out by means of the 
theodolite, the detail of the banks being filled in by the plane-table, while careful 
•oundings were made, including three coutinuous lines in the upper section. Between 
3wifu and Fing-sban-hsien the survey was carried out by compass and plane-table. 
Hid above the latter a rapid examination of the stream was made as far as Shen- 
llin-tan, this section beiog quite impassable by steamer?. Other surveys were 
Qvcied oat on the small river Kiangwo-ho, on the Min between Swifu and Kiating 
^with neonnaiBsance beyond Kiating to Eiang-kiu), and on the Fu-ho which 
the Yangtse at Fu-chou. The chief work remaining to be done was the ex- 
of the Eialing-kiang, which joins the Yangtse at Chungkiog. It may 
1m Mientionad that the Yangtse was this spring ascended to Hankow by the Glory ^ 
flifdilp of the British China squadron, this being the first battleship and the 
TCMel that has yet reached that port. 

A7RIGA. 

The Qeologieal History of the Sahara.— Some two years ago, it will be 

ilMnd, considerable interest was aroused by communications from M. de 
La yyaien t, urging the necessity for a revision of our ideas with regard to the 
gBoIogical history of the Sahara, in view of the evidence supplied by a fossil sea- 
uroidn from Bilma, which he had bad the good fortune to bring to light, that in 
GrBtaoeons times the sea must have covered the region around Lake Chad. Some 
heritatkm was naturally felt in accepting without reserve a conclusion of such 



212 



THE UONTHLT RECORD. 



importance on the authority of a single fossi!, which might c 'iiceiirably hsTu 
reached Bilma by the caravan route from Tripoli. But M. de Lspparent has iie«d 
his iofluence to eecure the collectioo of further evi'ieDce by some of the many 
French ofScerBiit work in the Central iSuikn, nad hia efforts have already met with 
decided buccghb. Aa related in the June number of La Oeoyraphit: (in which 
journal, as well as \a tbu Complea JienUus of the Pdris Academy ut Sciences, the 
subjirct was originaliy broached), a further discovery of foasila has be«i made 
by Capiain Oadeo, an ofliwr to whom the search for Buoh evidence was BUggefted 
by CooimandaQt Gourand, in the vicinitjr of the ADgio-Frecch frontier to the north 
of Sukoto. At n place catlsd Tamaske^ s ime 230 mtleB west uf Zindar, there is a 
horizontal bed of limestone, cut up by the daUoh, or old river-bods, which 
characterize the region. In the «)de of one of ifaese Gaptaio Gaden found fossils, 
which be tent to M. de Lippjreut. I'hey proved to be a nautilus and fonr sea- 
urchins, the latter of which, when exsmined by H. Victor Oauthier, showed that 
the deposit was of marine origin and of the same «ge as the limestone of the Paria 
baaiii, which naj laid down in the old " Lutetian " (Tertiary) sea, It is reported by 
Captain Gaden that eimilar foseiU o<?cur in the region extending from Zinder towards 
Air, and as the country between this and Lake Chad U quite level, M. deLapparent 
justly coDcludea that the Lutetian sea reached the position of the take, aud probably 
of Bilma also. But this is not all, for sea-urchins, aat abiolutely identical, but ot 
the same age, have recently been found near Ddkar, and in spite of the considerable 
diatance which intervenes, M. de Lapparunt holds that an arm of the sea must have 
extended inland from the Atlantic Co the G&stern Sahara, He points out, also, that 
the Indian affinities of the sea-urchin from Bilma, and the fact that those lately 
found at Tamaske belong to a ((eaus known hitherto only from India and Egypt, 
point to an unbroken sen-corn muoication between India and the Central Sahara by 
way of l^gypt, in Creta:eoua and Tertiary times. Northern Africa would then have 
consiBted mertly of two large islands, tlie one formed by the massifs of Air, the 
Taasili, Ab^ciar, and Twat, the other {poaaibly a peaiosula) by the AbysainiaD 
highlands. M. de Lapparent has cerlaijily shown that existing ideas as to the 
geological age of northern Africa aa a whole must be seriously reconsidered. 

Journey in tbs Wflitem Sahara, — It is announced in ibe Politique Coltmialr 
for July 20-21 that Colonel La)>errine, whose name is well known to geographers 
for his survey work in the Algerian S.ibara, bsa made an important journey to the 
south from Timimuu, pushing into the desirt to a point some 250 miles from 
Twal, and nearly hnlfway between thai district and Timbuktu. Over GOO nules 
of new routes are said to have been surveyed. 

The lalandi of Lake Chad- — Rt.>foreiice was made in the Journal for June 
of thia year (p. 6T4) to the valuable work lately done in Lake Chad under the 
orders of Colonel Destenavc. The map of the eastern ]iart of the lake, which has 
been prepired by Captain B^zu from the obsarvations of the vatioua ofBcers em- 
ployed, is given in tlie June number of Lit Geographie, and brings out admirably 
the remarkable character of the eastern coast region. An already mentioned, the 
islands which fringe this coafat run with great regularity from north-west to soulh- 
laat, this beini due to the currents and prevailing winds. Another point clearly 
brought out by thu map is Ihe great regularity in their dislributmn. Never 
does the mainland touch the open water throughout the whole eastern side of 
the lake, though the width of the zone of islanda vanes from about 5 to nearly 
20 miles. The iutervening channela show great uniformity in width, rarely much 
exceeding 2 miles, though in places they are much narrower. The map diatin- 
guisbos by colours the low-lying ii'lauds and sandbanks from those occupied by 
forests or planlalions. The actual shore of the !akn is very ill defined, as it is 




THI MONTHLY RECORD. 213 

arach cut up into peniosulas which reproduce the trend of the ialands. lo a brief 

description of the work of the surrey, Colouc^l Destenaye gives some interestiDg 

detiUs regarding the geoeral hydrography of the lake. In the deep south-west 

hadn its waters are yellowish, do doubt owing to the existence of banks of clay. 

In the region of the islands and in the extreme north they are often muddy, though 

much dearer around sandy islands. At the time of its annual rise the water ia 

sweet and limpid, and only at low water (May and June) is it at all brackish. 

Aooording to Captain Dubois, the numerous lagoons round its shores set, like the 

golf of Karabogbas in the Caspian, as purifying pans in which the greater part of 

the salts contained in the water is precipitated during the fall of the lake. High 

water occurs in December, the rise amounting to 1*20 m. (4 feet) only. There 

is likewise a general displacement of the water-covered area towards the west 

From the Shari delta to the eastern comer of the lake, a distinct current runs along 

the south coast, aod is koown to the natives, like the depression which runs to 

the esst from this neighbourhood, as the Bahi-el-Ghazal. At the time of the great 

rise noted by Nachtigal, there is faid to have been slso a water-communication 

between the Bahr-el-Ghazal and Gulfei on the Shari, and as Colonel Destenave 

ipesks of the former mouth of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, it would seem that some of the 

Shari water formetly made its way to the lake by this route. 

K. Duehesne-FonmeVs Expedition to Abyssinia.— M. Duchesne-Foumet, 

to whoee expedition to Abyssinia reference has already been made in the Journal ^ 
hss returned to France, and gave an account of his journey at a meeting of the 
Buis Geographical Society in April last, an abstract being printed (with sketch- 
map) in the May number of La Giographie (pp. 392-395). Although the route 
tfaversed little absolutely new ground, the journey appears to have contributed 
materially to a better mapping of some of the less-frequented provinces of Abyssinia, 
careful sutyeys having been executed with the theodolite, with the aid of Lieut. 
OoUat and others of M. Fournet's companions. From Addis Abbaba the expedition 
went north across the plateaus which separate the capital from the deep cafion of 
the Blue Nile, which was crossed into Gojam. The capital of this province, which 
hss now been brought under Menelek^s direct rule, at present goes by the name of 
Markos. It formerly bore the name of Monkorer. The expedition traversed Gojam 
in various directions, visited the source of the Blue Nile (erroneously stated to have 
been " discovered ^ by D*Abbadie), executed a survey of Lake Tana, and returned 
•onth across the highest part of the Choke range, on which abundant vegetation 
was found up to a height of over 13,000 feet. The Blue Nile was crossed further 
west than on the outward journey, and the route continued through the Euttai 
district on the south bank, said to have been previously unexplored, though it must 
have been approached very closely by Neumann. M. Foumet subsequently visited 
the province of Wallaga. 

The Kaomillan Expedition to the Bine Hile. — News has just arrived of 

the failure of the well-equipped expedition under Mr. W. N. Macmillan, an 
American, to descend the Blue Nile from the Abyseinian highlands to the plains of 
the Sudan. The expedition was provided with iron punts, in which it started down 
the river on June 26, but, according to a Heuter telegram from Aden on July 22, 
two of the pimts, which contained a large proportion of the stores, were lost during 
the passage of the rapids, the occupants swimming ashore, but suffering further 
k)8s from a hurricane which swept the gorge during their enforced detention on the 
river-bank. The expedition was compelled to return to Addis Abbaba, and for the 
present, at least, the attempt has been abandoned. 

Crommander Whitehonse's Snrvey of the Victoiia Hyanza.— Commander 

Whitehouse, who a few years sgo executed a survey of the northern shores of the 



214 THE MOKTHLT RICORO. 

Victoria Nyanza within the British sphere, has lately been engaged, by agreement 
with the German authorities, on a survey of the southern half of the lake in the 
interests of the steam-navis^ation of its waters. The steamer Winifred, which was 
lately placed on the lake, has completed a circumnavigatioD, and a regular service 
between its various shores is contemplated. If this be established, the quickest 
route to Tanganyika will probably be by the Uganda railway and the Victoria 
lake. 

The Position of Bohodle, Somaliland.— The British field force in Somali- 
land is accompaDied by an officer of the Indian Survey Department, who, as we 
are informed by the Foreign Office, has made an exact determination of the position 
of the advanced base at Bohodle, or Bohotle. The co-ordinates thus fixed are 
lat 8° 14' 43"-l N., long. 46*' 20' 18"-6 E., the position thus obtained being 
considerably to the west of the supposed position, though the place still remains 
within the British boundary. 

AXSBIOA. 

Exploration and Mining in the Copper River Basin.— The United 

States Government is continuing its efforts to develop the mining district of the 
Copper river. The military trail from Valdes over the Thomson pass (see voL xix. 
p. 611) was completed in 1900 as far as Taslina river ; the Elutina river has been 
bridged, and ferries established on the other principal tributaries. The geology and 
mineral resources of parts of the basin are described by Messrs. Schrader and 
Spencer in a publication of the Geological Survey. The oldest rocks are meta- 
morphic, divided into three series, named the Klutina, Valdes, and Orca, all of 
which are traversed by intrusions of igneous rocks of a later date than that of the 
latest intense folding. After the Ores series had been metamorphosed, the region 
was deeply eroded, the land sank, and three series of beds were deposited — ^the 
Ghitistone limestone of Carboniferous age, Triassic limestones and shales, and the 
Kennicott formation of late Jurassic or early Cretaceous age, the last lying un- 
conf(»inably on the upturned edges of the other two. Below the Ghitistone lime- 
stone lies the Nicolai greenstone, a series of volcanic flows which form an important 
mass in the Wrangell district. With this are associated all the copper deposits 
of the basin — the Nicolai mine towards the White river, the Bonansa claim near 
McCarthy creek, and the deposits on the Kotsina, Eusknlana, and Chitina rivers. 
A sample from the Bonanza claim yielded over 70 per cent, of copper, some silver, 
and a trace of gold. Several claims have also been located on the shores and 
islands of Prince William sound. Qaartz gold is known only at McEinley lake, 
on the north bide of the Copper delta. Of placer mines, the most promising are 
those of the Chestochina river. The gold seems to have travelled for some distance, 
but the fiagments of schist and quartz which frequently cling to it show its origin 
from vein deposits. Engineers regard the Valdes route as practicable for the 
construction of a railway to the Copper river. A branch would then be carried to 
the Kotsina and Chitina copper districts, and eventually the line might be extended 
by way of Mentasta pass to Eagle city. Regarding the occurrence of coal in the 
Copper basin, nothing definite is known at present. In other parts of Alaska, 
however, coalfields have been discovered. Mr. John Kirsopp, junior, gave details 
of several seams of lignite in Cook inlet and on the Sushitna river before the 
Institution of Mining Engineers in 1901. He also described the Chilcat coalfield, 
and those of 8outh>eastom Alaska, Vancouver, and British Columbia. The coal of 
Queen Charlotte island compares very favourably with that of other Paciflc coal- 
fields, and, as the limited area of coal-seams in Vancouver is being rapidly 
exhaxisted, Qaeen Charlotte coal will probably soon be placed on the market. 

Alaskan Survey Programme for 1903.— The work of surveying and 



THK MONTHLT RIOORD. 215 

mapping the minins refcion of Alaska will, we leara from the Jane number of the 
Naiwmal Geographic Magazine^ continae to be actively prosecuted daring the 
pnsent summer. The districts to which speoial attention will be devoted will be 
the Seward peninsula, Tnkon and Taoana goldfields, and the Eayah island and 
Controller bay petroleum and coal fields. The mining diatriots of south-east Alaska 
will alto be examined. 

Vew Snxrey ef the Colorado Canon. — According to a note in the National 

Chographic Magazine for April last, a re-survey of the Grand Caflon of the 

Cokndo has lately been carried out for the U.S. Geological Survey by Mr. F. £. 

Xatthes. The new map, which is to embody the results of this survey, will 

be on the scale of one mile to the inch, with contours 50 feet apart, and will show all 

the topographical features in true proportion. The average width of the cafion 

from rim to rim is stated to be less than 10 miles at its widest, and to be 

fraqoently as little as 8 milen. On the south side the depth is under a mile, but 

from the more elevated north rim the drop averages considerably over a mile, and 

in many places exceeds 6000 feet. 

The Degrao Keatiirement in Ecuador. — ^The report by M. Poincare to 

the Paris Academy of Scieoces on the work carried out in 1902 by the French 
expedltioa for the remeasurement of au arc of the meridian in Ecuador, is printed 
in the CompUs Bendtts for April 6 in the present year. While regretting that 
nafavoarable weather conditions and other obstacles have retarded the progress of 
tlie work.so that it is now some six months behind the calculated programme, M. 
Boincar^ announces that the results are so far eminently satisfactory, the highest 
degree of accuracy having been maintained throughout. The measurement of 
ingles had been rendered exceedingly difficult by the unusual amount of mist and 
deads in which the summits were enveloped, and which hindered all work for 
days together. The preliminary reconnaissance had given no indication of such a 
state of things, and it is suggested that the volcanic disturbances, which seem to 
bave spread last year from the West Indies to the Cordillera, may have had some 
infloenoe on the meteorological conditions. Another difficulty arose from the 
interference with the signals, both by the native Indians and by the whites, which 
efeiy effort seemed powerless to prevent, and which sometimes involved the 
repetitimi of whole sections of the work. In the previous season (cf. Journal, vol. 
XX. p. 343) two bases had been measured — the one in the neighbourhood of Rio- 
bunha, carried out both with the bimetallic bar and with the Jaierin apparatus; 
the other in the north, at £1 Vinculo, with the Utter only. The reduction of the 
observations has since been effected, and the results are now presented. The main 
base at Biobamba was divided into two sections, and the southern of these was 
meisured twice by each method, the difference between the two results with 
the metal bar amounting to only 6*6 millimetres, or ^^^^(j of the total length. 
The results for the whole base obtained with the Jaderin apparatus showed a close 
sgreement with the value adopted as the result of the measurement with the 
bimetallic bar, that given by the steel wire being, however, more dependable than 
by the brasf, and it is estimated that this method may be trusted to be correct 
within jjf^jsjs or Tnj(/&^(7* "^'^^ northern bise, which will serve only as a control. 
Wis measured with the Jaderin wires only ; but for the third base, to be eventually 
messuied on the seashore near Payta, the bar will probably be employed. The 
principal and secondary astronomical observations have all been made, and the 
results are recorded as regards the latitude of the main stations — Payta, Kio- 
bamba, Panecillo, and Tulcan ; the differences in longitude had not been completely 
worked out. It was in the geodetic work that the principal delay had occurred, 
and out of thirty stations six or seven remained to be occupied. A number of 



216 



TH£ UOKTHLV RECORD. 



obMCvations for the latitude of Btstions of the third order bod beeu mode, &Dii 
much magoetic nad topographical work dono, including a map, on the ecale of 
1 : 500,000, of the Inter-ADdioe region. The levtiling operationa were to he b^uo 
during the preeeot aeaeoD, in which it is alBu hoped tu complete the obsurvationa 
in the noithero eeclioD, tuxarry forward the geodetic work Id the Bouthero SGCtioD, 
as well at certain additioQal ant ronuiu leal obaervatioDfl ; leaving for ancceediog jears 
the geodetic measurements iu the Ciie:i9a-Fa;ta section, the meaKurement of the 
Payta base, ihe pendulum ubaervulione (which have Intel/ beea ia abeyacce), and, 
if posfihle, the cuoneclion of I'uua irland with the aouthcra seriei. 

The Blackwater Eiveri of South America.— Ibe subject of these riven", 
which for man; jears have attracted special attention on the part of travellera 
and geographers, is exhaustively diicussed in the latest issue of the Miinchtner 
Oeographiirhe Srudi'ei^ by Dr. Josef Keindl. With characteriatic German thorough- 
nesf, the author begios with a nketch of Ihe whole physical gcograpby of the region 
in which such hlack-water rivers are mtt with, and which, as he showp, embiaces 
a far larger area thau was tuppofod by Humboldt, one of the first travellers to 
approach the subject in a scientific spirit, though the phenomenon had been noticed 
even on the cccaaion of Orellana's diacovery of the course of the Amaeon. Under 
the headiog " Hydrography " we find a dv tailed descriplion of the rivers themselves, 
which are especially character Is lie of British Quiana, the region of the upper 
Orinoco aud Klo Kegro, the upper and lower Amazoo valley, and the Brtziliati 
mountain region of the Serra do Mar. Then follow hi ief accounts of certain special 
features, such as the occurrence of swamp formations, etc., in the domain of the 
black-natet river«, and the analogies presented by the rivers of other coniiuenta ; 
while the final section of all disctisse!i the cause of the phenomenon, and thus 
forma the climax of the whole sludy, to which aloue detailed refeience neid bo 
made here. After eummariEing, in chronological order, the opioions which have 
been oxprufsed as to the cause of the coloration from the tiuju of Uubeiro de S. 
Tayo (1743) onwards. Dr. Ilaindl examines the general principles coccerned iu iho 
coloration of water, showing that absoluttlj pure water seen from above appeare 
aheolutely black when of sufficient depth to allow of the absorption of all the rajs 
which strike it, but that it has In Itiielf a blue colour when the rajs pass through 
it to the eye, as it absorbs those of all oilier colours contained iu white light more 
readily than the blue. This blue cclour is modified by the presence either of 
suspended particles or dissolved substances. Applying thesa principles, he shown 
that the great clejrness of the Uack-nattr rivers would account in a measure for their 
datk colour when of sufheient depth, but that as they appear dark also in shallow 
plicea this cannot be tlie efScient reason. Such strfams occur ouly in regions 
where large masses of decaying vegetable matter are present, and their water is 
exceptionally rich in dissolved organic matter (humic acids and their compounds). 
They ate also only found in region;, the geological lormations of which are rich in 
silicates (gneiss, granite, sandstone, etc,), and livers which paea out of these 
forraatioDs into limestone regions at once lose tiieir black colour. These facts 
permit a solution of the problem, fur Dr. lieindl has found by laboratory experi- 
ments that water mixed with peat or otber humus only acquired a dark colour in 
ibe presence of alkalis such as are derived from the silicates ui the geological forma- 
tions above alluded to. The loss of the dark colour in association with limestone 
is due to the chemical combinatioos which take place between the organic acids uid 
the calcium or magnesia, the resulting products being nut readily dit»olved, and 
therefore falling to the bottom. This is the cause of the dark colour of Ihe beda of 
the white-water streams, whereas those of the bisck-water Etreams, from a patallel 
chemical reason, are generally white. 




TBI MONTHLY RIOORD. 217 

Ili0 Sanniftooa Siver, Dntoh Oniana. — A brief account of this expedition 

■ppatn in the Tijd$chrift van het K. Nederl. Aardr. Qenootichap^ DeeL zx 
Ha 4. The leader, Herr A. J. ran Stockum, and his companions left their camp 
at the conflaence of the Saramacca and Tukumuta on March 6 last, and after three 
days reached a fall about 16 feet high, which necessitated a portage. Two days* 
joomej further upstream the Tarre creek was passed, possibly a connection with 
the Suzinam rirer, and then the Saramacca became shallow, and was encumbered 
with bushes and fallen trunks. On the 16th the obstacles became so numerous that 
Herr Tan Stockum decided to proceed no further. A hill about 1600 feet high, 
whieh he named the Zuidheuyel (South hill), in lat. 3^ 47' N. approximately, 
iffndad a good riew of the country. To the south lay hills connected with a spur oi 
the Wilhelmina range, and at a short distance towards the not th-west the southern- 
most sammits of the Emma range (see vol. xx. p. 656), long lofty ridges sloping u^. 
ftom the north and ending in precipices on the south. Probably the obserrations, 
when worked out, will show that the watershed between the Surinam and Sara- 
macca conrerges to the same point, so that the source of the latter river lies at tho 
bkot formed by the junction of the three ranges. On his return jouney, Herr van 
Stockum ascended a mountun to the east of the river near Mombasu, which rose 
AiUy 2200 feet above its base, and here also be took bearings of the conspicuous 
points. 

Trigonometrical Snrvey of Brazil. — We learn from Science (June 12' 
1908) that arrangements have been made by the Brazilian Government for the 
eommenoement of a survey of the country on modern scientific linep. Recon- 
misnnoe work for the triangulation of the state of Rio Grande do Sul was to be 
begun this summer by a commission under Colonel F. de Abreu Lima. It is pro- 
posed to measure bases at Porto Alegre and Uruguayans, and to connect the two 
eitiea by triangulation. The resultine arc will cover about 6^° of longitude in 
30* S. 

AUSTBALASIA AND FACITIG ISLANDS. 

Expedition to British Hew Guinea.— An expedition will start very shortly 
to British New Guinea, equipped by and under the leadership of Major W. Cooke 
Daniels, who served in the United States Army during the Cuban campaign as 
Adjutant-General of Division, and has also travelled extensively in the tropics- 
He will be accompanied by Dr. C. G. Seligmann, late of the clinical laboratory 
of St. Thomas's Hospital, and a member of the Cambridge Anthropological 
fxpeditkm to Torres strait, New Guinea, and Sarawak, organized by Dr. A. C. 
Htddon ; Dr. W. Mersh Strong, of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Mr. A. H. 
Donning. Major Daniels will devote himself mainly to ethnology. Dr. Seligmann 
is the representative on the expedition of the Cancer Commission, and, with Dr, 
Strongs will investigate pathological questions of a more general character, as well as 
bslp in the ethnological inquiries. Dr. Strong is in charge of the geographical and 
geological obaenrations, which it is part of the purpose of the expedition to make. 
The photographic work, including the taking of kinematographs, will be carried 
oat by Mr. Dunning. A schooner yacht, with auxiliary steam-power and carrying 
i sea-going launch, is being sent out. The scientific equipment has been well 
ttmndered, and is thoroughly adequate ; the various members of the expedition have 
ipedaUy prepared themselves for their several duties. Assistance has been granted 
by the Royal Society, and a small grant given by the Government Grant Com"* 
aittee, while our own Society has materially helped by the loan of instrumentp. 

Ko. II«— August, 1903.] q 



THE MONTHLT RBCOBD. 



FOLAB BKOIOVB. 



ICB in the Arctic Seai, 1902- —The annual report for Iil03 on the ice-con- 
ditions in the arclic eeaa has been iBsuci by the Djoish Meteorological Institute, 
And, SB in former ;eaje, is a most useful record, gathered from the observations 
of Tsrioua nnvigatorii, of the state of those seas dnriog laat year. lofurmatioD hu 
come to hand in goinewhat fuller meaaura than io the previous year, but when the 
uaefulncBs of the work carriel out by the inBtUute la more widely recogoized, DO 
doubt the data will be pent in in Etlll greater abundance. After a review of tbo 
state of the ice in the different a^as around the polar area, the following general 
conclusiass are arrived At. lu 11102 the winter ice broke up very late, and the 
polar ice lay considerably nearer tbe northern coasts of Asia and Europe than 
in a normal year. The Bast Greenland current carried an abnormal qusntitj of 
pack-ice, though on the other hand an unusually small numb^ of icebergs werft 
carried from Greenland to the temperite seas, while the extent of polar ice io the 
northern branches of Baffin bay was smaller than in other recent years. The 
summer was rough and unsettled in all arctic and sub:irctic regions (with the 
partial exception of West Greenland), northerly and easterly winds predominatiDg 
in the seas north of the Atlantic. These facts quite bear out tbe cancluuona 
drawn from a consideration of the stale of the ice in 1!)01, vIk. that the accumula- 
tion of ice north of Spilsbergen caused by the prevailing westerly winds of that 
year would have an nnfavourable influence on the state of the ice round Iceland 
and Greenland io 1902. Alike in the Barents sea, the region of FracE Josef L^od, 
and nronod Spitsbergen, I'^aaC Greenland, and Iceland the conditions were very 
unfavourable. The nortb-eaat, east, and south-east coaela of Spitsbergen were 
quite inaccessible through tbe summer; the pack-ice lay in a close broid belt off 
tbe coast of East Grcnland, rendering access to the northern part^ of the coast 
exceedingly difHcult ; while round Iceiund the state of the ice was more unfavour- 
able than ever since 1892. 

KATHSVAIIO&I AHB PHYSICAL OZOOBAFHT. 
The Origin of the Kineral Oila.— The resullsof analyses show thai the 

waters auociated with mineral oils almost invariably contain large quantitlea uf 
sodium chloride ; from which the conclualon is drawn that tlie oil is formed from 
the remains of marine organUms. According to Ochacnius, an enormous quantity 
of organisms are destroyed suddenly by the forroatinn and outflow of brine ; accord- 
ing to Andruston, the destructlDn o( lite takes place gradually, as, for example, in the 
Earabugas bay in the Caspian eea. Bi>tb hypotbesas involve the eiroullaneous 
formation of a Ballne deposit. The Austrian expert, Prof. U, Uiifer, who. brought 
forward a number of questions connected with this subject at the Grst Internationa! 
Petroleum CongtOM at Paris in August, I'JOO, which will come up for di^juaaion at 
the congress at Bnkhaiest this year, has recently pointed ont {SiUungthrridiU der 
Kaissrluhrn Akadtmie der WUeentchaflcn in Wien. MaihematiuA-Xaturwmatselt, 
KlaaK, Bd. cxi, Abt. 1) that such a formation is contrary to observed facts. The 
salt deposits which do occur in the neigh tiourhood of oil eprings belong to aoolher 
horizon, and are not structurally related to them. Accarding to HQfer, who hea 
dealt ni'.h a Urge amount of material, the oil-beariog depoaita are shallow-watar 
marina deposits, perhaps often formed in hags or inlets. Tbey occur in saodstone 
consolidated from sand, or in conglomerate from pebbles, and these indicate a sudden 
inundation from adj^ceut land} tbe marine fauna at the place of deposition was 
deilroyei by tbe tudden influx of fresh water. The phenomenon can be observed 
on a large scale at the present day on tlie Eoutb and eo^t coasts of Florida, when 




THE MONTHLT RSOORD. 219 

the cccaBlonal outbarsto of fresh water from the marshes of the everglades kill the 
fishes in the surrounding sea in immense numbers. 

GBHXSAI. 

Hngi and fha Seienee of Olaciers. — In the twelfth number of the 

Mwuhener Oeographische Studien^ Dr. Erehbiel gives a full account of the ex- 
plorations and researches among the peaks and glaciers of the Bernese Oberland 
esiried out in the first half of the nineteenth century by Franz J. Hugl (1796- 
1855), a native of Canton Solothum, and a professor of natural history in its 
diief town. The writer prefaces his work with a brief summary of the growth of 
glsdal science. He then gives a fairly full account of Hugi's various expeditions 
above the snow-level^ and in conclusion carefully investigates and estimates the 
importance of his scientific work and the extent to which he advanced the know- 
ledge of the nature of glaciers. Hugi was distinguished, it is pointed out, as the 
int acienti6c explorer who was also a mountaineer ; as the inventor of winter 
noantaineering ; and the establisher of the fact that the glaciers' advance is not 
liopped at that season. He made careful and accurate measurements of the motion 
of the glaciers, and threw some light on the process by which firn or n^v^ is 
tnnsmuted into ice ; he defined '' the snow-level," recognized the nature of the 
glicier granules, and studied the motion of the ice and the origin of its crevasses, 
kjing foundations which his successors have found to a large extent serviceable. 
I^. Krehbiel suggests that Hugi's share in the scientific* exploration of his native 
numntains has been recently somewhat overlooked. Full justice was done to it in 
this country, at any rate, by James Forbes. References to Hagi will be found on 
twenty-two pages of his ' Travels through the Alps.* Two facsimiles of Hugi's 
map accompany the treatise. 

Seventy-fifth Anniversary of the Founding of the Berlin Geographical 

Beeiety. — The celebration of the founding of the Berlin Geographical Society, 
which it is the custom to hold every five years for the purpose of reviewing periodi- 
cally the condition and progress of the Society, took place this 3 car with exceptional 
flb/o/, on the occasion of the completion of the seventy-fifth year of the Society's 
existence. It so happened that the anniversary practically coincided with the 
seventieth birthday of the veteran German geographer, Baron von Richlhofen, and 
the opportunity was taken to combine the two celebrations. At the meeting held 
en May 4, the president. Prof. Hellmann, delivered an address, in which, before 
dealing with the five-yearly period just completed, ho passed in review the history 
of the Society from its foundation in 1828, dividing it into three characteristic 
epochs. In its early days, in which it enjoyed the support of such masters of the 
icience of geography as Humboldt and liitter, the Society was concerLcd rather with 
the diffusion of a knowledge of geographical work done elsewhere, and a di6CUi>sion 
of the results obtained, than with independent exploration ; but from about 18o9 
onwards a period of great exploring activity on the part of its members set in, 
which especially characterized the work of the Society during the second period. The 
third period, although continuing the work of its predecessor in this direction to 
•ome extent (as, e.^., in the Antarctic), has been characterized by more *' intensive *' 
get^raphical research, in the form of the detailed examination of smaller areas, or 
the investigation of special problems. It has also be^n marked by a continuous 
improvement in the value of the Society's publications, culminating in the inaugura- 
tion of the present excellent Zeitschri/t. It has also seen the commeucemeut of 
that model of bibliographical enterprise, the Bihliotheca Geographka, of which the 
tighth volume was lately issued. This literary activity has been particularly well 
marked during the last five years, of which a more detailo^l review was given by 



I 



220 THE HONTHLT RECORD. ^^^^^^ 

Prof. HeUmann. They bare seen the ioauguration (io 1901) of the techniotl meet- 
iagn of the Society (correepoodiag to our own Bfternoou meetiugB), in which special 
HoieotlSc quv8tiona have been discussed. As regards the papers read at the geoeral 
meetiogs, a Tariation in llie distribution of the subjects among the ooDtiaeats has 
been Doticeable of late, Africa having yielded the first place In this respect U> Asia. 
The opening of the new preniiwa of the Society in 1899, and the Berlin meeting 
of the Intornationa! Geograpliical Congreae in the same year, also fali within the 
last period of fice years. The Society is to be warmly congratulated on its ability 
to sbon a record of such excellence, and our beat wishes are given to it for the con* 
tinuance of it« career of usefulness. A new departure, which will still further 
contribute to this in the future, was Inaugurate! at the meeting by the foundation 
of the " Ferdinand von Richthofen Btiftung," in honour of the distinguished geo- 
grapber. A capital sum of 26,000 marks, which bad been collected by a committee 
appointed for the purpose, was handed over to Baron von Hichthofen as a fund for 
the encouragement of geographical progress, the yearly proceeds to be devoted to 
the support of jouiueys of geographical research, grants to get^aphical students, 
and such other purposes as may eventually bo determined. 

Oeolo^ and Oeography- — A eection of P/of. Lspworth's anniversary 
address to the Oeological Society on February 20 last was devoted to the some- 
what difficult question of the relations between the sciences of geology and 
geography. The key-iiot« of bis remarks was the mutual dependence between the 
two which has always been, and must continue to exist, cordial recognition bdng 
given to the services rendered by geography to geology, no less than vice vertA. 
The two sciences were spoken of as sharing between them the collective study of 
the Earth, the surface of the globe being regarded as their common limit and com- 
mon property. As a representativB of the physical scienceB as contrasted with 
those related to man, it was only natural that Prof. Lipworth should limit his view's 
to the physical side of geography, which, of course, is the one m to which the 
ditBculty of drawing a dividing-line aloue ariieB, But by leaving out of view the 
relations of geography to the science ofmanon the opposite side, he necessarily failed 
to give prominence to the central distinction between geography as a whole and 
the sister science, which depends rather on the standpoint of the student and the 
motive with which his inquiries are made, itian on any hard-and-fast dividing-line 
between portions of a science which is essentially one in regard to the facts which 
form its basis, though for convenience- sake it mny be subdivided. Such limits of 
time or space as thosa between the present and the past, or betireen what lies 
abjve or below the existing surface, must be more or less arbitrary and artificial, 
however convenient for practical purposes ; and it is only when he looks beyond 
the mere surface features of the globe to the efTecti which these have on the haman 
and other life upon it, that the geographer fully substantiates his claim to ba the 
exponent of an independent science. None the less, our thanks are due to Prof. 
Lapworth for his generous appreciation of the value of geography, in spile of the 
tendency which it may occasionally maniieet to trespass on ground which the 
geologist regnrds as his own. 

Harme InTeatigation : Couraft of Initmotioil' — It is announced that, if a 
■ufGcient number of students eend Id their names, a course of instruction on marine 
invesligitioBS will be held at Bergen from September 1 to November 1, by Dr. 
Johau Hjort and several coadjutors. The course will consist partly of lectures and 
practical experiments ; partly of laboratory work, demonstrations, and excursions. 
The instruction will be free of charge, but microscopes, etc., must be brought by 
students. Applications should be made to Dr. Hjort at Bergen before August lo. 
A similar course was held by the promoters last winter. 





( 221 ) 

OBITUABT. 

George Robert Boyle. 

We regret to record the death, at the age of sixty, of George Robert Boyle, a 

¥«Dow of the Society. Mr. Boyle had been connected for forty-six years with the 

British and Foreign Blind Association. Mr. Boyle took the greatest interest in 

Ms work, and became the inventor of many improvements in connection with the 

making of Braille books and implements for the blind, and also of the cheapest 

sod best embossed maps for the blind and seeing, several of which are at the 

Society, and many more in use at the large schools. In 1897 the British and 

fMgn BUnd Association brought out in interpointed Braille ' the story of Nansen 

IS told by himself.* It was an admirable stereotyped and eadly read volume, 

with close lines on each page, a great improvement on the original French Braille 

lyBtem, and even on the perfectioned system as introduced by Dr. Armitage, the 

fbonder of the institution. Mr. Boyle deserved the greatest credit for the complete 

which had at last crowned his work. 



GEOGRAPHICAL LITERATURE OF THE MONTH. 

Additions to the Library. 

By EDWABD HEAWOOD, M.A., Librarian^ XtQ.S. 

The followine abbreviations of nouns and the adjectives derived from them ore 
empbyed to indicate the source of articles from other publioations. Geographical 
names are in each case written in full : — 



A s Academy, Academic, Akademie. 

Ahh. = AbhandluDgen. 

iUn. = Annals, Aimales, Annalen. 

B. s Bulletin, BoUettino, Boletim. 

Com. =r Oommeroe. 

C Bd. = Comptes Bendus. 

Adk. = Erdkunde. 

0. = G^eographj, Geographie, Geografia. 

GssL = Gesellsohaft 

L s Institute, Institution. 

la. s Isvestiya. 

J, s Journal. 

k «. k. = kaiserlich und koniglich. 

K. s Mitteilungen. 



Mag. = Magazine. 

Mem. = Memoirs, M^moires. 

Met. = Meteorological. 

P. = Proceedings. 

R. = Boyal. 

Rev. = Review, Revue. 

S. = Society, Sooi^t^, Selskab. 

Sitzb. = Sitzungsberioht. 

T. = TranBaotions. 

V. = Verein. 

Verb. = Yerhandlungen. 

W. = Wissensohaf t, and compounds. 

Z. = Zeitsohrift. 

Zap. = Zapiski. 



On aooount of the ambiguity of the words ootavOy quarto, etc., the size of books in 
tibe list below is denoted by the length and breadth of the cover in inches to the nearest 
balf-inoh. The size of the Joumcu is 10 x 6}. 

A seleetion of the works in this list will be notioed elsewhere in the '^ JoumaL" 

EUBOFE. 

A1|B. Alpine J. 81 (1903) : 417-420. Brigg. 

The Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers between the Col de la Galise, and the Aiguille 
da la Sassi^ and the Bassao Xord (Central Graians). By W. A. Brigg. With 
Map. 

iSft. Fenok and Btfiokner. 

Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter. Yon Dr. A. Penck und Dr. E. BrQckner. Lieferung 
5. Leipiig: C. H. Tauchnitz, 1903. Size 10} x 74, pp. 433-544. Ifap and 
Bhutraiiom, Pre$enled by the PMUher. 



222 



QEOORAPmCAL UTERATDRE OF THE MONTH. 



Alpt — OhuBoniz. Whymptt. 

ChamoDii and the Baoge of HoDt BIado. A Qnide bj Edward Wbvmper, Eighth 

Edition, London ; JoLn Mnrrfty, 1903. Btza 7i x 5, pp. x\v. and' 206. Priee St. 

net, Mapi and BtuttraHonl, Tun coplel, Preiented by 1A< Aulhor and Publi$heTr. 

Alpi— Kant BIuio. Ann. Chb Alpin FranfaU 2» (1901): 425-435 7or«l. 

Lm Glaciers du lIoat'BlaDo en ITSO. Par SI. F.-A. ForeL Wm Ptaie. 
Anitrlft — EiitoriMkl. PicMai. 

Anitiia Bomanit. Qeogw)hiaohes Lexlkon aller m ItomeneiteD !□ Oatreioli 
geDannten Uerga, Fliieae, Hifen, IdkId, Lander, Meere. Foatorte, Seeen, Btldte, 
BtrtMspD, Volker. I. Von Fiilz Ficbler. (Quelloii und Foriobncgen ziu alten 
QeBcbiohte und Oeograpbie, beraaegBgebeu von W. Sleglin, Reft S.) Leipzig: 
K. AvenariQB, 1902. Size Dj x GJ, pp. 102, Map, 
Ammi. BS.R. Btlgt Q.ST (1903); 120-157. Tanehnnr. 

I.cB ile« Azores. With Map. 
Translated from tile Dutcb of G. Tenobntir (T\idiehTi/l, Netbetlandi Geogra- 
phioal Society). 

Balkan Fanlniiilft. Onrtii. 

The Turk and bia Lost Profinoea. Greece, Bulgaria. Sertia, Bosnia. Bj William 
Eleroy Curtis. (%!oago, etc. : Fleming H. BercU Co., 1903. Size 9x6, pp. 39G. 
ItlMttralionii. Prim 7i. M. 
On acoonnt of the Balkun ooqntiiea and Grecoe for the genaral reader, by an 
Ameriean jouruallat. 

Baltle. Pefo-montu Jf. « (1903): 2.'V-28, 77-B:!. Qainiu. 

Die geogntpbi«olien Veraudurungen des audweatliclion Oatsaegobiete aelt der 
qnarlirea Aoachmelzperiode. Voo Prof. Dr. E. Geinitz. Wilh Map. 
Balginm— Ooal. La Q.. B.S.G. PaHi 7 (1903) : 284-288. ErtboriL 

Le baasin houlller de la oampine. Par Baron LI. viin Bttboru. 

Bnlgaria. Dtulioh. RundKJiaH G. 28 (1903): 369-370, 

Die Woingaitonfl&cbe Bulgariens. 
Dantral Knrope, 

I'eulral Europe. By Joseph Partsob. London 
9} X 6. pp. liv. and 358. Mapi and Diograitii 
PuiUihe.r. [To be reviewed.] 
Dtnmark— Language. 

Danish Self-taught, nitb Fbcn^tio Pronnnciatlon (Tblmta'a SyatemX containing 
VoCabnUaies, Iiuomatic Pbraaea, and Dialogues : Elementary Grammar ; Com- 
mercial, Trading, and Legal Terms: U'ravi^l Talk; Shooting, fiibing, Pboto- 
grapliT. Cyoling, ato, eto. Edited bv W. F. Harvey. London ; E. Uaillxirough * 
Co., 1908. SiiL* 7 X 4i. pp. 120. Price 2». Qd. PiueaUd bg the PvblUheri. 

Dsnmark — Keteorology. 

Nautical-Meteorulogieal Annual 1902, publiahed by the Danish Meteorological 
Instllnte, KjpbenbaTn : G. E. ('. Gad, IBOS. Biae laj x 91, pp, uxii. und"l82. 
Oiarii. Preteated by thfi Daniih Mateorologiedl Inititutt. 
luoludes the annual report for 1902 on ioi; in the Arctic sea* (anfr.p. 218). 
7nnM— AIn Taltey. Delabecqug. 

I'onlribiitioD b I'c'tude des tarrains glaciaires des valMrs do I'Ain et de sfa princi- 
piiux afBucnta. Par A, Deklieoqui-, Paris: (.', Bcranger, 1902. Size 10 x 6J. 
pp. 14. Map. Preimttd bg the Atithor. 
France— Alps. B.S-G. Com. Parit 26 (1903) : 28-38. Bougaolt. 

Hiobeseex bydranliques dea Alpes frfln9aises, Icur situation actaelle, lenr afenlr. 
Par Paul Boiignult. 

Horwk7. 

Norge i det Nittcnde AarLuodrede. Tekst og Hilledcr af Norske Fotfattere og 
Eaiistuere. 2 Volumes. EiistimiLu : A. Gammermeyer, 1900. Size 13 x 101. 
pp. (vol. i. 436) : (vol. ii. 4G8). Mapt. Ptatci and lUuiiraliom. Pretented bj/ Dr. 
THdfjef Narum. 
A auperbly illuRtratpd work oo every branch of koowlt'dge regarding Norway, 
inolading artietM by leading anthorities on trade, iudaxlries, fisheries, stalislin. litera- 
ture, art, etc., as well as on the pliyaical aspects of the ouiitry. 



Partwjh. 

, Ueinemann, 11103, Sizo 
Priee It. ea. Pretmttd by thr 




GEOGRAPHICAL LrTERATURK OF THE MONTH. 223 

luiitu— Cteology. Blomberg and Holm. 

GeologiBk BeskrifniDg ofver Nerika ooh Kankoi^ Bergsliig samt Fellingsbro 
Hind. Af Albert Blomberg ooh O. Holm. (Sveriges Geolog. Uodersokniug. 
Suwkholm, 1902. Ser. Ga., No. 2 ) 61xe 12} X 10, pp. 124. Maps and PlaU: 

%W9UaL — Geology. Blomberg and Luadbohm. 

Geologiik Begkrifning ofver Blekinge L&n. Af Albert Blomberg, jamte Redo- 
gorelse for StenindiiBtrien inom Blekinge L'an af Hjalmar Lundbobm. (Sveriges 
Geolog. Underfeokning, Ser. Ca., Na 1.) Stockholm, 1900. Size 12} x 10, pp. 
110. Map$ and PUxUi, 

Swsdon — Geology. Holm and Xnnthe. 

Kinnekalle. Dess Goologi och den tekniske AnTindniDgen af dess Bcrgarter. 
Af. O. Holm och H. Manthe. (Sveriges Geolng. UndendkniDg, Ser. Ca., No. 172.) 
Stockholm, 1901. Size 12} x 10, pp. U4. Map9. 

Iwadtn— Korrland. Ahleniai> 

Aogerir.analfvenB flodomr&do. En geomorfologlBk-antropogeografisk Undersokninff 
af Karl Ahlenius. lH^um€ in German.] UppBala: Alrnqviat & Wiksell, 1903. 
Size 10 X 6}, pp. xii. and 220. Map$. 

Geomorphological and anthropogcogrnphical studies on the region of the Angerman- 
Elf. 

SwitnrUnd. C. i?cf. 136 (1903) : 1103-1104. Lngeoo, Bioklin, and Perrirai. 

Sar ]cs bassins fermes des Alpes suisses. Note de M. Lugeon, M. Ricklin et F. 
Perriraz. 

Switzerland. 

Table de Recapitulation dcs Prinripaux Resultats des observations hydromc- 
triqaes suisses pour Tanneo 1891. 13eme, 1901. Size 15 X 10, pp. 44. 

fwitierland. 



Tableaux graphiques des observations hydrometriques suisses ct des temp^raiurcH 

del'air et des hauteurs pluviales pour Tannee 1900. Ditto, 1901. Itern, 1902. 
Size 15 X 10, pp. (IJ)OO) 24 : (IIK)I) 20. Diagrams. 

fwitierland— Onide. 



Guide to Switzerland. T.ondon : Macmillau & Co., 190.'?. Siz<' 7 x 4}, pp. cvi. 
and 23G. Maps and Plans. Vrice 5«. net. Presented by the Vullisliers. 

Turkey— Macedonia. Rrv. /Vanfa iw 28 (1003): 65-80, 129-1G9. Povolni. 

Ia solution du problcmc Mucedonien. Par I. V. Povolni. With Map. 

Vjiited Kingdom — Ealing. Brown. 

B«.cent Discoviries in Htlation to Pre-historic Man in Ealing. By Prof. Jno. 
Allen Brown. (Abstract of lecture bif<ire the Ealing \at. J^ci. aLd Microfec. See, 
January 25, 19.')2.) Size 8} x 5}, pp. 12. Illustration. 

Uaited Kingdom— Ireland. S<.'i. P.H. Dublin 8. 9 (1903): 575-582. Wright. 

Some Results of (rlacinl Drainage round Montpelier Hill, co. Dublin. By W. B. 
Wright. With Map and Plate. 

United Kingdom— Leicester. Fox-Strangways. 

Memoirs of the Geological Survey. England and Wales. The Geology of the 
Country near Leicester. (Explanation of Sheet 150.) By C. Fox-Strangways. 
London : E. Stanford, 1903. Sizo 10 x 6, pp. vi. and 122. Illuftraticns. Price '6*. 
Prttented by the Geological Surrey. 

Vaited Kingdom— Meteorology. Bnohan and Omond. 

TM.S. Edinburgh 42 (1902): pp. xiv. and 552. 

The Ben Nevis Observations, 1888-1892. Edited by Dr. A. Buohan and R. T. 
Omond. With Illustrations. 

V&ited Kingdom— Mines. Foster 

Mines and Quarries. (Jemral Report and Statistics for I'JOI. Port iii.— Output. 
Edited by C. le Nevo Foster. Loudon, 1902. Size 1:^^ x 8i, pp. 27H. 

Vnited Kingdom— Sec tland—SkTO. Harker 

T.li.S. Edinburgh 40 (1901-1902) : 221-252. 
Ice-Erosion iu the Cuillin Hilln, Skye. By A. Harker. With Map. 



224 



SEOORAPHICIL LITEBATORE Of THS HOHTH, 



Doited Kingdom -Wale«. T.R.S. Edinbirgk 10 (1901-1902) : *19-*G7. J«lio. 

A IistbyniPtrii<ikl bd<1 Geological Stud; of the IjikeB of SaowdoDia Bud Eastern 

CBtDarroiiBhire. lij T. J. Jeha. WtOt M-ipt and Plattt. 
ITnitsd Zlngdom— WUtihiT*. Beid. 

Henutira of the Geological Purvey. England and Wdaa. No. 298. The Geolosy 

oftboCoautrv around Sallsbnrj. (Eiplaualioo of Sheet 29S.) By Clement Reid. 

London, 1903! 6izH 9} x 6, pp. 77, Price 1«. 3d. 



AiU—Orj^sphy. DeuUeh. EiindKhm Q. 8S (1903): 359-3^6. Krebi. 

AsieiiB GebjrgBbao. Von Dr. N. Erebo. 
AnaljBU of Sueea' work. 
Cautnl Alia— Hoiquei. G. Tidnkri/l 17(1003-1904): 41-19. Olnfien. 

CentraloJiiens Muskeer, Mi-'dreaieer ag derea Gejitligbed. Af Premierlfijliuiat 

O. OlDfaoD. 
Csrlim. HHtan. 

S.A. Le Prlnoe Ibtabim Uiuwd. L'ile de Ceylati. Conferenoe h\te k la Sociifte 

Eh^iviale de Geogruphie, le 30 novembre 1901. Le Caire, 1902. Stxe II x T}. 

pp. 4i. 
China. Itcatlya Imp. Rum. 05.88(1902): 3TI-4C6. Lftdigin. 

Borne facta on the condition of trade In SsnEu, Tibet, and Mongolia collected by 

the expedition of IS99-I1KI2 aent by the Imperial Huoaian Geographical Society 

to Central Aaia. By V. F. Ladigju. [Id Ituiaian.] 
China— KwuK-ghon-mn. B.S.O.I'^^taS (1902)^ 393-408. Tialat. 

Note d'elhoographie anr Qaang-Tohc'ou-Wan. Par le Dr. Tialet. 
China— XongolU. hBetlij/a Imp. Sua. OS. 3B (1902): 467-502. BTyMluUkoff. 

Oattle-breeding ia North-Eaatern Mongolia, sod the trade in cattle on the rrontier 

of Trana-Buikai. By A. I. STyechnikoff. [In Rmalan.] 
China— Shautnag. Aiim 8 (1902) : 7-9, 21-24, 40-42. OMdwtz. 

SobsntangB wiiteohnftliohe Bi'deutung. Vod A. Gaedertz. 
China— Tea Trade. .JaiVii 8 (1902) : 24-26,42-45; (1903): 79-82. Kranwl. 

Dcr cbineBiechc Tliechaodel. Wirtacbaft«geacbiohtliobe Studie. Von Dr. P. 

Ki^Dsel. 
Cbineie Kmpire— Songalia, Leadain. 

Comte de LeedniD. En Uongolio. (13 Juin— 22 Sopteinbre 1902.) Paria : A. 

CbaUamel, 1903. Bize 7} x 5}, pp. 202. miutralioni. Prux 3>, 
French Indo-Ohina. B. VtcoU Franfaut d'Exlrimt-OHeHl S (1903): 1-17, KMpeio. 

Say.fong, una vlUe morte. Par G. Mispero. Wilh Map. 
Franoh Indo- China— BaU way i. B. ComUeVAtU Fratifaiis 3 (19113): 135-139. Caiz. 

Queationa dc chemiaa de fer indo-ohinoia. Par Robert de Cais. JIfap. 
India. Btnchey. 

India, ita Adminiatration and Progreaa. By Sir John Straohey, Third Edition. 

Be*iaed and Enlarged. Londuo, etc.: MocmiUan k Co., 1903. Size 9 x S}, 

pp. xiii. and 51fi. Map. Price 10». ne(. Pretented by Che PtMithert. 
India — BangkL Bradley- Bttt. 

Chota Nngpore, A Little-koowu Province of the Empire. By K, B. Btsdley- 

Birt With an Introduction by the Eight Hon. the Enrl of Northbrook. London: 

Bmilb, Eider, iJ: Co., 1903. Size 9^ x 0, pp. zir. and 310. 3f.ip and lUaitralioiu. 

Priee 12». 6d. net. Pre^tfd by the Fuhlitliiri. 
Bniila— Sibaria. TItOTiU. 

Ttob. Sowi-Seel. Troitzlofiautik-Eiakhta S. Imp. Hutte 0. 4, 1901 (1902): 81-06. 

ExcarBioQ an M'lnt do Bourins-khan eo tie ISflO. Pat N. G. TitowekL [la 

Xvitia— SibarU. ^<ien S (1903): 85-90. Toapfer. 

BuBsland auf dem Wego lur Vorherrai'haft in Oataaien, Nach dem BerichI dee 
FiDanzminiBlerd Witte Uber aeine Ueiee uiioh dem femcn Oaten. Ton Hauptmaon 
U. Toepfer. 





GIOGRAFHIOAL LITIRATURl OP TBI MONTH. 226 

XsMla — ftlMriA — Lak* laDcaL Zmmanual. 

Vieridjakn. O. rnterWeM 2 (1903) : 152-156. 
Ber Baikabee. Yon Haaptmann Immannel. 



Miniog Indnatiies and Forestry in Turkey. Foreign Office, Miscellaneons, No. 
589, 1903. Size 9} X 6, pp. 58. Price Sd. 

Tukey— Alia Kisor. Bekaffer. 

Peiermanni M. Erganzung$Keft Nr. 141 (1903): pp. 110. 
Cilida. Yon Dr. Frana X. Sohaffer. With Map$. 

Tizkty— Palestine. HSlieker. 

Qoellen nnd Fonchnngen zar alten Geschiohte nnd Geograpliie. Heft 5. GnstaT 
Holioher. PaUUtina io dor persiscben uod helleniitiBchen Zeit. EIdo historiBoh- 
geogiaphlBche Untersnchnog. Berlin : Weidmano, 1903. Size 10 x 6}, pp. xii. 
tnd 100. Price 3s. 

Tnk^— Syria. B.8.B.0, cTAnven 27 (1903) : 19-65. Caitian. 

£q Syrie (le long dn ohemiD des pterins de la Mecqne). Par M. Gastiau. With 
Map and lUustratiom. 

ATBIOA. 
Afiiet^HiitoxieaL Boge. 

Topographische Stndien za den Portagiesischcn EDtdecknneen an den Eiiiten 
Afrikae. L Yon Sophns Bnge. (Des xx. Bandesder Abhanalangenderphilolo- 
giieh-hifltoriechen Klasse der Konigl. S&ohslsohen Gesellscbaft der Wiasen- 
aehaften. Ko. yi.) Leipzig: B. G. Tenbner, 1903. Size 11} x 8, pp. 110. 
Price is. ed. 

Alfsria. ]Ur9ais. 

8eryice des Monnments Historiqaes de TAlg^rie. Les Monaments Arabes de 
Tlemoen. Par MM. William Mari^ais at Georges Mar9ai8. Paris : Albert Fonte- 
moing, 1903. Size 10 x G}, pp. 358. Illustrations. Price 16«. 

Congo. Mouvement O. 19 (1902): 617-020. Mees. 

Une exp^ition Portngaise au Congo en 1512. Par Dr. J. Mees. 

Coago SUte. B.S.O. Italiana 4 (1903) : 1 10-117. Ascenso. 

Nel Congo indipendente. Dal Sancnrn al Lago Moero. Lettera del doit Micbele 
Ascenso. With Uluttration, 

Coago State. Deieamps. 

New Africa. An Essay on Government Civilization in New Couotries, and on tbe 
Foundation, Organization, and Administration of tbe Congo Free State. By 
£. Descamps. Translated from tbe Frencb. London : S. Low, Marston & Co., 
1903. Size 8} X 5}, pp. xvi. and 402. Presented by the Publishers. 

Cwgo State. 

The Truth abont the Civilization in Congoland. By a Belgian. London : S. Low. 
Maraton ft Co., 1903. Size 9 x 6, pp. 180. Map. Price Is. net. Presented hy 
Dr. FeUcin. 

Merely a collection of extracts containing laudatory pronouncements on the work 
of the Congo State. 

tago State— Katanga. Wanters and Oornet. 

Mouvement Q. 19(1902): 589-594, 61:^617. 

La region mini^ dn Katanga. Par A. J. Wanters et J. Cornet. With Maps, 

Igjpt— Meteorological Obiervationi. 

A Report on the Meteorological Observations made at tbe Abbassia Observatory, 
Ctiro, during tbe year 1900, together with tbe Alexandria Mean Values derived 
from the Observations of the previous ten years, and Climatological Stations, also 
some Magnetic and Seismological Obdervations. Cairo, 1902. Size 7} X 11, 
pp. 176. Diagrams. 

l^Tptian Sudan. Sykei. 

Service and Sport on tbe Tropical Nile. Some Records of the Duties and Diversions 
of an Officer among Natives and Big Game during the rc-occupation of tbe Nilotic 
Pxofinoe. By Captain C. A. Sykes. London : J. Murray, 1903. Size 8^ x 6, 



226 



oeographical litkrattjre of thb month. 



pp. lii. and 306, Map and Illuttration: J'rice 12», net. PftienUd by the 

FuUUhari. 
Dennkn Knit Abiu. Lommsl. 

Beriehte Lnad- «. FnriiwirUchaft DtuUeh-Oita/rika I (1903) : 341-350. 

Beriuht Uber Bine Beiie im Bezirke Kilitn zur FeeWllung' dea VorkDinmeiiB iind 

inr Beobauhtung di-r LebenigowohQheitoa der TBelaefliege. Von V. I^ininiel. 
aarmas Sut AMct. Deutich. Sohnialteilung 2(H1903) : 143-145. Kmco. 

DeutBch-OstaErihsB LageritiitMQ nnlzharer Minetttlien, Voq — Maeoo. With 

Map. 
Ssmisn But AMm, Zinmvrauuin. 

BeHchle Land- n. ForttmrlKfuiJt Deatteh-OiOifrika I (1903) ; 3.il-381. 

Uebcr f'm\«B anf dea PlanUgon von Ost- uad West-UBambara gemaobte Beobocli- 

tUDgen. Von I'rof. Dr. A. Zimoiermanii. With lUatlralioni. 

Garman Eait Abioa, 

BerickU Land- u. Forilteirlidiofl DtuUcU-Orta/HIra 1 (lOOS): 205-323. 

AoBzuge aua den Beriohten der Bezirktamtfir, MUittiCBtatiDtieii and audercr 

BoriohtHBteilen iibor wirtaohaftliohe Eatwickluag im Beiiehtsjftlir vod I.April 

1901 bU31. Marz 1902. 
Kadtguear. Her. Colon. (1903) : 4:12-450, Lemoine- 

Buppoit BUI UDB loiBsinti geolaglque dani le nord de MadngUMr. Par P. 

Lemoina. 
Madagaiaar. Btv. Slitdagasear 6 {IMS) : 3DiU33<i. Lemaine. 

L'EitrEme-Nnrd de Madagascar. Par P. Lemoiue. Willi Mapi and lltiutratiom, 
Moroooo. Eeo. Qfa. Sei. 14 (1903) : T3-87, 132-147. Barnard- 

L« Produttlona naturellee, I'Agriculture, I'ludustrie et le Comtneiee an Uoroc. 

Par A. Bernard. With lUualralioai. 
Morocco. flee. Gt^. Sei. 14 (1903): 190-20S, 258-274. 314-327. DouttB. 

LcB Marocaiaa et lit Socidtf luacocaiae. Par E. DouttB, With Wugtrntioiit. 
XoToieo, Eee. Gen. Sei. 14 (ISOU : 12-28. Hailiat. 

La lieographic pb;a[qae da Maioc, Par J. Machat. WUh itapt and lUiutm- 



Badwall 
Beport for 1901. Colonial Beporta, Annual Ku. 381. 1903. 



ITfgaria. 

t^antberD Nigt 

Size 10 X fij, pp. 34. Friee ajd. 
KigetiJt. J. African S. S (1903) : 23,'-.-2il0, Dpwird. 

Tbe I'roYioce of Kabba, Xorthetn Nigeria, By .Mien Upward, 
ITigwia. Chureh Mitt. tnlelUgencerHQSO'i): 321-333. . 

BfitUli Nigeria, By F, li. With Map. 
Nile. Beotiith O. Mag. 19 (1903): 223-218. CadalL 

Tbe Development of tlie Kilo VuUey, past and futnro. By H. M. Cadell. With 

M'tp, Flaiin, and Ilbiatratioiu. 
Voith Afcioa. B.8. Langufdoc. 0. 28 (1902) : 129-158, 267-297, 396-409. Duponohel. 

La Coloaiaation fiaiifaiie dana le iioid de rAfrione et la oaltare de I'oliTier daiiB 

I'aocienue Bjzac^ne (Tuntsie contrale). Pat A. Dupondiel. 
Beugal. B.S.G. Com. Bordtaux SB (leOB): 65-72, 113-118, 145-151, 182-187. DaniiM. 

Uq voyage d'afTairea an S^ne'gHl (Aout-Septembre 189B). Par M. Daanas. 
Bonth Africa. ConUmporary Her. B3 (1903) : 540-553. ?dx, MacdoneU, and Saebobm. 

The Nalire I.abonr Quealion in Soutb Africa. By A. R, Foi, J. MaodoEell, c.n.. 

and H. E. Seebobm. 
Bonth Africa— BailwayB, Engineerittg Mag. B3 (1902) ; lS3-i94. Esy. 

Bailway DeTclopmcnl in Federated Sooth Africa, Bj A. Coo|i«r Kry, Willi 

Map anil llliiilrationl. 
Boatlt-Wait Africa. Banu. 

Eolonisl-WirtacbiiltlicheB Eomitee. Kunene— Sambeti Expedition. H. Baum, 

1903, Im Anftrng dee Kolonial-WirtBcbattlioben Komileaa herautgeKeben vod 

Prof. Dr. 0. Warburg. Berlin : E. 8. Mitller & Snlin, 1903, Slie 10 x 6|, pp. 

Xii, and 5!I4. 3fup, Flalet, and in«aliatiom. Price I8i. 




OlOORAPmCAL UTIRATUBI OP THI MOMTH. 227 

QumUoM Dipt, el OoUm, 16 (1903) : 545^572. Lorin. 

Lm payi du Tchad et I'Euope. Par H. Lorin. WUh Map. 

DeuUek. KoUmidUeUung 90 (1903): 153-155. Hdm. 

GrBDirerhaltnine und Eiienbabnprojekt in Togo. Yon Dr. E. Helm. WUh Map. 

▼ait Afriaa. Bev. Colon. (1908) : 407-431. Carean. 

Bapport snr lei traTanz de la Million fnm^aiae de d^imitation Ooogo-Gameronn. 
PtolLleDr. Onrean. 

VOSTH AWDtlCA. 

Ciaada. MonOUy Bev. 11 (1903) : 48-61. Hanbnry-Williami. 

The American Inyaiion of North- Weitem Canada. Winnipeg. By G. Hanbury- 
WiUiama. 

Omda— Biitiah Oolnmbia. Smith. 

Mem. Ameriean Mu$eum Nai. HiH. 4 (1908): 133-192. 

Pablicationa of the Jeinp North Pacific Expedition. IV. — Shell-Heapi of the 
Lower Fraier Biyer, Britiih Columbia. By H. I. Smith. With Plates. 

Ouada— HoroB. /.G. 2 (1903): 14^155. JefEerion. 

The Geography of Lake Huron at Kincardine, Ontario. By Prof. M. S. W. 
JefferMn. WM Map and Illuttrationi, 

flnada— Vova Beotia. 

Beport of the Department of Mines, Nova Scotia, for the year ending September 
90, 1902. Halifax, N.S., 1903. Size 10 x 6}, pp. 116. Plans. 

Ouada— Boekj Mouitaini. Alpine J. 21 (1903) : 363-377. Woolloy. 

Six Weeki in the Canadian Bocky ^lonntains. By Hermann Woolley. With Map 
and lUutiratiom. 

Ctnada and Alaika — ^Bonndary. 

Convention between the United Kingdom and the United States of America for 
the Adjostment of the Boundary between the Dominion of Canada and the Territory 
of Alaska. Signed at Washington, Jannar>' 24, 1903. (Treaty Series, No. 4, 1903.) 
London: Eyre A Spottiswoode, 1903. Size 10 x 0^, pp. G. Price id 

lewfonndland— Fisheries. Nineteenth Century 53 (1903) : 924-935. McOrath. 

The Bond-Hay Treaty. A new phase of the Anglo-American Dispute. By P. T. 
McGrath. 

Vaitad States — Appalaehiana 

Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a Report of the 
Secretary of Agriculture in relation to the Forests, Rivers, and Mountains of the 
Southern Appalachian Region. Washington, 1902. Size 12 x 8, pp. 2L0. Maps 
and Plates. 

Vaited BUtas— Florida. J.0. 2 (1903) : 10-21. Phillips. 

How the Mangrove Tree adds New Land to Florida. By 0. P. Phillips. With 
lOMstrations. 

Viited States— Geology. 

Department of the Interior. United States Geological Survey. Twenty-second 
Annual Beport of the Director of the United States Geological Survey to the 
Secretary of the Interior. 1900-1901. In four parts: Part i. Director's Report 
and a Paper on Asphalt and Bituminous Rock Deposits (pp. 464) ; Part ii. Ore 
I)epoaito(pp. 888); Part. lii. Coal, Oil, Cement (pp. 764); Part iv. Hydrography 
(pp. 690). Washington, 1901-1902. Size 11^x8. Maps and lUustrations. Pre- 
sented by the U.S. Oeologieal Survey. 

Vaited Stotai— Geology. 



Department of the Interior. United States Geological Survey. Twenty-third 
Annual Beport of the Director of the United States Geological Survey to tlie 
Secretary of the Interior. 1901-1902. Washington, 1902. Size 11} x 8, pp. 218. 
Ifops and Portrait. Presented hy the U.S. Oeologieal Survey. 

Vaited StateS'HiitorioaL Hnlhert. 

Historic Highways of America. Vol. i. Paths of the Mound-building Indians and 
Great Game Animals. Vol. iL Indian Thoroughfares. Vol. iii. Washington's 
Boad (Memaoolin's Path). The First Chapter of the Old French War. Vol. iv. 



aEOOftAPmCAL LmCRATaRE OF THE UOHTH. 

Braddook's Boad and Tbres Relative Fapera. Vol. r. Th« Old Glnde (Forbea's) 
Boftd (PennB?! crania State Road;. B? Arctiei Butler Halbert. OlevaUnd, Obio: 
A. H. L"larkOo.,19J2-l903. Sizs 7i x 5, pp. (vol. i.) 140; (toI. ii,) 153; (toI. iii.) 
216; {vol i».) 214 ; (vol, T.) 200. Wijii and llhiitrattoat. Priee (»oIb. i. and ii.) 
$2; (Tola, iii.-y.) $2.50. 
The leriea will be (Mimpleted in aiitesn volumea. 
United BtktM— Haw Kaxico. J.O. 2 (1903): 63-S2. Lee. 

Thu CanjoDB of Nortb-Kastem New Mexico. B; Willis T. Lee. Mnpi and 



J.a. a (1003): 9.1-101. Bnflet. 

il Becent Obaages on Ijong Inland. By Edward P 



Bmitb. 



lUaiti 
United Btfttas— ITav York. 

fiome Glacial Cooditiona a 

BnQ'et. lUiulralioat. 
United Btstet—Waabington. J. Geolotjy 11 (i90S) : 166-177. 

Antioliual MuuDtniD Ridgeg in Ccotral Wosbington. Bj G. 0. Smitli. 
United St»tai—Wjaming. J. Geology U (IWi): ■na-2'>3. Bftliibnrr and Blackweldet. 

Gliciatioa in tbe Bigborn Houutaina. B; R. D. Salisbury and E. Blaokwelder. 

GSVTBAL AND BOITIH AKSEIOA. 

Bolivia. 

Aneios a In ftlemoria del Ministro de Balacionea Eiterlores y Onlto preaeDtada >1 
Cnngreio Ordinario de 1002. La Paz, 1903. Size 11 x 7|, pp. 436, PrtttttUd 
by M. V. BaUidan. 
Includes, among other docainentB, an important report on tbe work of tbe reoent 

rummiaaioD for tbo demnrcation of tbe boundary with Brazil. 

Bolifin— Aere TerritOTy. S. OJicina !fac. La P(iiZ(1902>: 233-2*2. 

El oontiato aobre el Aori!. 

BruU. Ooeldi. 

Against the deitrnction of Wblte Tlerona and Red Ibiaea on tbo Lower Amnzon. 
eapeoially on tbe bland of Marnjci. lit Prof. Dr. Emil A. Qoeldi. Tranalaleil 
from tbe Portugneae into Engllah by W. U. Clifford. FanL (BrazU), 1902. Siio 
9* X B, pp. 20. 
VigoTOua prolesta agaioat the wanton deatrnetion of herons for tbe sake of their 

plumes, which threatens their eitorminatlun, 

Csntral Amerisa— Fauna Dual. Eaaton. 

Tijdt. K. Ned. Aard. Gcitooti. Amtterdajn SO (1903): 349-376. 
Hct Pannnia-Kanaal. Door C. Eaaton. 

Chile— Valparaiso. Tan der Btok. 

Tijdt. E. Nad. Aaril. Genoalt. Amilerdam 20 (1903): 317-3J8. 
De getijden in de haren van Valparaiso. Door Dr. J. 1'. van der Stclt. 

Saidsh Weit Indiei— Banta Orni. KiUtpangh. 

Flora of tbe Island of St, Croii. By Dr. C. F. Millapaugb. (Field Columbian 
M<iB«am, Publiontion 68, Botanical Serk-s. vol. i. So. 7.) Cbioago, 1902. Size 
10 X 6i, pp. 441-546. Afop. 

Eoaador— QeodBiy. C. HiL 136 (1903) : aGI-S71. Foincare. 

Rnpport prc'aent^ an nom de la Commiaiion oharg^e du oontrote soientiUquQ dee 
operations g^od^aii^iieB de rGc|uateur. Fai H. Poinoarf. Map. [N'otioedatp.315.] 

Falkland Itluids. SeollUb 0. Mag. 19 (1303} : 169-IS3. 

Tbe Sfolia't Voyage to tbe Falkland Islands. By the Leader and Staff of the 
Soottish National Antarctic Expedition. With Map and Iltuitralioni. 

Jamaioa. Ford and FMay. 

Tbe Handbook of Jamaioa for 1903, cumpriaing Uiaturical, Htatistical, and General 
InformatLon DoQceiuiaR the Island. Compiled from Official and other reliable 
BecordB. by Jos, C. Ford and A. A. C. Flnlay. London: E. Stanford, 1903. 
SiM 81 X 51, pp. vii., 522, and I. Map. Prion 7«. 6J, PrucHled hy the PuUither. 

Hartiaiiiiia. 0. M. 136 (1903): 871-876. lAsroiz. 

Priniupaos tisnltftta de la misuon de la Maitiniqua, Far A. Lacroix. 




GlOGBAPmCAL UTKRATUBI OP THI MOMTfl. 229 

Z. Ge$. Erdk. Berlin (1903) : 167-207. Bteffen. 

BdMDotixen aos West-Patagonien. Yon Dr. H. Steffen. 
Vfttigtmia. QuarUrly /. Oeolog, 8. 59 (1908): 160-179. Berivenor. 

Notet on the Geology of Patagonia. By J. R Sorivenor. With Map. 

TtriL — 

Perh. A sketch for oapitaUsts, tradesmen, and settlers. A report on the industries 
that can be developed and on those that might be introduced. Lima, 1903. Size 
8 X 5), pp. 60. Map$ and lUuttration$. 

Pm. Eaimondi. 

Antonio BaimondL £1 Pen!, EstudiosMineraldgi^os y Geol<5gicos (Primera Serie). 
Tomo iT. Pnblicado por la Sooiedad GeoghLfica de Lima. Lima, 1902. Size 
12 X 8, pp. xxxTiii., 516, and xi?. 

Continuation of the publication suspended after the death of the author in 1890. 

Hra. B.8.0, Lima 12 (1902) : 299-858. Eaimondi. 

Sstndio geologioo del oamino entre Lima y Morococha y alrededores de esta 
hacienda. Por A. Raimondi. With Map. 

hn. B.S.G. Lima 12 (1902) : 290-298. Eobledo. 

Yiis de comunicaoidn con el oriente del Peni. Via del Sur. Por L. M. Bobledo. 

Soath America. Eeindl. 

Die Schwarzen Fl&sse Siidamerikas. Hydrographische Studie auf geologiscb- 
oiographischer, physikaliscber und biologiscber Grundlage. Yon Dr. J. Reindl. 
(Monohener geographische Studien berausgegeben von 8. Giintber. Dreizehntes 
Stfick.) Munchen : T. Ackermann, 1903. Size 9x6, pp. 138. Map. 

loath America. Meteorolog. Z. 20 (1903) : 57-58. Woeikof. 

Die Isothermen im westlioben tropiscben Siidamerika. Von A. Woeikof. 
loAtk America — Chaoo. Kordenskiold. 

Piaoolumbische Wohn- und Begrabnisplatze an der Siidwcstgrenze too Gbaco. 
Von Erland Nordenkskiold. (Kongl. Svenska Veten8.-Akad. Handliogar, Baodet 
36, No. 7.) Stockholm: P. A. Xordstedt & Soner, 1903. Size 12 x 9J, pp. 22. 
IRtutrations. Pre$ented by the Author. 

▼enesnela— Orinoco. Jnn. i/ydro^rap^ie 31 (1903): 166-172. Eokermann. 

Orinoco Fahrten. Nacb Berichten des Kommandos s.m. Panther. K.-Kapt. 

Eckermann. 

Vest Indies— Volcanic Emptioni. /. Geology 11 (1903) : 199-215. Curtis. 

Secondarv Phenomena of the West Indian Volcanic Eruptions of 1902. By G. C. 
Cortis. With IHuttratims. 

AU8TEALABIA AKD PAGIFIG IBLAKD8. 

Avitralia. 



The Year-book of Australia for 1903. Twenty -second year of Publication. 
London, Sydney, etc. Size 9 x 5|, pp. Ix. and 824. Price lOt. Od. Presented by 
the AgerU'Oeneral for New South WaUt. 

Guoline Iilandi— Tap. Petermanns M. 49 (1903) : 49-60, 83-^7. Benfft. 

Ethnographische Beitiage iiber die Earoliueninsel Yap. Von A. Senfft. 

lew OniiLML N iermeyer. 

TijtU, K. Ned. Aard. GenooU. Amsterdam 20 (1903): 377-385. 

Nienw-Gninea op zijn smalst. Door J. F. Niermoyor. With Map. 

On the results of a recent journey, by P. E. Moolenburgh, across the neck of land 
which separates Macluer Gulf from Geelvink bay. 

lew Zealand. 

Statistics of the Colony of New Zealand for the year 1901. With Statistics of 
Local Governing Bodies for the year ended March 31, 1902. Wellington : J. 
MacKay, 1903. Size 13 x 8, pp. xvi. and 563. 

QlMBilBiid. Fngh. 

Pngh*B Queensland Almanac and Directory for 1903. Brisbane : Gordon & 
Ootoh. Size 9 X 5}, pp. si. and 932. Presented by the Under-Secretary /or 



230 GSOGRAPHICAL LITSRATUBS OP THX MOMTH. 

Qaeanilaiid. 

QaeeoBland. Blue Book for the year 1902. Brisbane, 1903. Sise 13) X 8), pp. 
xxxvi. and 214. 

Queensland. QueenOand Mining J. 4 (1903) : 105-1 18. 

The Qaeensland Miaing Indostry. Review of the year 1902. Report by the Under 
Secretary for Mines. With Plans. 

PHT8I0AL AVD BIOLOGIOAL eSOGSAFET. 

Drift-ieo. Ann. Hydrographie 81 (1903) : 204-206. Sohott. 

Die' diesj'ahrige grosse Eiatrift an der Oatkante der Nenfnndlandbank. Yon Dr. 
G. Sohott. With Diagram. 

Gaomorphology. QuarUrly J. Oeolog. 8. 59 (1903): 180*188. SoUai. 

The Figure of the Earth. By W. J. Sollas. With Diagramt. 
See note in Joumod for March, 1903 (p. 326). 

Glaeial Spoeh. Tijds. K. Ned. AarJ. OenooU. Amsterdam 20 (1903) : 386-401. Lorie. 
De voorgestelde eenheid van bet Ijstijdyak. Door Dr. J. Lori^ 

Gronnd-ioe. Verh. Ruw.-K. Mineralog. Ges. St. Petersburg 40 (1902) : 203-209. Bange. 
Einige Worte zur Boienelsfrage. Yon Dr. A. y. Bnnge. 

Meteorology. Meteorolag. Z. 20 (1903) : 218-220. Hegyfokj. 

Die t&gliche Periole der Gewitter im Flacb- nnd in Bergland. Yon J. Hegyfoky. 

Meteorology. Meteorohg. Z. 20 (1903) : 193-214. Margnlet. 

Ueber Temperatursohwankungen anf hohen Bergen. Yon Max Margules. 

Meteorology— Dostfalls. Deutsch. Rundschau O. 25 (1903) : 368-369. 

Xene Stanbfalle ans der Sahara. 

Meteorology— Winds. Monthly Weather Rev. 81 (1903): 18. Blmer. 

High winds in mountain valleys. By A. D. Elmer. 

Meteorology— Winds. B.8.0. VEst 24 (1903) : 5-11. Millet. 

Les rafales de montagnes. Par 0. Millot. 

Oceanography. Ann. G. 12 (1903): 1-12, 97-108. GaiUlery. 

Le PianktoQ, vie et circulation ooeaniqnes. Par M. Canllery. 

Oeeanography— International Bessarch. G. Tidthrift 17 (1903-1904) : 49-56. Ostenfeld. 
De internationale HaTnnder80ge]8er. Af G. H. Ostenfeld. 

Physical Geography. Snpan. 

GrundzUge der pbysischen Krdkunde. Yon Prof. Dr. A. Supan. Dritte . . . 
Auflage. Leipzig: Yeit & Co., 1903. Size 9} x 6, pp. x. and 852. Maps and 
Illustrations. Presented by the AutJior. 

Physical Geography— Bibliography. 

International Catalogue of Scientific Literature. First Ajouual Issue. J, Geo- 
graphy, Mathematical and Physical. London : Harrison & Sons, 1903. Size 
81 X 5J, pp. 268. Price I5s. 

Fhyto-geography. Naiurwissens. Wochenschrift^ N.F. 2 (1903) : 325-328. Graebnor. 

Die Yegetationsbedingungen jiiogerer nnd alterer (}eholzpflanzen in der Heide. 
Yon P. Graebner. 

Petroleum. Coste. 

Canadian Mining Institute. The Yolcanic Origin of Natural Gas and Petroleum. 
By £. Coste. Ottawa, 1903. Size 9x6, pp. 50. Presented by the Author. 

Rivjrs. Geolog. Mag. 10 (1903) : 145-148. DaTit. 

The Develop mont of River Meanders. By Prof. W. M. Davis. 

Eivers — Sudd. 

The Nile Sudd. (From the Illustrated Scientific News, Febmary, 1903, pp. 67-68.) 
Size 14J x lOJ. Illustrations. 

Includes, besides four of the illustrations of the Nile Sudd giyen in the Journal for 
September, 1902,otbers showing the growth of water-hyacinth on the rivers of Florida. 



' 



GIOQRAFHIGAL LITERATURE OP THE MONTH. 231 

B^diatnUtion. 8ei, T.B, DMin 8. 7 (Ser. ii.) (1902) : 391-402. J0I7. 

Some Sedimentation Experiments and Theoriee. By J. Joly. 

UUmOogf. A, Traven le Monde, Tour du M. 9 (1903) : 109-111. 

Yne d'ensemble dee Phenom^nei yoloaniqnes de 1902. May, 
The map fbowi the probable lines of propagation of the volcanic movements. 

loUr BadUtioa. P,RM, Edinburgh 23 (1899-1901) : 296-311. Knott. 

Solar Radiation and Earth Temperatures. Bj Prof. C. G. Knott. With Diagram. 

Tarrtftrial Kagnetism. Sehiiti. 

Die Lehre von dem Wesen nnd den Wandernngen der magnetischen Pole der 
Erde. Ein Beitrag zur Gesohichte der Geophysik. Yon Dr Ernst Harald Schiitz. 
Berlin: D. Beimer (Ernst Vohsen), 1902. Size 10 x 6}, pp. xii. and 76. Maps 
and Fac9imile. 

Tnrwtrial Magnetism. Ann. Club Aljnn. Franfaite 28 (1901) : 441-450. Mathias. 

L'Alplnisme et les e'tndes de Magn^tisme Terrestre. Par M. E. Mathias. 

Tcmstrial Fhyiiei. Riv. O. Itaiiana 10 (1903) : 143-146. PagninL 

L'ipoiesi del P. Timoteo Bertelli sulla distribuzione della density nell* interne 
delia terra. P. Pagnini. 

Ttneitrial Physios. Meteordog. Z. 20 (1903) : 49-53. Woeikof. 

FrobUme des W&rmehanshaltes des Erdballs. Von A. Woeikof. 
irmdarground Temperatnrs. T.R.S. Edinburgh 40 (1900-1901) : 157-186. Heath. 

Observations of the Edinburgh Book Thermometers. By T. Heath. With 
Diagrams. 

▼all^s. Petermanns M. 49 (1903) : 73-77. Hess. 

Der Taltrog. Von Prof. Dr. H. Hess. With Maps and Profiles. 

Tolcanods. Bttibol. 

Ueber die Genetiscbe Verschiedonheit Vulkanischer Berge. Eine Studie zur 
Wissenschaftliehen Beurtbcilang der Ansbriiobe auf den Kleinen Antillen im 
Jabre 1902. Von Alphoos Stubel. (Veroffentliohnng der Vulkanologischea 
Abtbeilang des Grassi-Muscnms za Leipzig.) Leipzig: Max Web, 1903. Size 
14 X 11, pp. viii. and 86. Illustrations, Price 12s. 

A9THR0F0OS0ORAPHT AND HIBTOSIGAL OSOOBAPHT. 

Anthropology. Xaindl. 

Die Volkskunde. Ihre Bedeutung, ihrc Ziele und ihrc Methodo. Mit Besondorer 
Berucksichtigang ihrcs Verhaltaissea zu den Historischen WissenschafteD. Ein 
Leitfaden zur Einfiihrung in die Volkaforschung von Dr. Raimund Friedrich 
Kaindl. (Die Erdkunde, xvii. Teih) Leipzig u. Wien : F. Deuticke, 1903. Size 
10 X 7, pp. xi. and 150. JUustrations. Price 5s. 

One of a series of treatises on the several branches of geography. 

Zarly Travel. Dores. 

Itin^raire de Jerome Maurand d'Antibes k Constantinople (1544). Texte Italieu 
pnblie ponr la premiere fois aveo nne Introduotion ot une Traduction par Leon 
Dorez. * (Recneil de Voyages et de Documents pour servir k Thistoire de la Geo- 
graphie depnis le xiii" si^de jusqu*a la fin du xvi'' si^cle, vol. xvii.) Paris: K. 
Leroux, 1901. Size 11 x 7i, pp. Iviii. and 378, Plates. Price aO/r. 

Historieal— British Kavy. Clowes and Others. 

The Boyal Navy. A History from the Earliest Times to the Present. By William 
Laird Clowes. Assisted by ISir Clements Markham, Captain A. T. Malian, Mr. 
H. W. Wilson, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, etc. In 7 vols. Vols. 5, 6, and 7. 
London: 8. Low, Marston & Co., 1900-1903. Size 10^ x 7 J, pp. (vol. 5, xx. and 
624); (vol. 6, xvi. and 592); (voL 7, xvi. and 628). Maps, Plates, and lllus- 
troiions^ etc. Price 25«. net per voL 

The sefenth volume oompletes the work, which includes valuable discussions by 
Sir C. Markham on the geographical work done by officers of the Rjyal Navy. 

Histsrioal— -Golnrnhns. Thachor. 

Christopher Columbus. His Life, His Work, His Remains, as revealed by original 
printed and manuscript records, together with an Essay on Peter Martyr of 



232 GEOGRAPHICAL UTERATimK OP TBI MONTH. 

Anghera and Bartolom^ de laa Gasas, the First Historians of America. By John 
Boyd Tbaober. Yolntne 1. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1903. Size li} x 8, 
pp. X. and 670. MapSy Portraits, and Faesimilet, Price 86s. net. 

This sumptaons work will be reviewed when the three volames are complete. 

Historieal^-Xaroo Polo. Tula and Cordler. 

The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels 
of the Esst. Translated and edited, with Notes, by Colonel Sir Henry Yule. 
Third Edition, revised throughout in the light of recent di^coTcries by Henri 
Cordier (of Paris). With a Memoir of Henry Yule by his daughter, Amy Frances 
Yule. In two volumes. London : J. Murray, 1908. Sise 9} X 6, pp. (vol. i) 
cii., 144, and 462, (vol. ii.) xzii. and 662. Mapt and Illuttratione. Price £3 S$, 
net. Presented by Oie Publisher, 

BIOOSAPHT. 

Grant. Smith. 

Physician and Friend. Alexander Grant, f.b.c.s. His Autobiography and his 
Letters from the Marquis of Dalbousie. Edited by George Smith. London: 
John Murray, 1902. Size 9 X 5}, pp. 218. Portrait. Price 10s. 6(/. net Presented 
hy ihe Author. 

HngL Krehbiel. 

Franz Joseph Hugi in seiner Bedeutung fiir die Erforschung der Gletsoher. Von 
Albert Krehbiel. (Miincbener geographische Studien herausgegeben von S. 
Giinther, Zwolftes Stuck.) Miinchen: T. Aokermann, 1902. Size 9^x6, pp. 
92. Maps. 

See note in Monthly Record {antey p. 219). 

Badde. Alpine J. 21 (1903) : 414-416. Deohj. 

Dr. Gustav Badde. By M. de De'chy. 

Biohthofon. Naturw. Wochenschrifl 2 (1903) : 361-370. Lampe. 

Ferdinand Freiherr von Ricbthofen. Yon Dr. F. Lampe. 

Wild. Deutseh. Bundschau G. 26 (1903) ; 875-376. 

Heinrich v. Wild. With Portrait. 

GENSBAL. 

Bibliography. Basehin. 

Bibliotheca Geographica herausgegeben von der Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde zu 
Berlin, bearbeitet von Otto Basehin. Band viii. Jahrgang 1899. Berlin : 
W. H. Kiihl, 1902. Size OJ x 6, pp. xvi. and 512. 

British Empire. Wall. 

The British Empire Year Book, 1903. An Annual Statistical Volume of Reference, 
compiled with the assistance of H.M. Imperial and Olonial Governments, by 
Edgar G. Wall First Year of Publication. London, etc. : E. Stanford. Size 
10 X 6, t>p. viii. and 1280. Map. Price 2\8. net. Presented hy the PuUisherjB, 

Encyclopaedia. Meyer. 

Meyers Grosses Eon versations-Lex ikon. £lu Nachschlagewerk des allgemeinen 
Wissens. Sechste. ganzliche neubearbeitete, und vermehrte Anflag^. Dritter 
Band. Bismarck- Arcbipel bis Chemnitz. Leipzig u. Wieu : Bibliographisches 
Institut, 1903. Size 10 x 6}, pp. 924. MapSy Plates, and Illustrations. Price lOs. 

Exploration. Berdrow. 

Prochaskas Illustrierte Jahrbiicher. Illustriertes Jahrbuch der Weltreisen und 
geographischen Forschungen. Von Wilh. Berdrow. II. Jahrgang 1903. Leipzig 
u. Wieu: K. Prochaska. Size 11^ x 8, columns 286. Price la. 6^. Illustrations, 

Oeographical names. Kagl 

Geographische Namenkunde. Methodische Anwenduog der Namenkundlichen 
Grundsatze auf das Allgemciner Zugangliche Topograph ische Namenmaterial. 
Von J. W. Nagl. (Die Erdkunde, xviii. Teil.) Leipzig u. Wien : F. Deuticke, 
1903. Size 10 x 7, pp. vii. and 136. Illustrations. Price 5«. 

One of a useful series of monographs dealing with the aims and methods of the 
various branches of geographical science. 



( 233 ) 



NEW MAPS. 

By S. ▲. BUYXB, Map CwreUor, B.O.S. 

IVBOn. 

la^iBi and ▼•!•■. OrdnanM Burrtj. 

OmiAVGi SuBTiT or EaaLAND avd Walk : — ^Reriaed iheeti pnbliibed by the 

Direetor-Genezml of the Oidnanoe SvYey, Bootbampton, from June 1 to 30, 

1908. 

4 milti to 1 iiMh : — 

Hill-ihaded map, printed in oolonn, in aheeti, 20, 24. U. Qd. each, 

5 milaf to 1 ineh :— 

Printed in colours, 89, U. ; folded in ooTers or flat in sheets. 

liaeh: — 
Printed in oolonrs, 84, 80, 87, 101, 150. 1«. each. 

•-InA—Oonnty Maps :^ 
OuDbridgsahire, 7 k.e., 17 n.w., 18 8.W., 23 n.w., 31 s.w., 34 n.e., s-w., 36 n.w., 30 

Sr.W., N.E., 8.W., 8.S., 4ll N.W., N.E.^ 41 8.B., 40 N.W., N.l«, 6.W., S.E., 4o N.W., N.E., S.W., 

ai., 51 N.E., 53 N.W., 8.W., 55 n.w., 57 n.w. Dorset, 21 n.w., 8.w., 8.e., 30 n.w., s.w., 
B.E., 38 8.W., 46 N.E., 47 N.E., 60 (n.w. aad n.e.). Oloueestershire, 8 n.w., 1 1 8.w., 
22 aw., 27 n.b., 36 n.e., 38 n.w., s.w., 42 n.e., 44 n.w., n.e., b.w., 8.e.,4() s.e., 52 n.w., 
V.E., 8.E., .54 8.E., 58 8.W., 59 N.E., 61 N.W., 6() N.w. Kontgomoryihiro, 37 n.w., n.e., 
42 SE., 47 N.E., 51 N.W., N.E. Badnorshire, 7 n.w., n.e. Shropshire, 34 s.e., 85 8.E., 
40 aw., 41 K.B., 43 n.w., 44 n.e., 49 N.w., 50 aE., 51 n.e., 53 n.e., 59 n.w. Somerset, 
91 N.w. Soffolk. 31 n.w. Warwiekihlre (Bet.), 53 n.w. Wiltshire, 2 s.e., 3 s.w., 
4 N.E., 8 N.w. Worcestershire, 15 n.e., 54 aw. U. each. 

M-iaeh — Connty Maps : — 
Oaabxidgeshire, XLYIL 10; XLIX. 5; LVI. 10, 14; LYII. 15; LVIII. 3, 14; 
liXL 6, 14 ; LXU. 7. Dorset, XIX. 12 ; XX. 3, 6, 7, 16 ; XXIX. 6, 7 : XXXVI. 
8. eioaeestershire, XVI. 12; XVIII. 16; XXIV. 2, 3. 5, 15, 16; XXVI. 4, 7, 8, 
10, 11, 14; XXXI. 13; XXXVII. 15: XXXIX. 11, 12, 15, 16; XL. 5; XLV. G, 
10; XLVIL 2, .3, 4, 5, 7, 13. 14; XLVIII. 1 ; LXIV. I, 5; LXV. 5, 13; LXVIII. 
1. 2, 3, .-), 6, 10, 14; LXIX. 6; LXX. 1, 9; LXXII. 3, 4, 7; LXXIII. 3, 11 ; 
LXXVII. 3. Leicestershire, XI. 7, 9; XII. r» ; XVI. 9, 14, 15; XVII. 2, 3, 7 ; 
XXII. 4; XXIII. 1,2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11. 13, 16; XXIV. 1, 5. 7. 9, 13, 15; XXVIII. 
3, 7, 11, 14, 16; XXIX. 5, 6, 12, 16 ; XXX. 3, 5, 6 ; XXXIV. 7, 12 ; XXXV. 1, 2,4, 
3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12 ; XXXVI. 1, 6, 'J ; XLIII. 2. Badnorshire, X. 4 ; XV. 4. Shrop- 
ahire, LXIX. 10; LXX. 14, 15; LXXIL 11; LXXIU. 4, 7, 10, 11,13; LXXV. 
4; LXXVIII. 3. Someriet. XL 2, 6, 10; XIL 3, 7, 15, 16: XJIL 10: XVI. 3; 
XVII. 8; XVIU. 11, 13; XXI. 3, 16: LXXIIL 1, 10: LXXIV. 7. 8. LXXX. 4, 
7,8; LXXXL 11, 14, 15; LXXXVIIL 3, 4, 7 ; XC. 5; XCJil. 12; XCIIf. :{, 6,7. 
•taffpidBhire, LXl. 8, 12 ; LXVI. 7, 15 ; LX VIL 15 ; LXXI. 1, 3, 5, 6, 7. 9. 10, 1 1 . 
Warwiekshire, IIL 3, 7, 11, 14; IV. 12; VI. 7; IX. 5; X. 12. Worcestershire 
aii41>o.(Det.Ho.l)L 15; IV. 3, 5,7, 9, 10, 11, 14; IX. 2, 3,4; XIILU; XIV. 1. 
TtricAire, GGLXXXIIL 5, 15. 3s. eooA. 

(£ Bianjofd^ London Agent) 
lsi||aad and Wales. Geological Saxvey. 

ICemoibs: — 

Cbeadle Coal Field, Geology of the. 2«. 

Beading, Geology of Country around (explanation of sheet 268). 1«. 6d. 

fioath Wales G<ml Field. Part 4, The Geology of the Country around Pontypridd 

end Maes T6g, being an account of the region oomprised in sheot 248 of the 

mp. Is. 6<i. 

Isle of Man, Economic Geology of the, with special roferonce to the Metalliferoud 

Mises. (Reprinted from tho Memoir on the CJeology of the Isle of Man, 1903.) 

U6d. 

(£ ^but/brd, London Agent) 

ASIA. 

Anl Baa. Fetermanns Oeographiiche Mitteilungen. 

Tiefenkarte des Aral-Sco8. Nach dom russischen Original reduziert. Scale, 

No. IL — August, 1903.] r 



234 



KEW HAPS. 



1 :2,l)00.000 or Ijl-S stat. miloB U> nn incli, Petirmtmn 

Julifgaag 1903. Tafel 12. Uothk : Jotttu Perthei. Prttenle^bg tht PubUiktr. 
Otntntl All*. BngltMt. 

Carta del Tien Scian CentnJe coo rilineraria dells anedixlone del Principe Scipione 

Borgheae (Cutgno-Scltenibre, 1!H>0) Keooodo le Notu a i Rtlievi del Prof. G. 

BiDoherel. Scole I : 60n,000 or 9* bUI. miles t^' aa inch. Pfweatod bjf Prinet 

BeipUma Borgheie. 

ThiimBp thovB thoroaleof theexpeditioaorPrinooS. B<.>rgbe«<' in the 'J'ian Hhan 
rrgion iponjedistelji lo flie east and aonth-enst nf rseitt Kul, from June to September, 
1000. It 19 biiBCfi open the notaa and surToys of Prof. li. Bnwherel, who aooompanied 
the primv, and adds I'onaid'.Tahly to our knowledge of this hitherto very imperfectlT 
explored mouDtainouB dietriol. In addition tn the mapping. I'r'ir. Bnuhirel took 
Aa important BerveB of pliotographB of the region, aome of whioii are now in the 
Sooicty'e oolleotion. 

AJEICi.. 



S« BepiniM and da Tlotta Eoqatraira. 

u Haiqui* de Sogousao. Dresses bfco la collHbi}ratioa 
" ' ' —-""'■" - " -■-■ "liieg to an inch. 



N 



XoroMO. 

Itin^rairel an MariK! 

de It. de Flotte Koquovftire. ' Swle 1 

11 «ho«B. Paris ; Heury Barrere, 1903. Priee 15/r. 
The routeB followed hy tlie HarquiB de Segonzac'a rxpedition in Munn'Cii extend 
from Tangier and Melilla on the Moditerriitiean coast an far Bonth aa Ari Aiach in 
about lat, 30° 3U'N., and from Itlogndor and I'iiiait on the west ooast lo Marrakeah. 
'rhe«o Mate* nro laid down upon eisbt abeeta, in oolonrH, on the 1 : 250,000 aoale, in 
ndditioD to wbii^b a eoaaidoniblc utnonat of detailed lofi'rmation oonoeniing the 
oouDtr? traveraeil ia given. The ronte Burireys hnve been plottod and adjusted with 
the Buiiitauoo of Mont. R. Ae Flotle Roquevaire, tiit^ well-known authority on tbe carto- 
graphy of MopHvo, wbose general niiip of Ihie country ie, perbaps, in many reapeotc 
the beat In cxistenoe at the preseat rime. In addition to tbe eighl ebeeta abowing tha 
route, there are tbrae othem of seetionB, and inset plana of Taradaot and Tizoit on 
tbe aoale of 1 : 20,000. It ia to be ret,-retted thai there is no information on the map 
oonoerning the uliaraeter of the mrveja upon whioh it is bauod. or how tbe positiuna 
of places hare been flied. 

AHZBICA.. 

Argaatine Sapablie. Smith. 

An KooDomic Hap of the Argentine Bepnblic. Compiled bv J Busaell Smith r>r 

\he BalUti" of the Ataeriean Umgraphieal Sveielu. No. 2, 1B03. r-calc 1 : g.B0<),0OI) 

ft I38*S Stat, milea to nn inch. Freaentei by J. BumU 6milh. Etq 

The small acate of this map, and ita stylo I'f production, hardlv do jusliee lo tlia 

moat uaeful information il rontaina. From an invpection of tbe table of reference in 

a comer of the map, it will be seen Uiat an attempt has been made lo show, ftmongal 

oth<^r thinga. fnroat land, limits of vine nnd augar cultiratioD. moat freezing and eztraot 

ettubliahmenta, rainruH. limits of wbeat-growing territory, political bnnodanee, rBilwkyai 

and much Ijcaidea tliat is very intercaling and important from tbe pniot of tIgw of 

commercial geography ; but as a map it i a somewhat ot a failare, owini^lo the fact tint 

it lias been attempted to show nil this inforniiition ia symbols iu blai'k instead of by 

diHereot ci>li.'ura, and tiiat the acalc adopted is much too small for the purpose. 

Cankda. SuTeyor-Qanatal of Canada. 

Sectional &fap of Canada. Soalo 1 : 190,080 or 3 stat milea to an inch. Tbnnder 

Hill Sheet (29), West of Prinoipal Heridian. Bevised to April 21. 1903. Priaoe 

Albert Sheet (4G}. West of Second Heridian. Revised to November 24. 1902. 

Btitb Lake Sheet (51), West of Third Meridian. Beriaed to April 28, 1903. 

Bruean Sheet (B6), Weal of Fifth Meridian. BeviBcd to April 16, 1903. Bainy 

HilliSheet{G7),Weat of Fourth Meridian. R,:TiBedtoMan^h:W, 1903. Surveyor- 

fleneral's Office, Ottawa, 1908, Pretmled by the SorveyOT-General of Canada. 

FwB. Salurt*. 

Mnp of Peru. Publiahed under tlic anthoritF of Don Eugenia Larrabnre t Uninne, 

Minister of Foreign Aflairs, l.imi. 1003. Seal" 1 : 3.000.000 or 17*3 stal. miiea to 

an inch. B. E. Balnnrlc. Ixindon: G. Pbilip £ Son. J'r«Mi>t«f by Eduatd 

Higgiitwn, Etq., Contvt of Pfru, Southampton. 

An iatroduclory note atates that Ihia aheet hsB been Bjiecialiy produced lo make 

known, in n succinct manner, the indncemenCa which Fern oHers fur capital. 

Immigration, and oilonliation. The map shows railways, roads, telegraphs, limit 




NtW MAPS. 235 

of nafSgability of riven, rapids, foresti, oto. Upon the back of the sheet is printed 
onfiil general information concerning the country and its products. 

Valtoi Btatei. Band, MeVaUy * Go. 

Indexed Oonniy and Township Pocket Maps. North Carolina. Scale 1 : 887,040 
or 14 Stat miles to an inch. North Dakota. Scale 1 : 1,830,560 or 21 stat. miles 
to aa inch. Ohio. Scale 1 : 823,680 or 13 stat miles to an inch. Chicago and 
New York : Band, McNally ft Co., 1903. Price $0.25 each. Pre$enied hy the 
PubUikeri. 

These are new editions. 

POLAX SSeiOVB. 
gfiMlmd SngelL 

Karte von Jakobshayns-Eisfjord nnd die Gletscher-Ter&ndemngen. Teilweise 
naeh Rink nnd Hammer entworfen. Yon M. C. >Ingell. Scale 1 : 200,000 or 3*1 
9tat. miles to an inch. PeUrmanru Oeographiiche MiiUUwiigtn^ Jahrang 1903, 
Tkfel 11. Gotha : Jnstns Perthes. Preetnted by the PMUher. 

eZNSEAL. 
World. Kaokenzio. 

PhTsical Belief Map of the World on Bf creator's Projection, embracing the Phyaical 
ana Political Feat 'ires. Reproduced from actual models by an entirely new process 
by K. A. Mackenzie. Two sheets. Ix)n<lon : Effingham Wilson. Pricty in theeta, 
£1 U. Pretenttd hy Ike PtMiiher. 

This is another attempt to show mountain systems and general relief by photo- 
grmphic reproductions of models, and the result is far from successful, the mtip being 
in many respects quite misleading. For instance, the Ural mountains and eompara- 
tiTely insignificant ranges in the northern part of Asia are shown as of equal elevation 
mmI importance with the Himalayas, while the great plateau of Tibet and other leading 
features are not at all clearly brought out. Then, again, in Africa some of the greatest 
land elevations are shown in compuratiyely lowlying countries, such as Kgypt and 
the valley of the Nile, whilst lofty peaks, such as Kenia and Kilimanjaro, appear 
moat insignificant 

OHABTS. 

North Atlantic Oeean and Mediterranean Sea. Meteorological Office. 

Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic and Mediterraneau for July, 190:{. London : 
Meteorological Office. Price 6d. Preeented by the Meteorological OffieCj London. 

Vaited States Chart. United States Hydrographic Office. 

Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean for June, and of the North Pacific for 
July, 1903. U.S. Hydrographic Office, Washington, D.(\ Presented by the U.S. 
Hydrographic Office. 

FHOTOeSAPHS. 

Anbia. Hnsain. 

Twenty-four Photographs of Arabia, taken by Vice-Consul Dr. 8. M. Hnsain. 
Pretenied by P. Decey, Esq, 

Mr. G. P. Devey has on several occasions presented photographs to our collection, and 
these which have lately been received from him, as the titles show, are especially 
interesting. They are small Kodaks, but most of them are fairly clear. 

O) Egyptian Mahmal (holy carpet) passing through Jeddah ; (2) A well on the 
Jeddah-Mecca road, called '* Ummulgumn," near Hi^dah; (3) Conunodore Mustaf 
Hilmi Bey waiting on the road while his sliugduf is being readjusted on the camel ; 
(4) Entrance to Mina, a place 6 miles from Mecca ; (5) A street in Mecca ; (6) People 
■toning the big devil at Mina; (7) The Yali stoning the second devil; (8) Graud 
Sharif stoning the second devil; (9) Crowd of pilgrims stoning the second devil; (10 
and 11) Grand Sharifs elephant collecting his toll from the fruit and sweetmeat 
vendors ; (12) Grand Sharif going to see the Pasha of the Syrian Mahmal; (IS) Guard 
of honour in front of the reception tent of the Grand Sharif at Mina; (14) The Yali 

going to the Grand Sharifs reception; (15) H.H. the Sultan of Zanzibar and his 
lother-in-law going to the Grand Sharifs reception: (10) Zuhir-uMslam, son-in-law 
of the late Shah of Persia, going to the Grand Shariifs reception ; (17) Pasha of the 
Egyptian Mahmal going to the Grand Sharifs reception ; (18) An evening party at 
Mina ; (19) An Arab breakfast at Mina ; (20) General view of Mina ; (21) Arafat camp ; 



PrntnUd by 



288 

(12) Mnaot Arafal. □□ 
at Amfat enjojing loc 
Argentiiie Bapabllo. 

Ad albnm ortwPDly-aix photdgrapbio reprodnotioiiB of Bac 
J. H. Fllz-Shaoiu. Etq. 
An album □( tweaty-six photograpbic reprixl action ■ of public bujldiiigi anil pUoei 
or iQtereat in Rueoos Alrea. Tbe follawing aru the titloa :— 

(1) Spltndid Hotel; (1 and 21) Plau de Mayo; (5) Tbo oathedml; (6) Edilorikl' 
offioei of tbo La Prenia : (7) Coramercial ezcliangi; ; (8) 1'abelloa Argeatiao ; (9) The 
mcepounie; (10) Grand atnnd on Ilia rflcaoouraa: (ll)l.'orn Kioliange; (12) LeiatiH; 
p»rh ; (13) The West Railway ttation ; (U) Aauag CorrieuteB bank ; (15) PUwi fifpafia : 
(IS) Vortb dookar (I7l SouCb dooks; (18) I'allo Callao : (19 and 2U) The new 
Blaugbter-lmiiBo ; (22) Kulraiice tu the nortb bnrboar; (2.1) Calle OUTarria ; (24) 
Avenidii Alvear : (25) SarmienCo college ; (2G) Headqaartera of tbe police. 
lofotan Island*— Ganoiiu—OaDftdlan Bookit*. WMlley. 

Sereritona photflgrapha of (lie Lofoten ialande, CaucttBua, and the r.'unadian llockiei-. 
taken by H. Woolley. Esq. Pretitnled by U, WoollBy. Ktq. 
Mr. Hermann Woolley u well known as a, mountaineer and phiitognipber i>f mora 
than ordinary abilily. iin'd liU I'xuellent tIhwi of tbs Ui^'ii peaks of tlie Caiiriuiu >ind 
Ctinadian Hooky mountains, cts., ha va l>i>cii deeervudly'adoiirod by all who have aurn 
tbem. They ate enlar^i-d from n'markably good plates, and mennuro 17} K 14 innbfs. 
'I'hOK' which have now been prdsnted to tli>' Hociety are moat iiiatrui^live finui a 
phyaical geography point <if view. 

Lo/oU" Iitandt- (1) 8oatb end of the ItaftBuud from Di^-ermulen : (S) South ■■a'\ 
of tiie ItatUuud witli S tor Molls and Lille Motla; (3) Svartauadtind atid tiic HaftaunJ 
from Digormnlen. 

r'-a>i'MMU.— (I) Ailama: (2) Koahliiu Ti.ii and Ulluaui-Baabi : (3) Sontli fac" of 
Shkara: (4) South faw of Jauga and Kaldi- (;laoior; (.')) Fjtnargyu and tiic- Ailama 
fllaoier.' (6) Frrihadirs Laloga : (7| Mountaina at the head of th<^ Sbilcildi glacier: 
(8)U«bbafrom themitlb; (!i) Uahba from tbe BOUtb-ea«t ; (10) Koabtan Tau. 

Canadian JCdoUm.— (1) Mount Farb(«i (2) ILoTigabt'e rmui Deaotatioii Talley. 
Monnt Temple ^roup: (3) Honnl Atbabaaoa ; (4) Moraine lake, Mount Temple t'l^^up. 
Kezioo. Eokeniteia. 

jVlbam Dootaining tnenty-fonr pbotographa of ^loiir'on mountaing, lakeu by 'i. 
EckBOateiu, K»q. FreieiUed l^ 0. Echculcin, Efq. 

I'reviouB to his recent travels in the Himalayas, ^Ir, Ei-kvaateio viaite'l Mexico and 
took tbifl excellent little eerioa of photographs of mountain scenery, wliiob be iiolj 
arranged fn an album and preai'uted to the Society ; — 

(1) Camp on went slopes of Iilaccihnatl ; (2) Ine-cavu at a height of alont ll,2<KI 
feet, oil west atopeanf IxtaccihuatI; (3) Calu'Ka,the north aummit of Iiiaceilmatl : (4) 
Paaa between Cabcza and I'anza ; (■>) I'aiiza, the main summit of IxCBaDihuatl, beigUI 
17,843 feat; (G and 7)1&- aummit of I'ania; (8) Moraine and lower end of Porfirio 
Diaz ghieier, south aide of I'huwl; (9) i'upa<;atapatl, height 1T,S87 fent: (111) I'gpo- 
oataputl. from foot of towers; (11) Novudo de I'olima. loicer summit ; (12) Nevado da^ 
(.'ollma; (13) Voloan de roliiu;i. about 12,911(1 feet high: (14 20) Kruption of Volotn 
de Oolimu ; (21) Xinaminit!. th- ailiiiot cratur of Tniui^a ; (22) (.'ratiT wall and highi-«t 
aummit. XiuanticaU; (23) Cmlor wall between Eapiuoxo uod Fniile, Xinanticall;! 
(24) i-'rater wall and second sammit, Fniile, Xlnanticatl 
TlbflUtL " Oniioa." 

Photograph of 9 ooll>^p|!on of Tibetan "curios," especially of vi . ._ . 

clo.. used by tbc lomoa in their monasteries, taken by Geoffrey Uillais, lOsq. 
ereienled by Gaplain E. U JUaurier. 

If3.— It would greatly add to the value of the oolleotlon of Phot» 
graphs whlcti has been eatabliBhed In the Map Boom, If all the Fallow! 
of the Society who have taken photographs during their travels, would 
forward oopiea of them to the Uap Curator, by whom they will be 
acknowledged. Should the donor have purchaaed the photographa. It 
will be uaeful fbr reftoenoe If the name or tbe photographer and hla 



MUlait,! 




i*rf»a 



NSAPOLXTAN COAST LINK. 

qOnther. 



N r - 



Geographical Journal. 



to. 3. SEPTEMBER, 1903. Vol. XXII. 



BATHTHETRICAL SURVEY OF THE FRESH-WATER LOCHS 

OF SCOTLAND.* 

Under the Direction of Sir JOHN MURRAY, K.O.B., and 
LAURENCE PULLAR, F.R.S.E. 

Introductory. 

DtJRiNO the years 1883 and 1884, the Hoyal Societies of London and 
Edinbnrgh urged Her Majesty's Goyemment to undertake a bathymetri- 
oal survey of the principal Scottish fresh-water lochs. The Government, 
liowever, declined to undertake such a survey, because this work did 
fiot fall within the scope-of the Ordnance Survey nor of the Hydro- 
graphic Department of the Admiral ty.f In the years 1897 and 1898, 
Sir John Murray and the late Mr. Fred. Fullar, f.r.s.e., commenced to 
sound systematically some of the more important of the Scottish lochs, 
on the lines indicated in the letter addressed to Her Majesty's Govern- 
ment by the Koyal Society of London in the year 1884. The results 
of these observations were published in the years 1900 and 1901, in two 
papers dealing with the lochs of the Forth basin and two of the loohs 
of the Tay baoin.]; Arrangements had been completed for carrying on 
this survey during the summer of 190 1 , but the whole work was brought 
to a standstill by an unfortunate ice-accident in Airthrey loch, near 
Bridge of Allan, on February 15, 1901, in which Mr. Fred. Pullar lost 
his life while gallantly endeavouring to save others.§ 

♦ Maps, p. 356. 

t This correspondence is publislied in the Geographical Journal (see vol. xv. p. 309, 
1900) and in the Scottish OeographicaJ Magnzine {see vol. xvi. p. 19B, 1900). 

J **A Bathyroetrical Survey of the Fresh-water Lochs of Scotland." Part i. 
Oeogr. Jour., vol. xv. p. 309, Scott. Geogr. Mag., vol. xvi. p. 193, 1900; Part ii. Geogr. 
Jour., vol. xvil. p. 21^, Scott. Giogr. Mag., vol. xvii. p. 113, 1901 ; Part iii. No. I, Geogr, 
Jour,, vol. xvii. p. 289, Scott. Geogr. Mag., vol. xvii. p. 169, 1901. 

f See Oeographieal Journal, vol. xvii. p. 313 ; Scottish Geographical Magazine, vol. 
xviL p. 148, 1901. 

No. IlL— September, 1903.1 s 



238 BATSYMETRICAT, SdRVEV OF THE FRESH-WATER LOCHS OF SCO! 



irramaphal^n:) 





ATHTMSTRICAL SURVEr OF THE FRESH-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLAND. 239 

The tragic death of this rising young geographer produced a pro- 
md sensation in the community in which he lived and amongst his 
meroos scientific and other friends. Various local memorials have 
BD established to his memory.* 

Some time after the death of his son, Mr. Laurence PuUar approached 
r John Murray with regard to the feasibility of oontinuing and com- 
3ting the work so unfortunately interrupted ; he expressed his willing- 
eg to fill his son's place as far as possible, and, at all events, to set 
ido a sum of money sufficient to pay for such assistance as Sir John 
^ght desire in carrying on the work and publishing the results. He 
M even in favour of the scope of the work being extended so as to 
elude all the inland waters of the United Kingdom, and to embrace 
ijsical and biological observations in addition to the routine sounding 
Drk. Mr. Pullar wished to be assured on two points : first, that there 
as no likelihood of any Government Department carrying out such a 
irvey; and, second^ that the work was considered, by competent 
ithorities, important and desirable from a scientific point of view. In 
lese circumstances the question of the renewal of the survey was 
ibmitted to the Councils of the Boyal Societies of London and Edin- 
irgh. Both Councils passed resolutions stating that they learnt with 
reat satisfaction that arrangements were under consideration for the 
>mpletion of the survey commonced by Sir John Murray and the late 
f. F. P. Pullar, and confirmed their opiuion as to its great scientiBc 
iportance. A similar resolution was also passed at the British Associa- 
>u meeting at Glasgow in 1901.t 



* A volume of prosa and other public and private references to hia death was 
nted for private circulation, and memorial prizes were given at Stirling High School 
1 in connection with the Marine Biological Association of the West of Scotland, etc. 

t 0>PY OF Rks()luti(»n passed by the Codncil op tue Rotal Society of 

London, June, 1901. 

IHr. Teall Informed the Council that a number of Fellows and others interested in 
» snbject had heard a statement by Sir John Murray with reference to a bathymetri- 
'<» physical, and biological survey of the fresh- water lakes of Great Britain and 
'land. It appeared that the Council had urged the importance of a bathymetrical 
f"vey of the principal fresh-water lakes of the country in a letter to Her Majesty's 
^vemment, dated May 2, 1S84, and that a survey on the lines therein indicated bad 
&n commenced, tfo fur as Scotland was concerned, by Sir John Murray and Mr. F. P. 
^Uar, but had been ud fortunately interrupted by the accidental death of the latter 
't^tleman. Mr. liaurenco Pullar (the father of Mr. F. P. Pullar) bad now intimated 

8ir John Murray that he was willing, on certain conditions, to set aside a sum of 
^ney to enable this survey to bo completed, and to be extended to all inland bodies 

water. The conditions were as follows : — 

(1) That there was little likelihood of this survey being undertaken by any of the 
government Departments. 

(2) That Sir John Murray would himself undertake the general superintendence 
f the survey and the publication of the results. 

(3) That, in the opinion of the Council of the Royal Society, it was important from 

s 2 



240 BATHYMETRICAL SHRVET OP THE FRESH-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTIASD. 

Although His Majesty's GoTemment could not see its way to under- 
take a bathy metrical survey of the Soottisb fresh-water lochs, stil-^ 
several Public Departmeiits have tabea a deep interest in the work ai 



t soientlSo point oF vlen, in additloo to the bath; metrical tatyej recommended SSi 
tlielF letter of Mnj 2, 18S4, to undertake at tbo name time nn inveBtigatioij into t1*^E=ie 
Iihyaical and biological coDditions of tbe rreah-wnter lakea. 

As soon KH (lie Council had declared Ibeir opinion, ^ir Joho Mnrra; was pr^ — >' 
pored lo draw up an approximuto estimnle of the cost of (be vork for Mr. Polb: -— '' 
conBiderHtion. 

It was reeolTBd- That tbo t^unoil oonflrm tlio opinion expreseed in their letter w— t* 
Her Majeity's Treuury of Maj '2. 1894, aa to tlie great Bciontilto importance cf • 

bathjmetrioal survey of tlie fresh-water lukea of tbe United Kingdom, and that tb^^^^ 
huvB learnt with great aatUfactlon that arrangemonta are under oonsideralioii for tt^^Mw 
completion of tbe iiurvey commenced by Sir John Murray and Mr. Pullar, and are ^ "' 
opinion tliat the soientifle value of the gnrrej will be groatly Jncieaaed if it oiubrac^^^" 
a study of tbe biological and phjeioal oonditioiiB of tbe lakes. 



I Minute o 



Megtino o 



Ektract r 



The Cnunoil beard a itatcment from Sir John Murray with rcfereace to t^- 
bathynetricBl survey oC thu freah-water locbs of Scotland to the efTeot that Mr^* 
Laurence Pullar wne willing, ou certtiiD irondilions, to set aside a sum of money t — ^ 
enable tbe survey to bo oomploted nliioh had been Gommeiiced by Sir John aoi^'' 
Mr. PuUsr'a sou, Mr. F. P. 1'ultar, but vhicb had been interrupted by the Diiforianat^^' 
death of tbe latter gentleman by accident. 

Mr. Pullar wag prepared to do this provided Sir John would liimself undertake th^^ 
general soperinteadence of tbe survey and the publioatLon of tbe results; provided^ " 
alao, that tbo Oonncil rtill regarded snub a survey as important from a sclentiflo poiu' - 
of view, and that it bad been, and was likely iu future to be, sflttsfactorily carried onV 
on the lines suggested by (lje Council in the year ISSl. 

Sir John bad been requested to prepare an approximate estimate of the oost oV" 
completing tlie survey for Mr. Pullar'a consid oration, and be now asked the Council foc^ 
BUggestioDH us to any eoientiHc obserrations that might with advantage be usdertaker^c 
in oonnection with tbe Burvcy. There was muoli diseiiision with regard lo researcbe^^ 
which might be carrieil cut in fresh-water lochs, and iiir John was naked i 
Mr. Pullnr that the Council learned with nucli eatisfaotion that airangemeutt n 
in coutemplation for carrying to a snecessrul completiou the admirable survey wli 
bad been ooramenced by Sir John and Mr. I'nllar's son, Mr. F. P. I'nllar, who me 
member of tbe Society, and whose death (bey all deplored. 

At the meeting of the British Aasooiation in Glasgow in September, 1901,1 
President of tbe Geographical Section (Dr. H. B. Mill) was enabled to i 
definite arrnngemenls bad been made to carry on the work : b confvronce of 1 
Geographical. Geological, and Zoological Sections was held on September 16, 1901, 
for the purpose of considering tbe Boliemc of the survey ; (be diicnstnon was taken 
port in by Dr. Mill, I'rof. Ilonney. Dr. Joha Home. Mr. Isaac Thompson, Colonel 
JobnsloD, Mr- Ben. N, Peach, Mr. It. M. Clark. Prof. Watts, Mr. Barrow, Mr, Cunninj- 
ban Craig, Mr, Dickson. Di. Pullarton. Mr. W. S. Bruce, Mr. Greenly, and tbv Bev. 
Prank Knight, and many valuable BUgguetlons were thrown on( as to tlie scope of 
the work. At tbe conclusion of the discussion. Dr. Home formally moved, on behalf 
of tba meeting, the great gratification they all felt that this inrcetigatioo should 
be oarried out by means of the munidoenee of Mr. Pnllar, and under tbe adminiatni- 
tion of Sir John Murray : the ttiolution was eooonded by Mr. Peach, and u 
adopted. 



IHTMKTRICAL SURVfir OF THE FEESH-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLAND. 241 

1*V6 gWea impartaut assistance. A letter was received from Colooel 
DttBCBH A. Johnston, K.E., Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 
''cktiugthat the Board of AgriouUnrohad sauolioned the issue to the staff 
of the survey of two copies of tho fi-inch and one copy of the 1-inch maps 
"f the districts in which lakes were situated, one copy of the former to 
"^ retnmed to tho department with the depths of the lakes laid down 
^'^ it, with a view to the take-contours being shown on the Ordnance 
Survey maps, T. Digby Piggott, Esq., c.s.. Controller of His Majesty's 
"tationery OfSce, wrote to the effect that no objection would be raised 
"^y hie department, on the ground of copyright, to the roprodoction of 
Ordnance Survey maps, and publication if desired, in connection with 




'ft^lie Lake Survey, on the understanding that the source from which the 
:^[~ ^productions are taken is quoted, and due acknowledgment be made of 
"fcle fact that the consent of the Controller had been obtained. Admind 
i^ir W. J. L. Wharton, k.c.b., [■'.r.s., Hydrographer of tho Admiralty, 
^*'so promised the advice and assistance of his department. Through 
-^^r. J. J. H. Teall, Fji.s., Director-General of tho Geological Survey, and 
-*--*r. John Home, f.r.s., Director of the Geological Survey of Scotland, 
*^if John Murray was informed that the Board of Education had sanc- 
*Qned the issue to the Lake Survey staff of a complete set of tho 
Geological Survey maps of Scotland, anil, in addition, had sanctioned 
^■lie supply of information which might be asked for by the staff of tho 
^aka Survey during the oouise of their investigations. This latter 
privilege has been very largely taken advantage of, and Dr. Home and 




242 BATHYMETRICAL SURVEY OF THE FRKSH-WATKR LOCHS OF SGOTLAHD. 

the other members of the Geological Survey in Scotland have rendered 
continnouB advice and assistance, and have now given directions for the 
preparation of maps and notes concerning the snrfaoe geology of some 
of the areas in which the lakes are situated. These maps and notei 
will form a valuable part of the forthcoming publications. 

All plans for carrying on the work having matured during tbe 
winter of 1901-2, a staff was appointed, and a start was made early io 
the spring of 1902, in the lochs situated in the more northerly part of 
the Tay basin, the survey being gradually extended to the lochs north- 
wards of this region.* 

During the summer of 1902, about 155 lochs were sounded, and the 
work has been continued during the present summer, over 300 lochs 
having now (July) been surveyed. It is, indeed, expected that the surrey 
of all the lochs of the mainland of Scotland, together with those of the 
Outer Hebrides, Orkney, and Shetland, will be completed this year* 
As a rule, those lochs on which there are now no rowing-boats, or to 
which boats could not easily be transported, have been omitted in the 
meantime. 

The nlethods employed in conducting these reoent bathymetrioal 
surveys have been essentially the same as those described in the paper 
communicated to the Geographical Journal in 1900.t The F. P. Pullar 
sounding-machine (see Fig. 4) has been used in all the larger lochs* 
but for the smaller lochs situated high up on the .hills or other wisa 
difficult of access, several small machines (see Fig. 5) were oonstmctady 
which could be carried in the hand and easily fixed to the side of th9 
rowing-boat. The line used was marked in feet in the usual way, andL 



* Mr. T. N. Johiibton, ^i.b., cm. (Kdin.). k.u.h.e., was appoiDtcd first assistimt ancX 
zoologirtt; Mr. James Parsons, b.sc. (Lond.), chemist; Mr. James Murray, assistaofc' 
zoologist; Mr. T. K. II. (Jarrett, b..\.. Jesus ( 'ollego, Cambridge, geologist ; Mr. Jobim. 
Hewitt, n.A., Jesus College, Cambridge, zoologist; Mr. James Chumley, secretary^ 
assisted by Mr. Robert Dykes, in charge nf office work. JNIr. R. M. Clark, B.80., Aberdeen^ ^ 
also devoted a largo part of the summer to field-work in eonnection with the surrey , 
and assistance was also given for short i)criod8 by Dr. J. Sutherland Rlack, m.a^ - , 
F.U.S.E.. Sir John Jackson, ll d., Mr. D. ('. Mcintosh, m.a., Mr. James Walker, c.t=. -^ 
and Mr. D. J. Scourfield. 

During the last winter Mr. Parsons was appointed to a post on the Mineralogies^ 
Survey of Ceylon, and Mr. Garrett was appointed geologist to an East Borneo compai 
Their places on the staff have been taken by Mr. R. B. Young, m.a., and Mr. R. 
Marshall, M. A. In the summer of 11)03 Mr. E. M. Wedderburn joined the staff, 9 
also Mr. K. K. Watson, b. a., b.sc., Jesus College, ( 'ambridge, and Mr. Scourfield and oth« 
have ren«h!red assistance. Among the boatmen who have been employed, Mr. Hu, 
Drumm«)i)d deserves to 1)0 nientione«l, as he has been continuously employed since t- 
spring of 1902. and this summer Mr. Allan Grunt and Mr. William Eraser have 
continuously in the service of the Luke Survey. In June Mr. Young was appoints 
to a i»08t in the South Africjin (■ollcge, and his jdace on the staff was tiiken k^^^ 
Mr. J. II. M. Wedderburn, M. A., f.r.s.e. During the present summer (1903) the st 
numbers alK)ut fifteen in all. 

t Qeogr. Jour.y vol. xv. p. 311. 




BiTHTMITRICAL SURVET OF THE FRESH:WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLAND. 243 







althongh the Bonndings took a muoh looger time, this small machine 
proved most satisfaotory for hill lakes. 

Tbe G-inoh OrdDanoe Survey maps, supplied to the sta£f by the 
Ordoanoe Survey Office, have been used throughout, both in the field 
An d office work. The positions of all the soundings were originally laid 
down on these maps. Tracings were then made on cloth, and the 
c^OTrected soundings neatly written in at the correct positions, and the 
oc>iitour-lineB of depth drawn. The areas within the various oontour- 
l^^xies were then ascertained by means of the plani meter, and the total 
^i3lk of water in the basin calculated from the data thus obtained. The 
^>^aps to be published with this and succeeding papers are reduced to 
'^ descale of 3 inches to 1 mile (1 : 21,120). The soundings are given 
feet ; in some cases it was not possible to place all the soundings 
en by the sta£f on the maps, because of their being too close together. 
^Phe intervals between the contour-lines of depth are tinted with 
deepening shades of blue, the darkest shades indicating the greatest 
^ epths. The orographical relief of the loch basins has also been shown 
■^y oontour-lines tinted with shades of brown, the darkening brown 
indicating the elevations. Longitudinal and cross-sections of the depths 
^ave been drawn for each locb. On these sections the black line of 
"Varying thickness along the top represents the true vertical relief 
^i*awn to scale, while the coloured extensions in outline represent the 
Vertical scale five times exaggerated, in order to show the relative depth 
"^ith greater efi'ect. 

The maps have been prepared under the direct superintendence of 
''*ti'. J. G. Bartholomew, f.r.s.e., who has taken great interest in the 
^"Ork, and has suggested lines of useful investigation. When the 
''^^ults of each river-basin are published, the tracings of the 6-inch maps 
ve referred to, with the soundings on them, will be placed in the 
nds of the Director-General of the Ordnance Survey for preservation 
d future reference. 

The late Sir Robert Meuzies, the Marquis of Breadalbane, Sir John 

irling Maxwell, Donald Cameron, Esq., of Lochiel, Charles Murray, 

., H.P., of Lochcarron, Lord Lovat, Sir John Ramsden, Sir Kenneth 

acEenzie, H. C. Boss, Esq., Lord Zetland, and many other Highland 

^Proprietors, have taken great interest in the work of the survey. They 

-ave materially assisted, by the loan of boats and in other wajs, in the 

Togress of the survey ; indeed, without their aid the amount of work 

sported above could not have been carried through.* 




• Proprietors and others interested in the work of the Lake Survey, and desirous 

f poaseising for their own use 6-inch maps of any of tho lochs surveyed, with the 

^ioandings and oontour-lines of depth laid down in position, can be supplied with copies 

'^ payment of the cost of the maps and of the office lalwur involved in transferring 

^edata. Application should be made to Mr. James Cliumluy, Secretary of tho Lako 

Surrey, Challenger Office, 45, Frederick Street, Edinburgh. 




244 BATHTHffTBICAL SaRVEY OF THE KBESR-WATER LOCHS OF flOOTUID. 

A Hmnograph oonBtnicted arter the ieaiga^ of H. Ed. 8»nvD, of 
Gdneva, has been ereoted in the groanda of the St, Benediof s monaatary 
at Fort Angastag, by the kind permiaaion of the Lord Abbot, and ii 
under the charge of Sir. E. M. Wedderbnro. Up Co the time of writing, 
Hr. Wedderbom reporta that aince June 18 the uutrnment Imb hen 
oontiDuoaaly reoording the rise and fall in the mten of Looh Nua. 
En He has been able t^o reot^- 

niae uninodal, biDodal, qnad- 
rinod»l, aa well aa tranarene 
aeiohea. SsTenl oheerra* 
lAtiODB beve been made at 
TariooB poinii on the ahoie 
b; meana of the plemyie- 
meter, and it ia hoped is 
tbia way to determine the 
position of the nodes. 

Under the direotion of 
Prof. Callendar,r.a.B., and Hr. 
Horace Darwin, v.R.s., infitn- 
ments have been oonBtmoted, 
and are being ereoted at Fort 
Angnatna iT^Ur. E. R. Wat- 
Bon, to carry oat — 

(a) Obeervationa on the 
daily variatioKi of temperaiMrt 
of tiio waters, hj meana of a 
^eriea of platinum resiBtanoe 
tharmometera (and Callen- 
dar's bolometera), with a view 
to obtaining, among other 
things — 

(1) A meamre of the 
amoant of energy pan- 
ing per day aoroes noi'fc 
area of the lake's anrftc^ _ 
(2) Some knowledge of the mechanism by which the water, eep^^,- 
cially in the deeper layers, is heated np and cooled off. 
(6) Observationa on the rate of leak of an eleotrioally charged boA^ 
on insnlating supports in a vessel Bunk to different doptlia, to aaaertain- 

(1) If water absorbs ench radiations as effect the ionieation of gas^^ 

(2) If the deep waters are themselves radio-aotire. 

(c) Obaerrations on the limiting depth for viaibUity of a paint^^ 
disc, and the relation between this depth and the zenith distance of tt=^ 
sun, the amonut of organisms and of inorganic matter in the water, tt^^ 
temperature of the water, etc 



rULLAR SODKIllNO-IIACBINE. 



r 



BATin-MKTRICAL SCRVEY OF THE KRESll-WATER LOCHS OP Si.X)Ti,AND. 245 

A namber of biologists are now Btationed at Fort AugUBtus, aarr^ing 
out obaervfttioDB on tbe pknktonio and benthonic organisms in the 
waters of Loob Nese, at tbe same time and place as tbe above-men tioned 
ptysioal obBervations- It in tbougbt that eome ineight may in this way 
L>e obtained inlo the inteiprotation of the varying physical conditions 
^nd the habita of the organisms. 




Arrangements have been made for the pnblioation of the bathy- 
*BetrioaI map§ and tbe other observations of the Lake Survey staff in 
the Geographical Journal, the proBout communication being the first of 
the new seriea. It deals with a number of the lochs towards the head- 
-waters of the main branches of tlie Tay basin. In addition to the maps, 
the paper is illustrated by photographs taken by the members of the 
■taff and others." It is hoped that tbo whole will, when completed, 
form a worthy memorial of tbe late Mr. F. P. PuJIar, fji.s.e, 

* Sir Jolui Murray miiild be gieatly indebted to nmstenr photograpbcn for cojiiea 
or any phatognphs of tho ScotUth firMh-watet lochi, wltb ■ vlev to theit reproduction 




246 BATHTHETBICAL SUBVXV OF THE FBI8H>W1T1R LOCHS OF SOnXUD. 
PaIIT ni, — LOCHB OF THE TaV BaSIH. 




Exlenl of the Tny Itastii. — The whole area of the drainage basin of 
the Tay, including the estuary as far as a line juiaing Teats Mair Point 
with Monifieth, as measured with the planimeter on the 1-inch Ordnance 
Survey maps, is 250H73 square miles.* Considerably more than one- 
fourth of this area drains directly into fresh-water lochs, of whioh there 
aio seventy, including some of the largest in Scotland — Looha Tay and 
Ki'ioht, for instance, being over 1-1 miles in length, while eight of them 
exceed 2 milos in length. 

The rivor-sy stems, whioh arise in the most monntaioouB and 
magnificent regions of Scotland, may be divided into fonr prinoipal 
branohes, viz. the Garry branch (the most northerly), the TummeL 
branch, the Tay branch, and the Earn branch (,the most southerly). 

(1) The Garry branch rises on the flanks of Beinn Mholaoh, Beinu 



1 llii! puhlioBtiona of tlie survey. Any tek'Ulrd for tills pur|)oac will hv duly acknow- 
.'iluoil. Tlio cupii.'» of tliu pliatogmpliB mny bo forwardcil to Hr. Jnme* dlDmlcf, 
ii-ntnry of the I,.,ki> Surx^y, ( lidllcDKcr OKoe. 4.'i, Fri'dorick Street, E<linbargh. 

• (juikie (■ An Klcmtiitary Goognipliy of tho British IsUnda,' IxmdoD, 1888, p. 8G) 
iiCH till' draiiinge bnain of tin.- 'I'ay an 225U aqniirt; mik'S, iind Lawaon {> Tbe Qeography 
r Itiver Sjati-mH,' Loodon. N.U., |i. G) aa 2100 [aquarr] milna. Atrording to Qoikie, 
lio Tiiy poura a larger vulnme »r wntir intn tlie aui IIirh any olbt:r Hritiah rirer. and 
la <lriiiiingc area in llie liiTgeat in Scot1an<!, and U'Vrntli in injnt of lizc in tbe llritiib 
alunda, lieJng oicuodtd by tbut of tbe ^-linnuoii in Irelurid, the Tbamef, ScTcrn, Quae, 
'rent, and Grent Ouau iu Engliind, 



BiTHTMETRICAL SURVKT OP THK FRKSH-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLAND. 247 

Bboidheaoh, and Cam Beag an Laoigh, flowing by Yarioua streams 
into Looh Ghmy, thenoe by the river Garry into the river Tummel 
At Faskally, to the north-west of Pitlochry, reoeiving the waters of the 
•Kxocfay at Struan, and those of the Tilt at Blair Atholl. 

(2) The Tnmmel branch rises in the Black Mount, the westernmost 
o^ the souroes of the Tay river-systems, flowing by the river Bk into 
'^^•cxsh Buidhe, Loohan na Stainge, and Loch B&, which receives the out- 
flow from Lochan na h-Achlaise, thence flowing into Loch Laidon, 
lence into Looh Eigheach — ^an expansion of the river Gaur — receiving 
waters from Lochan Sr6n Smeur, and then flowing into Loch 
-E^annoch, which receives the outflow from Loch Ericht, flowing finally 
Loch Tommel, thence by the river Tummel into the river Tay at 



(3) The Tay branch rises on the flanks of Ben Lui (Beinn Laoigh), 
^d flows by the river Fillan into Loch Doohart and Loch lubhair, 

nee by the river Docbart into Loch Tay, being joined by the river 
I-«ochay at Eillin just before entering Loch Tay ; the outflow from Loch 
1^«^y is carried into the estuary of the Tay by the river Tay, which is 
Joined shortly after leaving liooh Tay by the river lijon, bearing the 
^^tflow from Ijoch Lyon, and further on (at Logierait; by the river 
^^ummel, bearing the outflow from the Garry and Tummel branches, still 
'"^xther on (at Dunkeld) by the river Bran, bearing the outflow from 
^och Freuchie, still further on (at Cargill) ny the river Isla, and still 
^ ^^ rther on, shortly before reaching Perth, by the river Almond. 

(4) The Earn branch takes its rise at the heads of Glen Ogle and 
leann Ceann Droma, the two streams flowing into the west end of 
och Earn, which receives also the waters of the Ample burn, Beich 

^rn, the Yorlioh, the Tarken, and other smaller streams ; the outflow 

^"om Loch Earn passes at 8t. Fillans into tbo river Earn, which 

^3oeives the waters of the IJuchill and Lednock near Comrie, those 

^ the Turret bearing the outflow from Loch Turret, near Crieff, and 

^her smaller streams as it flows eastward to join tlie Tay at the head 

^the estuary. 

In this and the next succeeding paper it is proposed to deal 
ith the results obtained by the Lake Survey in the lochs of the Tay 
in. The bathy metrical results will be given in detail in the first 
^^%tanoe, and in the last paper on the Tay basin lochs the general 
^^ological and physical results will be given, together with a description 
^1^ the geological character of the upper parts of the basin by Dr. John 
'^cme, F.R.8., of the Scottish Geological Survey. 

Maps and Illustrations. 
The maps illustrating this paper are reduced from the G-iiich Ord- 
nance Survey charts, and are published by permission of the Controller 
of H.M. Stationery Office. 



► 



248 BATHrMETRICAL SURVEY OF THE FRESH- WATER LOCHS OP SOOTLASa l^-T^^'^ 

Plate I. shows Loob Bk, Looban na h-Aolilaise, Loohan na Staixige,iBd I. gis>^ ^ 
Looh Baidhe, the contour-lines of depth being drawn in at 10 and 20 6et Ig;: '^^^^. 

Plato 11. shows Loob Laidon with Dubh Locban* the oontonr-liMi Ic'. ^^^^^ 
of depth being drawn in at 25, 60, 75, 100, and 125 feet. l:^^ , 

Plate III. shows Loohan Sr6n Smeur and Looh Eigbeadit the 1^^ V^^ 
oontonr-lines of depth being drawn in at 10 and 20 feet. m'-^c ^ 

Plate IV. shows Looh Eannooh, the oontour-lines of depth being « ^^; 
drawn in at 60, 100, 200, 300, and 400 feet V"*^ 

Plate V. shows Lochs Doohart and lubbair, the oontonr-IineB ox 
depth being drawn in at 25 and 60 feet. 1^ 

Plate VI. shows Loch Lyon, the oontonr-lines of depth being draf^ \j'- ^ 
in at 25, 50, 75, and 100 feet. 

Plate VIL shows Loch Earn, the contour-lines of depth being 
in at 50, 100, 200, and 250 feet. 

In addition to the maps, there are fourteen woodoats in the tex^ « 
eight illustrating the character of the soenery around the lochs, anoth^*^ 
showing the Tay basin on a small scale, intended to serve as an ind» ^^ 
map, two others giving photographs of Sir John Murray and the lat- 
Mr. Fred. Pullar, taken during their last sounding trip togethei 
another giving a photograph of bronze tablet in memorial to the late 
Pullar, another showing the F. P. Pullar sounding machine, and anothe 
showing new small sounding-machine for use in surveying small aiu 
shallow lochs. 

1. Locha Ericht and Oarry, 

These two lochs were sounded by Sir John Murray and the late Mi 
Fred. Pullar in the spring of 1900, and the results were published ii 
the Oeographical Journal in March, 1901.* 

2. BaJinoch Moor Locks, 

No coach road in Britain probably passes through more magni 
scenery than that between the Bridge of Orchy and Ballaohnli^ 
About halfway between laveroran Hotel and King's House Hotel 
river B^ crosses the road, and to the west lies Corrie B&, the sanotua 
of the Black Mount forest, where no shot is ever fired, and oonseqoen 
this splendid corrio is the home of the deer, the golden eagle, the 
and other wild animals. Here also is the most westerly sources of 
rivers of the Tay basin. In rainy weather a large amount of wa 
passes down the river Bb, and other streams into the Moor of Eann 
and about a mile or two to the eastward of the road a large extent 
the moor is flooded, and presents the appearance of a vast lake. 
drier weather there are distinct basins, which have received the nam< 
of Loch Buidhe, Loohan na Stainge, Loohan na h-Achlaise, and Looh 
(or A-baw), all of them situated in drift and encumbered with rocki 

• Oeographical Journal^ vol. xvii. p. 289. 




250 BATHT METRICAL SUKVKIT OF THB FRMH-WATIE LOCHS OF BOCyTLUD. 

Ijoeian nn Stai»tfe* — Lochan d& Stainge (or Da-Sting) u extnoulf 
irregular in oatline, and inolades three comparatiToIy large ialandi it 
well as a number of small ones. Its length from north to aoDtli i> Oth 
half a mile, the maximam hraadth being two-fiftha of a mile, and tia 
mean breadth about one-aeventh of a mile. Its waters ooTer an am o( 
over 51 acreB, or rather more than one-twelfth of a aqnare mile, aod it 
drains directly a1>oat two-thirds of a aqnare mile, but ainoe it iMdm 
the outSow from Looh Umidhe its total drainage area ia nearly 12 squn i~^« 1- 
miles, or 147 times the area of the loch. The looh is divided into two 
portions by a barrier at the central couatriotion, on which there is oil; 
1 foot of water, the maximum depth observed in the northern portaco 
(between the large island and the northern shore) being 8 feet, wliil* 
the maximam depth of the loch (14 feet) waa found in the sonthKO 
portion immediately to the south of the barrier referred to. The toIiiih 
of water contained in the looh is estimated at 11,407,000 onbio feet, aa& 
the mean depth at 5 feet. The loch is on the whole shallow, naariy 9^ 
per cent, of its floor being covered by less than 10 feet of water. *^ 
waa anrvoyed on April V.>, 1902, by Sir John ]klurray and Dr. Johnstiy^' 
fifty-five aonndingB being recorded. The level of the loch ms n*^ 
determined by levelling, but on the new edition of the Ordnsnoe 8orw.J 
map (1897) there is a spot-level of !<72 feet on the southern abore near tl» 
inflow, and another of 9G8 feet on the northern shore at the outflow, ao tbM^' 
the snrfooe of the water is probably abont 970 feet above the aea. Tb^ * 
drift-marks around the looh showed that itsometimea riaea 6 feethigbw^'' 
than on the date surveyed, and during floods the whole Talkie look — > 
like one loch, with knolls projecting above the water. The 
of the surface water at 10.30 a.m. on April 19, 1902, nearthe 
waa 43°, and on returning to the same place at 12.80 (noon) it had 
to 46'''4; in the main basin, near the centre, ihe surface tBmpenitn^r~i 
was 42'''6, wliile the temjierature of the air was 49°, ' 

liochan nn h'A<h}alsi:]—ljOchati na h-Aclilaise (or na-Haoblioh) ■^"-* 
irregular iu form, the outline Iieing somewhat triangular or bea'' 
Bhajwd, with the apex pointing south. It includes many larger a*^ ^ 
smaller islands, anil the bottom in the shallower places is covered ^^^.^ 
atones and boulders. The length from nortli to south is OTer fonr-fift ^^ ^^^ 
of a milo, whilo tho mnximiim breadth from east to west is abont thro-^^ 
(juarturs of a mile, the iiieau breadth being over one-third of a mil^^*" 
Its wjiters covor an .iroa of abont I8:[ acrea, or nearly three-tenths of _^ 

square mile, and it drains an aroa of over one sqnare mile, or nearly fou, '^^ 
times the area of the looh. 'ITio north-western [Kirtion of the looh i^^ ^^ 
shallow, the dci^pcr water l«ing found in the southern and eaaten^^^^""^ 
portions. The Kl-feet biisin is a continuous area, extending from near^:^^'^^ 
the Boutlicni whoro in a northerly and then north-easterly direction to ^^"^ 

• ^ Liwh of (lio sunk or Fold. f = 1-ocli iii tlio Hollow. 



BATllYMiTRlCA!, SDRVEY OK THE FRESH- WATER LOCHS OF St'OTLAND. 251 

near the north-eastem shore, excluding the islands lying off the eastern 

shore, and is nearly three-tinarters of a mile io length. The lO-feet 

ha^in includes two 20-reet liasins, tbo more southerly beiag the larger 

and deeper, the maximum depth of the looh ('2S feet) having heen 

foiand towards the north-eastern end of this basin, and comparatively 

dcaee to the eastern shore. The volome of water contained in ihe loch 

i» estimated at 76,230,000 cubic feet, and the mean <lepth at 9i^ feet. 

r"ine loch is on the whole comparatively shallow, about 63 per cent, of 

*fc». e bottom being covered by less than 10 feet of water, while only 

* Tper cent of the l<ottom is covered by over 20 feet of water. The loch 

^*~«ifl surveyed on April 16, T90'J, by Messrs. Pirsons, Clark, and MelnlOBh, 




*^ver one hundred soundiaga being recorded. The surface of the water 
■^as found to be £'62 feet above sea-level by the ofltcers of the Ordnance 
Survey in 18ii7. The temperature of the surface water at 6 p.m. on 
-April 16, IPOL', was i5°->. 

Lock Jin,' — Looh Rl (or A-baw) is extremely irregular in outline, 
studded with largo and small islands, and with manj' rocks and liouldera. 
Its length from south-west to north-east in a s'raight line is over 
'1 miles, and following the axis of deep water about 2^ miles. Its 
msximnm breadth in the Bontheru portion from east to west is over a mile, 
and the mean breadth is nearly half a mile. Its waters cover an area 
of about 685 acres, or nine-ten iha of a square mile, and it drains directly 
* = Cow toeh. 



4 




252 BATHYMETRICAL SURVEY OF THE f 



S-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLA-W 



an area of 4^ square miles, liat ainoe it receives the outflow from Loch 
BuiiJlie, Loohan na Stainge, and Loohan na h-Acblatse, its total drainage 
area is nearly 17^ square miles, or niiieteen timee the area of the looh. 

The bottom of Loch Ba ie very irregular. The deepest water occurs 
in the northern portion between the islands of Eilean Molaob and Eilean 
na h-Iolaire, where there is a small basin less than a quarter of a mile 
in length and over 20 feet in depth, the maximum depth of 30 feet 
having been observed about one-sisth of a mile to the north of the 
northern point of Eilean Molach. An isolated sounding of 20 feet was 
taken close to the western shore of the southern portion of Bilean 
Molach. There are three irregular basins with depths exoeeding 10 
feet: the central one, enclosing the 20-feet biisin, and extending on l>oth 
sides of Eilean Molach and to the west and north of Eilean na b-Iolaire, 
is nearly three-quarters of a miie in length and over a quarter of a mile 
in breadth ; the Boutbom one, occapjing the wide south-eastern portion 
of the loch, is nearly half a mile in maximum diameter; and the third, 
situated in the north-eastern extension of the loch, is nearly half a mile 
in length and nearly a qnarter of a mile in breadth. The volume of 
water contained in the locb is estimated at 200,497,000 cnbio feet, and 
the mean depth at 3 feet, being 27 per cent, of the maximum depth. 
The length of the loch is 378 times the maximum depth and 1402 times 
the mean depth. Over 70 per cent, of the floor of the loch is covered by 
leas than 10 feet of water, and only 1\ per cent, by more than 120 feet of 
water. The locli was surveyed on April 1 7 and 1 8. ■! i>02, by Sir John 
Murray and Dr. Johnslon, over three hundred soundings having been 
taken. The level of the loch was determined by the Ordnance Survey 
officers in 18H7 as being ".157 feet above sea-level. The temperature of 
the surface water near the boathouse, when commencing the survey at 
2.45 p.m. on April 17, was SO^-S Fahr., but later, out in the open water, 
the surface temperature was 44*'-2 Fahr.; on the 18tb at noon the 
surface temperature near the shore was .lO^'O Fahr. (the air-temperature 
at the time being 50^4 Fahr.), while in the bay to the north of the 
boatbouse the temperature was 46'''0 Fahr. 

Loohan Beinn Caorach'* and some other small basins of water in this 
region were without boats and could not be sounded; they were 
evidently all quite shallow and of the same character as Looh Buidhe. 

Loch Lai(lon.'\ ^IjOoii Laidon (or Lydooh, or Luydan) lies partly in 
Perthshire and partly in Argyllshire, the boundary running along the 
centre of the western arm and for a certain distance up the main looh. 
It is one of the best trouting lochs in the district, or perhaps in Scot- 
laud. It is about 5y miles in length from north-east to south-west, but 
it sends out an arm towards the west, which is over 14 miles in length, 
and a line following the axis of the loch from the north-eaat end to the 
extremity of the western arm would be over 6 miles in length. Its 
• = Looli of the BlopCB. t = Loch of tUe Sheep-hill. 




!!A1HVJ1F.TB1CA[. SURVEV OF THE FRESH-WATER I.OCrHS OF SCOTLAND. 253 

maxiiuDm breadth ia nearly three -quarters of & mile, and the mean 
breadth about oae-third of a mile, or G'4 per cent, of the length. Its 
waters cover an area of aboat 1 140 acres, or over 1} square milet<, and 
it drains directly an area of 30^ square miles; but, since it reoeires 
the outflow from Lochs Bu, Aohlaise, Stainge, and Buidhe, its total 
drainage area is orer 47^ square miles, or 26^ times the area of the 
JocAt, Nearly five hundred souudinga were taken in the loch, and the 




"^xiruum depth observed was 128 feet, the mean depth being 36 feet, 
T ~^3 P^'' cent, of the maximum depth. The length of the loch is I'll' 
iitQea the maximum depth, and 7'J5 times the mean depth. The volume 
"^ Water contained in the toch is estimated at 1,761.733,000 cubic feet. 
"^B western extension and the southern end of I-och Laidon are filled 
'*th boulders and islets, and are like Looh Bi in character, but the 
*in basin is of comparatively simple form, though with minor un- 
**«atioDB of Ihe lake-floor, the deepest water occupying the centre of 
^« looh, where there is a basin three -qu art era of a mile in length and 
No. 111.— Seftembfr, 1903.] t 



254 BATHVURTBK'AL SURVKl' OK TlIK hUKSil-WATEU LO"'HS OK SCOTLAKl) 

over 100 feet in depth, the maximum depth of 128 feet h&TiDg been 
obaerved itboiit 2-^- miles from the south-west end and 2.^ miles from the 
north-eaflt end. Separated from this main lOO-feet basin by eballower 
water, there in a eonnding of 104 feet a short diatance to the eouth-west, 
and half a mile forther south there is an isolated souoding of 100 feet; 
there is also an isolated sounding of 100 feet a quarter of a mile to the 
norlb-east of the main basin. The principal 50 feet basin extends from 
loss than n mile from the south-wett end to less than 1^ miles from the 
north-east end, and is nearly 3 miles in length. Separated from tbii 
larger basin by an interval of a quarter of a mile is a smaller one, about 
une-third of a mile in length, situated in the ncrlfa-eaatern part of the 
loch, and nearly midway between them ia an isolated sounding of 50 
feet. The western arm of Looh Laidon is shallow and filled ivith ro<^> 
and boulders, the greatest depth observed being 1 T feet in three difierent 
places. Of the entire lake-floor, 53 per cent, is covered by lef s tbftn 25 
feet of water, 2 r per cent, is covered by water between 25 and 5i) feel 
in depth, 22 per cent, by water between '-n and lOO feet in depth, and 
4 per cent, by water esoeeding 100 feet in depth. Iioch Laidon was 
surveyed on April ii to 26, 1902, by Sir John Murray. Dr. Jobneton, ^ 
Messrs. Parsons, T'lark, and Molntosh, and the surface of the loch was .^ 
found by levelling to be i>23!) feet above sea-level. When mir%-eyetl by-^ 
the Ordnance Survey ofticers on ,Tuly 23, 18'')0, the level of the loch wa^ 
!i24'<> feet above the eea. At the north-easterQ end of I.och Tiaidou i^K 
a Hroall basin called Dubh Lochan,* which was found by levelling oir^- 
April 14, 1902, to be 2 feet higher than l.ooh I.aidon, and should, there- — 
fore, strictly speaking, be looked upun as a distinct lake, but in th^7 
foregoing description the two lakes have been regarded as one. Many 
temperature observations were taken in Looh Laidon on April 9, 10, 14, 
15, and 2.5, the surface readings varying from 38''-lll at 5 p.m. on the 9th 
to 43'''2 at the head of the loch at 1 p.m. on the 10th — a range of S'-fi 
in the temperature of the water, while the range in the air- temperature 
during the same period was only .'j° (from 4o°-2 to 50'''2). Two serial 
temperature obgervations were taken in the centre of the loch, the first 
at 5 p.m, on April 9, when the readings were identical (39°'8) at the 
Borface and at depths of 5 and 25 feet, the second at 6.20 p.m. on the 
lOth, when the surface readings were Sil^-S and 41°, that at 6 feet 
:!9''-7, and that at 20 feet 39~-4. The surface temperature in Dubh 
Loohan on April 14 was 43''"9. 

The western arm of Loch Laidou receives the waters from a small 
looh (Loohan Gaineamhaoh)f lying about 2 miles to the west. This 
loch, and the neighbouring one to the north, were visited on May 
20, 1903, but, as there were no boata on them, they were not sounded. 
They were found to be of the same general character as the other 

* = Black LocliBii. t = Looh or land}* lieooliea. 



b 



256 BATH y METRICAL SURVEY OF THE FBESH-WATER LOCHS OF SOOTLAKa 

twelfth of a square mile), and it draios an area of nearly 2 ■qnare milei, 
nearly twenty-four times the area of the loch. It was surveyed on Haj 
12, 1902, by Sir John Murray and Mr. James Murray, who took ilxnt 
seventy soundings, the maximum depth observed being 33 feel Hie i— t: 
volume of water contained in the lake is estimated at 22,592y000 oabie 
feet, and the mean depth at 10*3 feet, or 31 per cent, of the maximiun 
depth. The loch is of simple conformation, tbe western half being oom- m.^L^^ 
paratively shallow, while the deeper water occurs in the eastern lulf^ |i-3i] 
the maximum depth having been found about one-eighth of a mile from 
the eastern end. The 1 0-feot basin approaches quite dose to fhe etstem 
shore, and is about one-third of a mile in length, enclosing the 20l96t 
basio, which is about one-fifth of a mile in length. About 61 per oeni 
of the lake-fioor is covered by less than 10 feet of water, while aboatU 
per cent, is covered by over 20 feet of water. No benoh-maiki irere 
found near the loch, but a little distance up the river whioh feeds ^^ ^\ 
there is a spot-level of 1134 feet. There was little evidence of moc^ 
rise and fall in the level of the water, the range possibly not exoeedif^ i 
2 feet. The temperature of the surface water varied from 47^4 '^^ 
50°*5, a range of S'^'l, the higher readings being taken in shallow wat^^ 
near shore. Keadiogs at 10 feet and at 20 feet near the oentmoF H^^^ 
loch gave 48° in each case, the surface temperature at tbe 
time being 47°*6. 

Less than a mile to the east of Lochan Sr6n Smeur is TioahMi mim»-- ^^ 
nan Donnlaich ^ (or Lochan Loin nan Dabhach, or IjOoh-an-LaiiidOBkh)« ^^ 
said to contain large trout. When visited, many rocks and bouldeis were 
observed showing above the water, and grass filled the bay at fhe outlet 

Loch Eigheach.1[ — Loch Eigheach (or Eaigh), about 3 miles fix>iii where 
the river Gaur passes its waters into Loch Bannoch, is an expansion, or 
rather three expansions, of the river Gkiur, the two western expansioDB 
lying on a higher level than the eastern one, and hence strong currents nm 
in an easterly direction. In high floods the whole area is practically 
submerged. A large part of the loch is covered by reeds, and the hot 
is very weedy. The entire loch is nearly nine-tenths of a mile in length 
with a maximum breadth of less than a quaiter of a mile, the mi 
breadth being one-tenth of a mile. Its waters cover an area of abo' 
«50^ acres, or less than one-tenth of a square mile, and it drains 
an area of nearly 14 square miles, but since it receives the outfl 
from Lochan Sron Smeur and from Lochs Laidon and B4, etc., its to 
drainage area is nearly 63t} square miles, or 705 times the area of the 1 
The loch was surveyed by Dr. Johnston on April 21, 1902, about eigi 
soundings being recorded, the maximum depth observed being 28 f< 
^Ihe surface of the eastern expansion was found by levelling to be 81 
feet above Hea-levol, and the water apparently rises about 3J- feet abo 

* = Loch of the Macdonald's Field. f = Loch of the Cry (?> 





r 

■ 



B-ITHTMETRICAL SURVEY OF THK FRESH-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLAND. 257 

'te level OD the date sarveyed. The yolume of waler coDtained in the 
'cKih is e§timated at 10,794,000 cubic feet, and the mean depth at Teet, 
'3 per cent, of the maximam depth. The eastern expansion is the 
*'^pe8t, the maximum depth of '2H foct having been found to the west of 
"•c island near tiio east end of this espaneion ; the nor th-wea tern 
*^-*pnn6ion ban a masimnm ilepth of 7 feet observed not far from the 
^**stlet, bat the majority of the souudiugs ran from 2 lo o feet; the 
^•^Dth- western exptinaion is the ahaltoweaf, with a maximum depth of 3 




" ^ ^t to the west of the central large island (^iilileati n» ( 'oille), tho bottom 
^-^ the east and suuth of that island being covered by only 1 foot of 
■«tor. Over 90 per cent, of the entire lake-floor is covered by less than 
^^~^J feet of water, and less than 2 per cent, by over 20 feet of water. 
^ he euiface temperature in the eastern expansion at 11 a,m on April 21, 
"^£(02, was H"--!, the air- temperature at the time being 49'-5. 

3. Lorh Rannoch* 

Loch Hannoch, oae of the larger and more important of the lochs in 

^^^Tie Tay basin, was the headquarters of the Lake Survey for nearly four 

~*^*onth8. from March 20 to July 10, 1902, and during that period a great 

"*3uiDy soundings, aa well as obaervationa on the tempoiature of the water, 

^n the biology, and on the rise and fall of the surface of the loch, were 

taken, all the membors of the staff taking part in tho work. The lake 

trends in an east-and-wost direction, and is a lovely sheet of water, the 

* = Loch of the KoniB. 



258 BATIIVMETRICAL SURVEV OF THK FBESH-WaTER LOCHS OK SCOTLiKD ^ 

hills on both sidce, and the woods clothiug its BlinreB in. m&ny places, 
adding beanty to the Bcene. The famoua Black Wood of Rannoch on 
the south side is of great antiquity. The looh contains many small 
trout, and is famed for large Salmo ferox. It is nearly fj miles in length, 
considerably over a mile in maximum breadth, the mean breadth being 
about three-quHrtoFd of a miU', or about 8 per cent, of the length. Its 
waters cover an area of over 47U0 acres, or nearly 7^ square miles, and it 
drains directly an area of aboat 130 square miles, but since it receives 
the outflow from Loch Erioht, Loch Kighoach, Loch Laidou, Loch Bi. 
etc., its total drainage area is about 243^ square miles, or 33 times the 
area of the loch. 

Over eight hundred soundinge were taken in Loch Rannocb, the 
marimum depth observed being 440 feet, or 20 feet deeper than the 
maximum depth recorded by Mr. Grant-Wilson during his survey in 
the year 1888, when he took about :Vl(i eoundings. The volume of 
water contained in the loch is estimated at about 34,387,131,000 cubic 
feet, or loss than a quarter of a cubic mile, and the mean depth at 167^ 
feet, or 38 per cent, of the maximum depth. The length of the looh is 
116 times the maximum depth, and 3uti times the mean depth. The 
loch is widest and deepest in the eastern half, narrowing and ehallow- 
ing towards the west on approaching the island Eileau nam Faoileag, 
then deepening again to the west of that island. It ooDsiats of one 
large main basin, with two subsidiary small basins over 50 feet in 
depth towards the west end, separated from the main basin by tbo 
shallow water in the neighbourhood of Eilean nam Faoileag. The 
larger of the two subsidiary basinH is about three- quarters of a uiilo in 
length, stretching from south of the island An t-Eilean Fearna, at the 
entrance of the river Ericht, towards the west end of the locli, and the 
maximum depth recorded in it was 84 feet; the smaller basin lies 
between the two islands mentioned and towards the northern shore, 
soundings of h'l and 54 feet having been obtained therein. The main 
.W-feet baMH is about 7j miles in length, occupying the great body 
of the looh east of Eilean nam Faotleag, and covering an area 
exceeding 5 square miles. The lOO-feot basin is nearly 7 milea in 
length, extending from between the mouths of the KiUichonan Bum 
and the Ailt Camghouran towards the east end of the loch. The 2uii- 
feet basin is 6 miles in length, stretching from within a quarter of a 
mile from the east end to opposite the boueo Talla Bheith on the 
northern shore. The main l!00-feet basin is nearly 4 miles in length, 
stretching from less than half a mile from the east end to opposite Dall on 
the southern shore, and separated from it by an interval of a quarter 
of a mile is an isolated sounding of 304 feet. Within the 300-feet 
basin the bottom sinks in three places along the central axis of the 
looh below the 400-feet line. The easternmost of these three 400-feet 
basins is the largest and deepost, situated about 1^ miles from the east 





EiTHTMETRICAL SURVET l.F THE KRESll-WiTER LOCHS OF SCOTLANH, 

^"Kid, ftbout two-thirds of a. mile in length, and encloaitig I 

d^lh of the loch (440 feet) ; a short distance to the west (opposite 

'^^'Vguionr) is a second small basin based upon a Bounding of 404 feet; 

^DO tbree-{|UarterB of a mile farther west is the third basin, with a 

^'lannnini depth of 421 feet. The area of the Uke-floor covered by lets 

""sn 50 feet of water is about IIJOO acres (nearly 2 s<|uare mik-B), or 23 

P^roent. of the total area, while the area between the 50-foet ftud 100- 

^t lines is about 750 acres, or 16 per cent., showing a relatively rapid 




,.^^«oent beyond the SC-feet line. 

"^l^O.feet lines is about 877 acres, oi 

he area between the 200- and 



The area between the 100- and 
learly 19 per cent, of the entire area, 
OO-feet lines is about 950 acres, or 
'er '20 per cent. The area between the 300- and 400-fect lines is about 
^^■'S acres, or 18^ per cent., and that over 400 feet about <ia acies, or 
"Wrly l-j per cent, of the tolal area of the loch. 

On oommencing the survey of Ixjch Hannooh, the height of the 
'Urfaoe above sea-level was determined from Ordnance Survey bench- 
Burka as fi08 feet; the level of the loch fluctuated during (he progress 




1 



«1 



I 



2(}0 BATHVMtTRICAI. SURVEY OF THE FRESH-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLASU. ^ 

**^ 

of the survey, but the soundings have all Tieen rednaed to this datuta. ^, 

The oflicerfl of Ike Ordnance Survey on Jnly 19, 1860, fouud the level of 

the iouh to be 6')7'j feet above the sea. _ 

Very many temperature observations were taken between March 20 vy^*^ 

and July 10, 1',I02. The aurfaoe temperatures need not be discussed g(i4 

in detail ; the lowest reading recorded was 3T°'9 on Maroh L'S, and the .^4 

highest fiSl^'S on June 2:!, showing a range of 22" in the temperature 
of the surface water during the [leriod of three months. An interesting 
aeries of hourly obeervationa on the tem.peraturo of the air and of the 
surface water at the pier at Jtannoch Lodge waa taken on June 9. Uno 
thermometer was immersed in 3 feet of water outside the pier, and 
another in 1 foot of water inside the pier, and they were read aimnl- 
taneously with an air- thermometer at intervala of one hour from 9 a.nj. 
to 10 p.m. The temperature of tho air rose gradually, though irregu- 
larly, from 46" at 11 a.m. to a maximum of 53" at 4 p.m., falling 
gradually again to 44 ^-.'> at !i p.m,, and 45' at 10 p.m. The thermometer 
in 3 feet of water showed a gradual rise in the temperature from 51^'t) 
at 9 a.m. to 53' at 11 a.m., then a slight fall at noon (.1:2^-7) and at ] p. in. 
(62''*o), the maximum (53'*6) being recorded at 2 p.m., falling to 52'-',' 
at 4 p.m., rising to .'i3°':i at 5 p.m., falling gradually to b'2"-l at 8 p.m., ' 

thenri8ingto52°-8at0p.m.,and-^)3''at 10p.m. The thermometer in 1 foot J 

of water showed a gradual rise in the temperature from 5 1'''4 at 9 a.m . to ^ 

the maximum of .■■3'''6 at 2 p.ni.,whenceitfeUgradually toSl'-.'iat ('p.m., i 

the reading at 10 p.m. being 52". Tiie maximum temperature of the Jj 

water was recorded in each rase at -' ]\m., while the maximum tempera- > 

ture of the air was recorded at 4 p.m., and the temperature of the air J 

waa always lower than that of the water, except when the air waa at ^ 

its maximum (^53° at 4 p.m. }, the thermometer in 3 feet of water then ^ 

reading 52°'SI, while that in 1 foot of water read 53"'3. The tempera- _J 

ture recorded in 1 foot of water was lower than that recorded in 3 feet j^ 

of water in the forenoon and late evening, but at aeon and 1 p.m. it AJ 

was higher, at 2 p.m. and 3 p.m. it was identical, and from 4 p.m. till it 

8 p.m. it waa higher, the greatest difference recorded being 1''3 at *i 

9 p.m. (52°'8 at 3 feet, and 51^-5 at 1 foot I. 

The temperatures taken beneath the surface have been collected £j 

together and arranged chronologically in the oppoaite table, which ■! 

may be useful for future reference and comparison. The great ^ 

majority of them were taken in the amall 80-feet basin towards the ^ 

west end of the loch, while one aeries was taken near the east end * 

on April 3, and three series were taken towards the middle of the * 

loch, oppoaite Craiganour, on May 1, 2, and 23, The table shows * 

well the heating up of the water with the advance of summer. The ^ 

readings taken near tho west end in March are all below 39° Fahr. — J 

that is, below the maximum density point, though surface temperatures I 

exoeediug 30°, aud in one or two caaoa exceeding 40", were rsoord«d J 



•paa i»M 

'lU'd OC'9 

•M/9/i?; 



•paa 189 AV 

'OD'tl t) 

•paa iMAV 
'ui*tt 01 
'Z0l9ll 



o o 



«_• 00 



o . o e 



o -^ 






1 ®® . 
odd 



00 O) 

00 do 



00 



00 

do 



|2 



CO 



00 



09 

do 



I I 






04 91 



C5 , O 



-^ 

^ 






CD I I CO 



•paa isoAV 

'SO/ 9/ 9 



O lO 



goido 



do 



do 



•paa 1TOAV 
•oi'd 51*1 

*20/9/8e 






00 



w 



1 1 



o 
do 



I I I 



o 

a 
o 
o 

1^ 



S25 

QQ 
H 

D 
H 



Eh 



•jQomSpuo e^isoddo 
•m'd f 

•to/s/ec 

•pua leaAl 
•ox till 

•80/9/ SK 



o -^ 



o ^ 



Ol 



I I 






CO 



1 1 



I I 






C4 
99 



O) 



99 



99 



t«^co 
^ji ^ji ^ji 



•paa %89/ii 
'oi'd 9 

•20/9/S 



'jnoovSivjQ 

XO/S/K 



o ^ 






Si 



o -^ 



|2 



91 



'jnonvSivj^ a^fsoddo 

•aooajd^y 

•W/9/l 



•paa iWAV 
•Old OE'c 

•zo/Wic 

•pua iBOAV 

•ai*» i 

•CO/>/Ol 

•paa 1WA\ 
•to'd 9 

'Z0/W6 

•paa MWAV 
•umfiS'll 

•zo/f/6 

•paa isaAV. 
•oi'd sr» 

'ZOlflS 



o ^ 
o ^ 



00 r- 

• • 



w o 
third 



rv* CO 00 « i« 

O) Od O) O) 
O CO 00 00 CO 



CO 



04 

CO 



Ci 

CO 



eoeo 

• • 



o ^ 

;? '3! 



I I 



2ii 



00 oi 

• • 

©o 



coo 

• • 



O CO 



O CO 



o ^ 



CO 
CO 



1 1 



I I 



1 1 



CO 

n 

CO 



o o 



CO CO 



00 



00 

Ci 
00 



CO 

§11 



eo 

Oi 
CO 



I I 



00 



Is 



I I 



n 



's 
Ig 



00 

Oi 

eo 



o© o 

^*^ ^Jl ^f 



O) , 00 

Ci Ci 
00 ' CO 






•qaoaovH ipoioi^ moi^! 
91101 sjayvab-aMqx I 
•oi-d 9I> 
"ZO/f/s I 

•paa iw^ 

'm'd GC*e 

'ZOlflZ 



00 
O CO 



O 00 



ld^ 

' CO 



00 






3 



Od 

s 



I I I 



o>9> 



1 1 



s 



• III 



moij aoDoi oaij 

'Oi'd t 

•so/c/re 



o S 



1 1 



00 



1 1 



I 1 1 



'ox'd oc'e 



^■I 



CO CO 



I I 



Pi 



0> 



Ifil 



•pua iBdAV 
•oi'd oe*K 

•ZO/f/98 



00 
O 00 



eo 

do 

00 



eo 

do 
eo 



eo 



00 



OO CO 00 



•paaiMAV 
m/e/w 



.3 

I 






o m 

I 

CO 



I I 



1^ 



I f f 



ci:ooo©cotf3©9iiceio©o©io©Q 
i-ii-i©i©i©icoaoco^^»5cet^t-ao© 



s 

00 



d&TRICAL SURy£r OF TH£ FRESH-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLAND. 

shore during the last days of March. On April 2 and 
y, the temperature was above that of maximum density 
; the observationB taken near the east end on April 3 showed 
emperature of the water from surface to bottom was just 
:imum density point. The water in the small western basin 
mperature under 40° up to April 10, and was practically 
from top to bottom, but on April 21 and subsequently the 
ire rose, and there was a considerable range between: the 
nre of the upper and lower layers. The water in the main 
d a temperature of 40° at 200 and 300 feet on May 1 ; on 
he temperature was 40°'2 at 200 feet ; and on May 23 it was 
100 feet By the beginning of June the water near the sorfiBMse 
ained a temperature of 50°, and by June 21 that temperature 
A down to 50 feet, the upper 10 feet having on that date a 
ature of 52°. 



4. Loch Lyon. 

<ch Lyon lies at a high elevation at the head of Glen Lyon, amid 
. and mountainous scenery, its waters being carried by the river 
into the river Tay a short distance above the mouth of Looh Tay ; 
atains both salmon and trout. It trends in a north-east and south- 
direction, and is extremely simple both in outline and in the con- 
lation of the bottom. It is of nearly uniform width, except for a 
3 of alluvium, brought down by the river, on the south-eastern 
re. It is about 1} miles in length, with a maximum breadth of over 
uarter of a mile, the mean breadth being over one-fifth of a mile, or 
per cent, of the length. Its waters cover an area of about 236 acres, or 
er one-third of a square mile, and it drains an area of over lOj^ square 
lies, an area nearly twenty-nine times greater than that of the looh. 
ver one hundred soundings were taken in Loch Lyon, the maximum 
epth observed being 100 feet. The volume of water contained in the 
:>ch is estimated at about 460,750,000 cubic feet, and the mean depth 
ki 45 feet, or 45 per cent, of the maximum depth. The length of the 
och is 92 times the maximum depth, and 205 times the mean depth. 
Sm stated, the looh forms a simple basin, the bottom sinking gpradually 
m all sides towards the deepest part, which is approximately centrally 
)laced. The deep water, however, approaches much closer to the south- 
vest end than to the north-east end, where the 25-feet line is distant 
ibout a quarter of a mile from the shore, probably through silting up 
»f the lake-floor at that end. The 25-feet basin is nearly l^g miles 
n length, the 50-feet basin is about 1^ miles in length, and the 75-feet 
)a8in is about 1^ miles in length. The area of the lake-floor covered by 
ess than 25 feet of water is about 92 acres, or 39 per cent, of the total 
irea of the loch ; the area between the 25- and 50-reet contour-lines is 
.bout 36 acres, or over 15 per cent. ; the area between the 50- and 



rYM£TRICAL SURVEY OK THE FRESH-WATKIi LOCHS OF SCOTLAND. 2tJ3 

'5-feet contours is about 55 acres, or over 23 per cent. ; and the area 
"ver 75 feet in depth ts alioat 53 acres, or lees than 23 per cent, of the 
entire area of the loch. The comparatively flat-botloined character of 
'Qo deep basin is indicated by the larger pro]wrtion of the boltom 
Covered by water between 5'> and 75 feet in depth, as compared with 
^o proportion covered by water between 25 and 50 fret, the average 
VojDe being thus considerably steeper in depths of 25 lo 60 feet than in 




*^ipthB of 50 to 75 feet; and this latter gentler elope is continued into 

*i« deeper water over 75 feet in depth, as shown by the nearly equal 

^*"eaa on both flidea of the 75-feet line. The large proportion under 26 

*^et in depth is due to the considerable siJ ted-up area towards the north- 

^*at end of tiie loch, already referred to. Loch Lyon was surveyed by 

Sir John Murray, Dr. Julmston, and Mr. Parsonaon May 10, 1902. No 

oench'iuarks were to be seen along the shores, nor on the Ordnance 

Snrvey charts, but the height of the surface of the loch was estimated 

as being about 1050 feet above the sea. Lines of drift were observed 4 

feet above the water, which, according to the keeper, was about its 




I 



261 BATIfrMETRICAL SDRVEr OF THE FlIESH- WATER LOCIIri OK SCnTLAKl 

normal height at the time of the survey ; the water risea euddoaly anJ 
falls as quickly, and might fall perhaps a foot luwer tbau on the date of 
the survey. Thus a range of about 5 feet in the level of ihe water is indi- 

cfttfjd. The temperature of the snrfaoe water on May 10, 1902, when 
commencing the satvoy, about noon, was ^8 ''7 at the edge of the bank at 
the north-east end (the temjierature of tho air at the time being 46'''4), 
and readings taken along the shore gave 50°, 51'^'9, o2°-5, and 68". lu 
the afternoon, readings of +7°'9 were taken in shallow water towards tho 
northern shore, 48°*0 near the south-west end, and 40°-4 in the centre 
of the loch. TheBo observations show a range of ll^-6 in the temperature 
of the eurfrtce water throughout the day, viz. from 45'''4 to 58 . 

5. Loclia Doehart and labhair. 

Loch Doehart. — Looh Doohart, situated at the foot of Ben More amid 
beautiful scenery, is the westerumOHt of tho looha belonging to the Tay 
branch of the Tay river-system, being evidently an espanaioti of the 
river Fillan, which forms the headwaters of this branch. It receives 
the drainage from a oonsidorable tract of country, is very shallow, the 
bottom is very weedy, and there are many reeds, eepccially at the west 
end. Looh Doehart is nearly two-thirds of a mile in length, with a 
maximum breadth of nearly one-sixth of a mile, the mean breadth 
being over one-tenth of a mile, or 18 jwr cent, of the length. Its waters 
cover an area of about 4(J acres, or nearly ono-fourleenth of a square 
mile, and it drains an area of nearly .'<0 s<[uaro miles, or o'l't times the 
area iif the looh. Nearly seventy soundings were taken in Loch Doehart, 
the maximnra depth observed being II feet; but this depth is of very 
limited extent, otdy two isolated soundings being recorded neur the 
west end of tho loeh, while by far the greater portiou of the bottuiu in 
covered by less than J feet of water. The voltime of water oontainml 
in tho loch is estimated at 10,032,000 cubic feet, and the mean depth at 
5 feet, or 46 per cent, of tho maximum depth. The length of the loch 
is 2!I8 times the maximum depth, and 652 times the mean depth. Loch 
Doohart was surveyed by Dr. Johnston and Mr. Parsons on April 28, 
1902, and the level of the surface of the water was determined from 
Ordnance Survey bench-mark as being 513 feet above sea-level. The 
temperature of the surface water at 11,30 a.m. on that date was SO"-!, 
the tem])eratnre of the air at the same time being 41)^. 

Loch luhhair." — Loeh lubbair (or Nubhair) receives the outflow from 
Looh Doehart by a river considerably less than half a mile in length, 
so that they may almost be regarded as forming one lake. It affords 
fair trout-fishing, and the scenery ronnd about is very beautiful. Loch 
lubhaii is about I^ miles in length, with a maximum breadth of aboat 
one-third of a mile, the mean breadth being nearly one-sixth of a mile, 

• = Loch of tii« Yow-trecB. 




ri*TH I'MHTRICAI. SURVET OF THE FRESH-WATER L(X7HS QF SCIITLAND, 



I ot* 12 per cent, of the length. Its waters cover an aren of tibout 1:!5^' 

' ■ores, or over one-fifth of a square mile, aad it drains directly an area 

°^ alwut b\ square miles ; but, since it receives the outfiow from Loob 

■*™«2liart, its total drainage area is over 44^ square miles, or 212 times 

^"^ erea of the loch. Over one hnadred soundings were taken in Loch 

' •liair, and the maximum depth observed was 65 feet. The volume of 

'*'^'*:«r contained in the loch is estimated at 147,284,000 cubic feet, and 

^^^ iTifBn ilfinth nt. 2.1 fpfit.. nr 3S tier <>fint. of the maximum 



ri». 



depth. 

depth, and 28fi times 
mean depth. Loch Inbbair trends in a north-east and south-west 



mean depth at 25 feet, or 3B per cent. 
length of the loch is 110 times the 




^.ifflction, and is rather peculiar in outline, Tesembling somewhat the 

■*. t.alic letter/, coustricteil in the central portion, where a ridge crosses 

■*-be loch with a maiinium depth of :i6 feet on it, Tbc loch widens and 

"deepens on each side of this constriction, the maximum depth of the 

loch having been found in the north-eastern part, where the loch is 

"widest, the greatest depth observed in the south -we 9 tern part being 

A% feet. The 25-feet basin is a continuous area over a mile in length, 

approaching close to the northern shore, but distant about a quarter of 

a mile from the south-west end. The area of the lake-floor covered by 

less than 25 feet of water is about 72 acres, or 53 per cent, of the total 

itrea of the loch; the area between the 25- and 50-feet contours is about 

59 acres, or 44 per cent,, while the area covered by over ^0 feet of water 



260 BATIIVMETRICAL SURVEV OF THK FRESH- WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLAND. 

19 about 5 acres, or 3 per cent, of the entire area of the looh. Look 
lubhair was surveyed by Dr. Johnston and Mr. Pardons, at the same time 
an Looh Doohart, on April 28, 1902, the level of its surface being a foot 
lower than that of Looh Dochart, viz. 51 2 feet above the level of the sea. 

6. Loch Earn* 

fjoch Earn is situated amid lovely surroundings, the hills on both 
Nides being clothed with rich woods, and splendid mountain soenery 
Vxiunds the horizon towards the west, while on the south Ben Voirlich 
towers to a height of :^200 feet. It contains trout and salmon, and also 
Salmo ferox. It has been said that the loch is 100 fathoms (= 600 
feet) deep in some places, but this is disproved by the soundings 
taken by different surveyors. Mr. Grant- Wilson took over 180 soandinga 
in 1888, Sir John Murray and the late Mr. F. P. Pnllar took about 150 
Hoandings in 1900, and the Lake Survey took 500 soundings in 1902, 
but in no case was the depth found to exceed 288 feet. On the aocom- 
panyiDg map (Plate YII.) only the Lake Survey sonndings are laid 
down, and the contour-lines drawn in from them. 

Looh Earn is 6]^ miles in length, and four-fifths of a mile in maximum 
breadth, the mean breadth being three-fifths of a mile, or 9^ per cent. 
of the length. The waters of the loch cover an area of over 2400 aores, 
or nearly 4 sqnare miles, and it drains an area of over 54|- square miles — 
an area fourteen times greater than the area of the looh. Five hundred 
soundings were taken in Loch Earn, the maximum depth observed being 
287 feet, which agrees very well with the maximum recorded by Mr. 
(irant-Wilson in 1888, viz. 48 fathoms, or 288 feet. The volume of 
water contained in the loch is estimated at 14,420,638,000 cubio feet, 
and the mean depth at 138 feet, or 48 per cent, of the maximum depth. 
The length of the loch is 118 times the maximum depth, and 245 times 
the mean depth. 

Loch Earn forms a simple basin, the lake-floor sinking gradually on 
all sides down to the greatest depth, as is well shown by the longitudinal 
and three cross-sections on the map. The 50-feot contour-line follows 
approximately the outline of the loch, approaching very close to the 
west end, where between the mouths of the Ogle and Eendrum bums 
a sounding of 57 feet was taken about 300 feet from the shore, giving a 
slope of 1 in 5*3. At the opposite end of the loch the 50-feet contour is 
met with about one-third of a mile from the bridge across the river at 
St. Fillans. The 100-ftet basin approaches to within less than a quarter 
of a mile from the west end, and less than half a mile from the east end, 
and is over ."i^ miles in length ; it covers an area of nearly 2^ square 
miles. The 200-feet basin is 4-^ miles in length, stretching from three- 
quarters of a mile from the west end to 1:^^ miles from the east end, and 
covers an area of 1^ square miles. The 250-feet basin is nearly 2 miles 

* Karn = water. 



B-lTHlfMETRKAI. SUBVKY OF THE FEESH-WATKE LOCHS OF SCUTl.ASD. 



^j in length, and a quarter of a mile in maiimam widtfa, extending from I 

^^ IX milea from tlie west end to 3 miles from the east end. The maximum 

^9 depth of 287 feet was observed near the centre of the loch, betweon the ] 

^V raontha of the Allt Bhacaidh on tlie north and the Allt Dhiiii) 

f aoutb, abont 2| miles from the weat end, and 3^ miles from the eaet I 

, oikI. The area of the lake-floor covered bj- less than 100 feet of water 

ia abont !'26 acres, or 38j per cent, of the total area of the looh. Tbe 

, 'irea between the 100- ftnd 200-feet oontonr-lines is abont 7,>5 acres, o: 

* ;J I i- per cent., and the area covered by more than "JOO feet of water ii 

f ab>ciut 700 acres, or 30 per cent. The flat-bottomed character of the 

I f'jcli is indicated by the last-mentioned percentage, which is nearly ' 

equa.1 to the preceding one, though the interval of depth is only 87 feet 

*s ooiu]iar©d with the previons interval of 1 00 feet. The comparatively 

"'iif-omi average slope from the shore down to a depth of 100 feet is 

siaoww-n by the fact that the areas on each side of tlie 50-feet line are 

"e^K-ly eqnal, viz, 477 acres (or nearly 20 per cent, of the entire area of 

*^^ loch) between tlie shore and the 50-feet contour, and 44(1 acres (or 

"^•^^-ly 19 per cent.) between the 50- and !00-feet contours. 

Ijooh Earn wa« snrveyed by Messrs, James Parsons and Jamea 
M^'»»x-Tay on May 14 to 19, 1902, and the level of the surface (if the water 
^■"^Ki determined by loTelting from Ordnance Survey bench-mark as 317'2 
above sea-level. This is identical with the level determined by 
enrveyors of the Ordnance Survey on August 2 
On May 14, at 3.45 p.m., the temperature of the Bnrface water near j 
"*>«5l3earnh6ad was 46''-l (the air-teniperature being 48°); at I 
*-**^ surface temperature was 44°, and at 7 p.m. near ehore 47''-: 
**^^^ 15. at 11.30 a.m., the surface temperature near shore, about a mils I 
^^^t of Locheamhtad, was 44° (the air- temperature being 4i)° 5). On 

^y 16, at 10.30 a.m., the surface temperature at the St, Fillans end of | 
■ loch was 44'''1 (the temporaliire of the air at the lime being 45*), 
"■**^ at 1.30 p.m. it was 44°. On May 17,at 5 p.m., the surface tempera- 
'■'**- ^"^ off Dalkenneth over the deepest part of the loch was 43''8 (the air- 
*^*s:»-jeraturo at the time being il"-!). The range observed in the 
^^■^*» peraturo of the surface water during those four days wtia thus 3°-4, ! 
^'-"*^» 43'''8 to 47°-2, the range in the air-tempe rat lire during the same i 
t*«*-iod being 7°-5, from 40''-5 to 48°. 

A aeries of temperatures beneath the surface was taken in the deepest ] 
**^"*"* of the looh on May 1 7, at 5 p.m., with the following reanlt*i :— 

Snrfiice 4a'-8 F.ilir 

jfect fdf-r, _ 

1" » K°i J 



t)3.« 



Ma 



*2»» 
4Z°-0 



268 BATHTMETRICAL SUBVEY OF THE FRESH-WATER LOCHS OF SCOTLAND— 



i 
I 

a 
1 



11^ 



3 si 



I*' 



§11 



.0 

II 



a 
t 



M 



b9 






eii^ i-i C4 c4 o 00 >o M ^ i-i 

e4i-* t« 1004 



O3O)00*^^O)C>9t»>Ai-iCOaQ 

•-ir«>o<<i<c5oo^iooocotfdS 

• ••••••••••• 

•oopcse^oQpot^r^ — rj«-« 
ooc4o»QDOoeope«epod 

0000«H00t«000« 



i 



00 



•o 



U3 

o 



U3 



09 ^ 






-^ s 



04 
Ol 

to 

lO 




eo-«t4oaoo»ocpcoaooo40o 

00«i-ieOO« i-i t-< 04 r-l i-H 



O'*040«?^0lt-p-<«'*0>0 
«eQO4O400O4n^0Oi«<<^ 



o 



II ;;,«a.dog|o<i.g«3J5;g 




S| 



^ 



^ja 



»l si 



a 


Q 


M • 


s 


•a 4> 




"2 = 




2a 


• 

K 


CQ 


« 




a 









i-i ^ i^ Ol 



OQOt»o^O'^aot«o»i-4io 

• ••■•••••••• 

10 04^09 04 «-• i-i ^- 1^ 



^^C0"«*<C0r-l»-«t^^»HO4«O 

• ••■••••««•• 

oooooooooooo 



•*© ;004 04^04 «0 04 «00 I 
04 •* l> © r^ 04 04 i-i 1^ 00 04 00 ' 

• •••••••«••• 

OO O^ OOO 1^ O O O O I 



04^04iOOC000004in^CO 

eoooo^eoiAQOt^coeor^'^ 

000040000)Oi^r-i;D 



, OJO Ol0«0 O00000|*l>-q> Oi 2 



OKdOOA 

a • • • • 

^ cool t* CO 



0> Od O) 



04 000004 

QO g CO 040 l> 

00 CD tfd O O 00 



3 

g 

Q 

a 

33 



g 

a o-^ 



&3 
pq a dPQH)GC»»Q»SuU 



1 

a 
a 



9 

a 



■270 



EABTH-UOVEHCNTS IM THE BIT Of HAPLES. 



KomaQB waa the same in all tbese harbonrs, and ia veiy diffennt in 
prinoiple to that employed nowadays. The modern engineer on- 
Btructs bid breakwater of solid oontinnonB masoniy ea aa to om- 
pletely atop the waves. The old K^man breakwaters were oonpoKd 
of separate piera of mieonry or oonoretc, wbieh rose from firm finmdi- 
lions on the eea-bottom to a few feet above the snrfaoe. The pin 
were strong and broad, and were close enough together to break Iht 
wain force of the waves, although some wash entered through the 
narrow spaocs. Consequently, in the Koman harbour there oouldnem 
have been that absolute tranquillity in storm which ia the ideal of tbt 
modern harbour-designer. 

On the other hand, these very openings were of oonsiderable adm> 
tage on a c>»8t along wliioh there is a large and unoeaaitig drift of 







' i '-i 


1 




ojh 


1 "^. 


m 




M 


i 

t 1 


\ 



i.mjtclM-al i.TOHilruf ti..ii -/j.itr th„«-in-j iirii,i»al liiigkl ■■/maa-ing Huff. 

Fand, the efftct of the prevalent currents and winds. A marine e«I >!« 
Kin- iiDswept by currents soon becomes silled up with mud and sand. 
Tbe Itomun had not the inoderu resources for dredging at his command, 
aud so it was necessary that his harbours should be constructed in nob 
!k manner as nut to need them. The success of tbe Koman plan may be 
estimated by tbe fact that harbours which have been in oae for nearly 
tu'u thousand years have only lately been found to need modifioation. 

Harbour of PuleolL^Tho largest and best-known Boman breakwater 
ii that at Putcoli, commonly called tbo Bridge of Caligula. This great 
work consisted of fifteen tall piers of concrete, some of 62 feet square, 
others smaller, rising from 49 feet of water to some 10 foot above the 
surface. The tops of the piors were connected by arches, and the whole 
work was often referred to as the " opus pilarnm," or " moles pnteolatue." 
Unfortunately, but little of the old work is now to be seeD, for the 



St; 



r^- 



272 EARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 

for most of them were provided with projecting stones perforated for 
making fast the hawsers. Owing to the general snbsidenoe of the knd, 
these mooring-rings, which must originally have been at a convement 
height above the surface of the water, are now from 4 to 6 feet below 
it. Twelve of these rings have been noted by Faado. The pier furthest 
from the shore shows Lithodomus borings and the oaloareons tubes of |t c 
Serpulw, to a height of 12 feet above the present level of the sea. 

Drawings made of the ruined bridge before it was conoealed from 
view,* show that the springing of the arches was under water (Fig. 13). 
The Abbe Breislak has pointed out that the piers, when bnilt, musthav^ 
reached the surface before the springing, and we may therefore argoe 
that they must be at a lower level than formerly. A very satisfactor; 
confirmation of this view is to be obtained from those ancient drawing^'* 
which represent the opus piUtrum in Roman times (Fig. 14). T^i® 
springing is shown as far from the water as the arch is wida If we ia^^ 
35 feet as the average width of an arch, we cannot, after making d-^^ 
allowance for artistic exaggeration, regard 17 feet as an exoessi-^ 
measure of the subsidence which has occurred since the Roman peric^^ 

Pausaniai Island. — Within the harbour is depicted a little iala^^ 
covered with buildings (Fig. 14). This island does not exist nowada^'^* 
but it is probably that mentioned by Pausanias. **Off DiosearchS^ 
which belongs to the Etruscans, there is boiling water in the sea, and 
island has been constructed artificially, that the water may be utili 
for warm baths." f There is a shoal, 1 3 feet below water, inside tl^ 
fourth to the eighth piers of the bridge, and the island is represente 
as lying off the last pier, but only eight piers of the bridge are 
Were the other seven of later construction ? 

The Second Harbour of Puteoli, — There is believed to have been 
second or subsidiary harbour at Puteoli, beneath the acropolis. StOkhc^^^^^ 
distinctly refers to the existence of more than one in his time. ^* Thi 
city," he writes,} ''has become a place of extensive commerce, haviog 
artificially coustructod harbours, which were much facilitated by the 
facile nature of the saud, which contains much gypsum, and will 
cement and consolidate thoroughly. For, mixing the sand with chalk- 
stones, they construct moles in the sea, thus forming bays along the 
open coast, in which the largest transport ships may safely ride." And 
Fazio has dcBcribed many submerged fragments of building as j)art8 of 
tlio harbour defences. 

At a distance of H5 to 115 yards from the shore are many piers 
arranged in two rows parallel to one another and to the shore. A 
third row of rectangular piers starts at right angles from the shore as 

* J. D. Harding's beautiful water-colour of Pozzuoli and of the nhore-eud of the 
"Bridge" Las been reproduced by the editor of Eugluh M'aVr^Coluur in the *Studio 
Library, under tlie erroneous title of " An Italian Lake Scene." 

t Pausanias, viii. 7, 8. Frazer's translation. J * Geogr.,* 245. 



EARTH -MOVEMENTS IS THE ilAT OF NAPLES, 
.ubled I 



273 



The [liere a 



if to meet the western extremity ot the Aoi 
Ml 4 to T feel below the enrfaoe. 

Going eastward, we meet with an a<ioi]mulation of eubmerged ruina 
which are not easy to make out, but then follows another basin which 
is bounded by the shore on the north, the ruins on the west, a single 
row of piers on the south. The opoaings between the ^liers are about 
:' feet wide, and there seems to have been a obannel for ships between 
ttie eastern end of the row of piers and a kind of qnay on the eaet, 
irliioh is said to be perforated with openings, 4 to 5 feet in width. 
' Barboar of N!»ida.—Oa the north side of the little island of Kisida, 

tb.^ safuty of the anchorage was scoured by the construotion of two 
«^i-ieB of piers. The western series consisted of eight anil the enstem of 
Bf»'^?en piers. They have almost all fallen or have become concealed by the 
ii».<:>dern breakwaters which have been heaped arounil and over them, but 
ox~a « or two may still be maile out. It is fortunate that careful drawings 
wore mudp when the first modern improvements were Iwing projected in 
1^ 14. It was then recorded that not only were some of the piers pro- 
^i«aed with stone rings for mooring vessels like those upon the Bridge ot 
(^^ligula, but that even bollard heads were still !h »llu upon them, suh- 
la^Tged beneath some to 7 feet of v/ater. Two of the piers of the 
'*"^stem series bear two fastenings for ropes, eaoh at the same level, 
^■■.e is a hole cut in a projei'ting horizontal stone ; the other is a bollard 
li^koil standing in a semicircular niche in the pier (Fig, 
T*i>er part "f the atone is 1 1 feet below 
''^■^v-water mark, whereas originally it 
''''s^s probably quite 4 feet above.'' So, 
if -vre add together 11 + 4 + 2 (the thick- 
ness of the stone), we shall gel 17 feet 
**» the total amount the land is below the 
l»«:*nian level here. 

Between Nisida and the sandy lieach , 
"^ Bagnoli, the comiitions are nearly 
^^opted for the formation of a sunil- 
'^*-linua, with the result that the island would become a peninsula, like 
**^** Isle of Portland. The deposilion of sand, however, is prevented 
hy the prevalent westerly current which sweeps through the channel, 
T'li.B tendency is demonstrated both by the silting up of the harbour 
■**»oe the completion of the new continuous moles, and by the sand-shoal 
io the middle, which may have been a sand-dune connected with the 
"Oaiiiland in Roman times. 

* nroeius 8titte)i that Ihc ahipsof AntoQf'a fleet at Actium (31 d.c.) were 10 Teet in 
l>c:ighl nbove tba water-line. Bollai^l- heads nre ehown upon the bowa of tbe sbips in 
*l'oa|idaiirre«Mi(No. SQiFl, KapleaMuBeum} (ef l''i^. J2}, and so 4 Feet \a Dot anexi'ca- 
>ive ettiuMte Tor ths heigbt nbovu naler of a bollard or mooring-ring on shore. Badj 
'lolkri*, vblcb wore pfobalily litiown as limiiUw, linvo eseftpod the'notice or mint 
^niten on aucietit ibips. 



l:.). 




274 EARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAT OF KAPLE& 

Harbour of Misenum. — The harbour of Miaonnm was proTided with 
two series of piers, designed by the engineers of Agrippa to proieot the 
anchorage from the sdrocco levante. The piers were disposed alterniteljf 
so that waves passing between two piers of the outer series must bntk 
against piers of the inner series. There were eight piers in each row, 
with 8 to Si fathoms of water between them. The tops of all tliete 
piers are now under water, three coming within IJ^, |» and f h&mt 
from the surface respectively, but the indefatigable Fazio discovered a 
horizontal mooring stone fixed in one of the two piers furthest from the 
shore. The top of this stone was 3 feet below the surface, and therefore 
has been taken to indicate a subsidence of land-level of 9 feet at leist. 
There are 4 fathoms just off the end pier. Our further inveetigatioos 
were abruptly terminated by a coastguard officer, whose warning was 
a reminder that Misenum has once more, after a lapse of nearly two 
thousand years, become a military harbour. 

Two Koman tunnels pierce the Pta. di Pennata, and doubtless gave 
access to an ancient foreshore inside the promontory. Their floors 
wliich we believe to have once been dry, are now 2.1 fathoms under watei. 
like the floor of the passage through the Capo Miseno, and the floor ^^ 
the Greek cave. 

TJic Julian Harhour. — The alterations in the level of the land a-^^ 
the eruption of the Monte Nuovo have so changed the distribution ® 
land and water in the vicinity, that it is by no means easy to reoO^' 
struct the exact physical conditions as they existed before the works * 
the Julian harbour were executed. We imagine Avernus a deep 1*^^ 



as at present, for even allowing the land to be 20 feet lower than 
Koman times, the lake would still have been 80 feet deep. On tt^ 
other hand, the Lucrine lake, although much larger, was probab^ 
always shallow. The raised shingle beach separating the ¥rater8 froi^^ 
the sea probably stood further out, and while maintaining its presen 
lieight above the water, must have been at a lower level relatively tc^ 
the land. 

Tlie problems which faced the engineers of Agrippa were, firstly, to * 
dig a ship oanal from the sea to the safe and dee]> anchorage in Avernus ; 
and, secondly, to ensure that the entrance to the channel should be 
practicable in all weathers, and should not be liable to become silted up. 

Of tlieir work not many traces are visible, partly because, having 
V>een carried down with the land in sinking, it has become submerged 
in water or sand, partly becauso it was destroyed or buried by the 
eruption of the Monte Nuovo, when the greater part of the Lucrine 
became filled up. So far as can bo made out, the actual entrance 
to the ship canal in the beach of the Lucrine lake was narrow, and 
difficult of access in rough weather. It was therefore protected by a 
breakwater of eight piers arranged along a line parallel to the shore, 
BO as to leave a navigable channel which ships might enter from either 



^^^^^^m AAttTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAY OF NAPLES, 273 

end.* The western entranoe was sliU furllier prutected by a, row uf 
piers stretcbing out from the shore at right angles, and ending in a 
▼Bry large and strong pier, the " Lintema del porlo Giulio." Agrippa 
probably alec raised and strengthened the bank between the Lnurine 
and Ihe sea. The remains of the outer row of piers Torm the Fnmose 
Recf.t They are arranged in a line eouth-west to northeast, so that the 
spaces between the piers are oblique to the southerly winds which blow 
boroehere. The harbour therefore consisted of three basins — Avernus, 
Lnorine, iind the outer bnstn within the eight piern. The work is 
believed tu have been done in 37 d.<'., { and it natorally received the 
highest praise from the court poet«.§ 

Uowover, a few years afterwnrds the oanal seems <o have silted up ; 
only vessels of aballow draught could enter, and it became unfit for an 
anohorage.il And so Averuns, like Bruudusinm, had to be abandoned 
by Augustus as a etatiou for the Boman fleet, Misenum was subsli- 
tnted for Avernna, and Itavenna for Brundusiniii.lf 

Tlie Iliirhimr of t'amge. — It ia diffioult to make out any traces of a 
harbonr, but it Is jvoBEible that ancient works may lie liuried beneath 
the flands. To judge, however, from the description of Ciiiixe by Diony- 
aius," it would appear that the ancient harbour was on the other side of 
the pionionlory. and ihat the ships which took jrart in ihe naval batlle 
with the Sjraousans had their moorings in the harbour of Miiiennm. 

Lazzaretto di Nisida.— The Bourbon Lanzaretto di Nisida stands 
on a Itoman site of a remarkable nature. The little islet rock (I. di 
I'hioppino, Pioppino, or il Purgatoro), which now forms a strocg and 
natural termination to the eastern mole of the harbour, is traversed 
from end to end by a slightly curved passHge of Koraan workmanship, 
which was lit by apertures in the rock, but these are now submerged. 
Eight of these windows pierce the eastern and one the western side, 
Id the paseage the water is II feet deep, although, owing to the 
aooumnlation of ilelria near the endp, the floor may bo even deeper. 
At each end is an opening covered by an arch under wh'ch the sea 
ebbs and flows, and which can be entered by boat. The arch over the 
north end of the pasfage is rounded, 5 metres wide, and coDstmctod 
of flat tiles. The south arch is pointed and is constructed of alter- 
nating layers of tiles and tufa, the rock above being faced with 

• "M»re Tjrrhenum a Looripo molibus Kclnaum" (Pliny," Nat. Hist.,' iiivi. 125, 
eilil. MajholT). 

■a/amntii ni/amoii. X CMiiodoruB, ' I'ron.,' ii. 

r hnrbiiaiB, iif tlio barriers apt upiin tlia Lucriiie, and the 
nliere Ibe JdIIuti wiitq eoliiies a'lir in tbe Udowu./. and 
.] tlio cliannels of AveruuBf" Virgil, Goorg., II. v. 
181-lW : also of. Horace, • Ait. Poet," C9 : D. Crmiub. xlviii. i'.K 

H ^tttrwKow itxtur^flmfiKappoliivapfiliTairiainiv fixt"iffTO)." Rtrabo, ■ r!eoBr,,'24.i. 
^ BrtndiBi barbour was not reodered aeniceable again niitU ilreJgcd by 1'ignnnti 
•* 'Olympiad.,' Uiv. 



t PerliBpi derived from m 
i "Or Bhhtl Hell of ii 
Ihmidtir "f the iudij^-DtiDt 
Ihe Tyrrhene aurgo [svu 




276 EARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 

opus laleritium. We have no means of knowing the purpose of 
this gallery in the rook, or the manner of fabrio of whioh it once 
formed a part, bnt it is evidence that the building stood at least 
1 1 feet higher out of the water than it does at present, and as the sea 
between this and the mainland is only 10 feet deep, there was in all 
probability a way across in Boman times. There is also evidence 
that the tunnel at a subsequent period had been completely submerged, 
because barnacle-shells have been found adherent to the stones on the 
roof. This submergence was no doubt coeval with that which resulted 
in the formation of the groove of erosion on the cliffs at Trentaremi, and 
at the eastern end of the island of Nisi da itself. The same low land- 
mark has been noted by Babbage on a cliff by the side of the road from 
Naples to Pozzuoli, where, frqm perforations in the rock, he extracted 
fragments of the shells of Lithophagus, Serpula, Area, and Balanns. 

Submerged Ruins near Pozzuoli. — The aueient harbour works have 
already been described. To the west the shore was lined for a oon- 
siderable distance by an almost uninterrupted succession of pnblio 
buildings, and a most convincing demonstration of the rise and fall of 
land is afforded by some of the ruins. The well-known "Temple of 
Serapis" or Maoellum is described in every geological text-book, and 
therefore needs no further notice here than the oft-repeated statement 
that its loweat floor is now 5 feet below the surface of the sea, whereas 
its three columns "sono un tesoro in geologia, son medaglie ooniate 
dalla natura, le quali non possono essere falsificate" (Pilla). They 
prove a submergence of about 1 9 feet below the present sea-level. 

Beyond the old Maoellum lay the Bipa, a quay with colonnades 
along which the Puteolans delighted to promeuade ; and further still, 
below the Starza, was a Portions or colonnade, of which there has 
lasted a long row of columns standing in the sea, which is generally 
shown as the "Tempio delle Ninfe," and which may have detained 
•• C. Avianium, fortasse in portion Neptuni ambulantem," • when he 
was expected at the villa of Q. Hoiiensius at Bauli. The ruins may 
be considered to indicate the ancient shore-line. 

It is a matter of interest that certain repairs to the Bipa had to be 
undertaken in Boman times, perhaps on account of subsidence of the 
land. The manner of the restoration is recorded in two inscriptions 
in the Naples Museum.f 

Ruins of Bauli. — The beaches of the Lucrine lake and of Bala are 
separated by a headland, the Pta. dell' Epitaffio, which, jutting out into 
the sea, forms the northern limit of the Bay of Baia. The modem 
road from Pozzuoli to Baia rises some yards from the sea to pass through 
a cutting near the extremity of this headland, and many ruins may be 
seen on the hillsides. Scotti and Mortorelli support their contention 



♦ Cic, * Acad.', ii. 25. 80. f Imct. Neap. 2510 and 2500. 



^1 EABTH.M0VEM2NT3 IN THE BAY OK NAPLES, '111 

that the ancient Bauli is to be identified with this site rather than 
with Baooli on the other side of Baia by much interesting and oon- 
vincing erudition, and we are fully in agreement with their view that 
BaTtti must have been here near the Via Horculanea, and between the 
" porttie Baianim " and " Lftcus Liiorinua." * 

The shore is lined with the ruins of ancient houses, of which the 
greater part have been washed away. 

The most imposing house of all is a three-storey building of which 

the lower storey is submerged. The scale of the building may be 

jnclgei by the fact tliat tbe ohamberB are 3J yards across, anil that 

the vaulting of the ground-floor rooms is li feet above the water-level, 

tho floor being about r. feet lieh>w. At the water-level is a course 

of red tiles perforated with round holes. It is interesting to note that 

tho walls have been eroded at the springing 'if the arches mf the 

nf>-pt2T storey. We have, therefore, fiirther confirmatory evidence of tho 

groa-tesf submergence having oecuri-ed since Homan times, and tlie well- 

proservcd walls below the erosion-liue show that the ear tb -movements 

''^'Ofit have been relatively rapid. 

I n the face of the cliff above the beach may he neen many ohambera 
of E>.nother building, of which the front wall has been demolished by the 
waves. 

A^'ere the Innd-levcl ..f tbe site of Bauli to be raiaeil, tho beaohes 
**** ctither side would extend further along umler the cliffs, and all the 
'^'^il^linge on the shore would be provided with an easy means of access. 
'*** it is not at all improbable that in early times the road from Baiiu lo 
"Otooli may have passed round tho Pta. doll' Epitaffio, and then along 
tne ^ia Herculanea close to the edge of tbe water. And by this high- 
^^*y the first Reasido houses at Bauli may have sprung up. 

StagDum Baiarum.^The identification of tbe Sta<;num Baiarnm has 
^I'ways been a difficulty with archaeologists, and it has generally been 
"^oiiBi.lered synonymous with the Liicrine lake. The pool of Baiaa is 
"^Scribed in the life of Alexander iSeverus as if it were a lagoon which 
*■*» not at first in communication with tbe sea, but was opened to it, 
**»d it is tbe " si'agsv " depicted upon the Borgiano and Piombino glass 
^SAes. " In matrem Mammieam unice pius, , . . ita ut faceret in Baiano 
P*lfttinm cum stagno, quod Mammj>*» nomine hodieque censetnr. Fecit 
^t alia io Baiano, opera magnifioa in honorem affinium suorum, et stsgna 
*tupanda admis^o mari." t 

In the Bay of Baia we have a curve in the coast suitable for beaoh 
lormation, but the water deepens rather more rapidly than off the 
Lnorine or Fuaaro shore ; were it shallower, we might expect to find 
't crossed by a sand-bar thrown up by the sea. If, in accordauoe with 
"^nr theory, we imagine tbe land to be raised Iti feet, the sea would 



' Nat. Hist.,' edit. Jubb, tli, 61. t Lsmpridiai, ■ Vlt. Al«x. Severi,' 26. 



278 



KARTH-MOVEJIENTS in the bay 0? NlPLCl^ 



retreat from the Bay of Baia, leaving behind an isolsiod pool of water, 
1 to 2 yards deep, a lagoon like the Lnorine lake or the ftlare Morto, 
■eparated from the sea by a eandbank (!Map, p. 236, and Fig. 16). 

The proiimity of a low foreshore and of suuh a pool of stagnant 
water might have contril.-uted to the notorious unbeaUhineeB of Bain 
in certain sessone,* and we believe that we have here diaoovered the true 
Bite of the "stagnnra Baiarum." t 

Nero's great ship oanal wonid, if completed, have passed through 
it, and upon the shoals outside we should «spect to Gnd the foandntioDH 
<if flome of the buildings in (he sea of anoient llaiio. 

The Submerged Street between Baia and Misesum.— Some of tbo 
i]iii]i8 (I'ulifon's map, 100(1) uf tbis pari of the cciat drawn before the 




beginning of the nineteenth ceutnry indicate a street whioh stretched 
acroBB the sea-bottom in a southerly direction from Baia towRids 
Bacoli, and which may have been the Via Miseni by the aide of whioh 
Agrippiua waH interred. J. 

The remains of this Htrest are by no means as numerons or as oloee 
together as they appear to have been when these maps were prepared. 
In the little bay between the Pta. di I'annito and the northern rim 
of the Bacoli crater tho red-brick walls of a houEe rise from water 
about 'i feet deep. The bottom is sandy. To tho sonth of this are 
other walls, and more may l>e seen under the oliff fide of the Oenfo 

• 'OmtiilorBaiiB iiiiBtri», ii qnidem,nt a<Tibis,BaliibreB repeale f«ot(B »aat.' Cimk 
to Dolabella, fnm. Ix, 12. 1. Writlon 45 O.C. 

t \ot tho InciiB BuiimuH, wbicli was prolinbly Hie Lurriiip, Taoititi. Ana. x»i. 4. 
t TaoitHB. Ann, siv 9. 



F.ARTH-MOVEHKSTS IN THE BAY OP NAPLES, 



279 



rftmerelle headland, where there is an ancient etriicturo 5 feet bigh 
standing in l^ to 10 feet of water. 

Lapi Fusaro or Lacus Acherusia. — The western shore of the Phlegrtean 
Fields 18 chiefly characterized by its shallow lagoons. Between the pro- 
montories of Cape Misennra and the 5Ionte di Procida is the Mare llorto, 
divided from the sea by the l^riniscola beach ; the Logo Fusaro fills the 
bay in the hills between Monte di Frocida and the hill of Cuntee ; north 
of Cumce is the Lago di Licola, and still further north is the La^o di 
Patria. Ail these lakes are separated from the sea by sandy beaches of 
relatively narrow width, and their waters stand, in consequence, at 
sea-level. .Vny alteration, therefore, in land-level would bo followed 
immediately by an alteration in the level of the wnter in these lagoons, 
and a rise of the land of but a few feet would have the ofPoL-t of drying 
np the greater porlion of them. On the other hand, it must also be 
borne in mind that snbsidence of land tends to cause l>eaches to be 
moved fnrther inland by the waves, whereas a rise in land-level wouhl 
tend to preserve beaches from further alteration by wave-action. 

The waters of the T.ake nf Fusaro oommnnicatc with those nf the sea 
by a canal wiiieh enters a Roman tunnel • under the tufa hill of Torre 
Gaveta. The tunne! is 1!16 yards long. U to 18 feet wide, and of the 
Bsme height as the Poailipo tunnel, The depth of water in it is abont 
4 feet, and a masonry lining of opus retteiAlnlum and lalerilium oovoreil 
the interior. This tunnel is commonly lielieved to have been made for 
the purpose of an emissary to the lake ; indeed, Fazio has argued from 
it that the sea-level in Roman times must have been the same as at 
present. 

On the hill above the tunnel are the mins of the villu of Servilius 
Vatis-t and in the sea below are many submerged ruins, the most im- 
portant of which are described by Nicrolini as the Tlagno dell' Arco, 
a chamber hollowed out of a detached rock, with iive niches on either 
side ; an ancient cistern ; a " hath " with throe large niobes, also cut in 
the rock; and a flight of steps, A re -ex ami nation of this site has con- 
vinced ns that here too there is evidence of considerable subsidence. 
In fact, we believe that the niches and flonra of the so-called " baths " 
were originally alwve water, and that two of the rock-hewn cavities 
were the caves whicJi Seneca considered worthy of mention. 

The floor of the tunnel thi-ough the rock must also have been dry, 
nnd therefore it appeara tliat the hill was pieroed to pennit of accew 
from the land to the buildings which atood clustered at the foot of the 
hill on the sea. If there had been need of any artificial commnnioation 
between the Acherusian lake and the sea, it ia more likely to have 

■ Somettmei called s caTe of Cerberua. 

t There ia do other nite athieb answers eo well to Seneca's itoBcriplion : "Speliinc;« 
*niil dn«B magDJ operi^. ciiiyis Ikh atrio piires, mHOU fsotiB. inionim sllorn solem non 
I^IjtiBit, altera luqne in occidentem tenet."' Seocai. Epiat. Ir, 




KABTH-MOVSMKNTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 281 

UnfoTiiinately, the eyidenoe that is forthoomiDg to aid us in eluci- 
^li^img the two latter points, the period and the duration of these 
oi^^anges, is not yeiy exact; but what there is of it has been summed 
by Prof. Suess. 

There is an undercliff near Pozzuoli, called *' La Starza," which was 
der water from the thirteenth to the beginning of the sixteenth 
ntury ; this is now high and dry. The date of the rising is supplied 
J documentary eyidence, for Ferdinand the Catholic in 1503 made 
gift to the University of Pozzuoli of land " where the sea was drying 
p." It follows that the land must have begun to rise at an earlier 
te. In 1538 — that is, thirty-five years after — occurred the " horrible 
d astonishing eruption " of Monte Nuovo, and a great piece of the 
ea-bottom is stated to have been left dry. According to Prof. Suess,* 
^ was at this time that the rise of the Temple of Serapis, and therefore 
f the land around the New Mountain, took place ; that is, that there 
a rise of some 18 to 19 feet in a few hours. While fully allowing 
a mall local rise of land of a seismic nature during the eruptioD, the 
^^vidence does not justify us in assuming the great cataclysm the accept- 
^O.ce of Prof. Saess* theory involves. We have shown that the facts point 
the movement of the Temple of Serapis having been accompanied 
the movement of Posilipo, of the Sorrentine peninsula, of Capri, 
of Gaeta, and therefore probably of a far larger area than the Bay 
Naples. And with documentary evidence to the contrary, it is 
rely not right to assume that so large a portion of the Earth's surface 
ould have suddenly become possessed of sufficient mobility to have 
rung up 18 feet in a few hours. And, even had the area been 
ore limited, and restricted to the Bay of Naples, it is still unlikely 
at a movement so sudden would have remained unchronicled in the 
^me of the gifted viceroy Pietro di Toledo, all the more that he was 
st then engaged in the erection of a new lighthouse upon a mole in 
he port of Naples. 

That earth-movements of almost seismic rapidity have often occurred 

8 certain; for instance, on December 8, 1861, l^almieri recorded an 

illatory movement of the shore accompanying an eruption of Yesu- 

us. Kocks covered with seaweed and shells were raised 1*12 metre 

above the sea-level at Torre del Greco, and during the next three months 

sank 0*241 metre. But this movement was very local, being almost 

entirely restricted to the base of the mountain. 

It appears, then, that the last great upheaval of the Italian coast, 
whatever the cause, was on too vast a scale to have occurred during the 
short-lived convulsion of Monte Nuovo. We believe that the land had 
been rising steadily, though the movement was unfelt, during the 
half-oentury preceding the formation of Monte Nuovo; that this 






♦ ' Antlitz der Erde,' vol. ii. p. 490. 



282 



EARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAY OF NAPLES. 



oar til -movement wba attended by conditioas fnvourable to the productiou 
of Tolcanie phenomena 1 that an eruption and a sadden looal rise took 
place towards the termination of the whole movement; — in fact, that 
the eruption of ^lonte Nuovo was but an insignificant episode of only 
looal importance in the closing scene of a particular phase of an oscilla- 
tion of the Italian coast. 

Subsidence of Land in Recent Time. —As evidence for the nature vi 
the land' movements which have been inking plaoe in the most recent 
times, we have the general belief among boatmen and fishermen that 
the laud ia lower than it used to be in tbeir fathers' day. We liave 
heard it stated that it was possible tv walk dryshod along the Posilipo 




shore fnm the Villa Grotta Marina to Fatazzo Donn'Ajiua in 1»20; 
now it is impussible. Colonel Macintosh has maile a Hiiiiilar ubaervation 
with regard to the Fa;tzuoH shore. He was informed that in 1847 mirinks 
inhabited the Ospizio dei Capuccini during the wanner mouths of the 
year, in spite of the fact that the water stood bo high as frequently to 
enter the lower storey of the building, covering the fli N.>r. The refectory, 
kitohouB, etc., had therefore to be entirely abandoned, and the monks 
resided allogether in the upper storey, and had dotie to for Eome timt-. 
The side of the convent next the sea (under water in 1847) had been 
a vineyard, and an old monk (about sixty) stated that he had for many 
years eaten grapes grown on a spot which he pointed out, and which 
Macintosh saw covered with about 3 feet of water, and traversed by 
boats. Vestiges of the walls of the vineyard were to be seen standing 
in the water. 



EARTH-MOVEMtSTS 1« THK BAY OK NAl'LES. 283 

All tlittt reuiuins of the Lospioe at jireeeut is literally in the wuter, 
uid the wooden l)ridge out to it pasaca ovgf the remains of a pavemeut 
^hioh, though now more than a loot under water, was need a few ^'ears 
*E0 by peraoTiB entering the convent. 

At voriuaB tiiuee the roadway between Pozzuoli und Naples has been 

undiiruiined by the sea for a oooeiderablo length, allbough very strongly 

built and faced with BoUd masonry. The damage wuk attributei solely 

to ilurniy weather; but a sinliing foundation was moat likely an assiat- 

iog oauBB. The new road has been oonstiiioted further inland at 

/r/imenee coat by eutting into the fuoe of the old lava rocks, where they 

advADoa close to the sea, and formicg breakwaters at other places of 

enormous blocks of that stone. 

We may i>6rha]ia be permitted to repeat here the hydro me trioal 
olie«»xvations of Niociflini, nude with a tide-gauge Used in the Temple 
of Serapis, which was then in more open communication with the sea 
ttit&n it is at present. From October ij, 1822, to July 1, 1838, the 
laxid sank 4*3 inches, or from about 027 to 031 inch ]ier nunum; and 
frorxi July 1, 1838, to July 1. 1846, it sank if(i inches, or at a rate of 
"■^^o-ut 08 inch a year. Bcaocbi notes that in 1852 the water was not 
■■t^iading as high as in 184-*), bo that the land appeared to be rising once 
nt^oT-e (Roth'i. The obsfrvation may, however, have been due to the 
pro-valence of a particular wind, which, a8 we have often observed, may 
P»"»^ciuce a diflbtence of water-level of a few incbee. Guiscardi has 
*»oted ft subsidence of the Bridge of (.'aligula of 0-34'J mette in twenty- 
S-vo years. 

On account of fluctuations of sea-level due to wind and tide, it is 
not always a simple matter to make accurate observations of land- 
'^^'ol, and records depending upon a single observation are liable to 
•considerable error. In order to ascertain the mean tide-level, ubeerva- 
tioneof the height of the sea were made during the summer of H'OI, 
**'itb a tide-gauge fixed to the quay of Villa Itosebery; we noticed a 
"^riation of as much as 16 inches in a few hours during spring tides. 
■*^i»oj8 observations ought to he repeated in a few years' time, in order 
*■*' ascertain whether the subsidence is still cntinuing. 

Jt is worth noting that Neapolitan cagineere undertake a great 
^■^'*>i-k like the euiU^ario di Cuma, u, sewer 'J^ miles long, and wilh u 
**tl of unly Ot>5 in 1000, across a region which has been so subject to 
^BM-bges of level. Water has lung ceased to flow along the ancient 
^•>tkian aqueducts to I'uteoli and Misenum : may not the earlier earlh- 
•Uovemeute have been the cause? 

QEHhKAL ^'o^"CLUM10^8, 

That the upward movemente of the land in recent geological times 
Wve been much in excess of the downward movements, is shown by 
"»o oecurreuee of recent marine tlepobits on Mount Kpomeu in inchia, 



284 EABTH-MOVEMKNTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES. 

at a height of 500 metres above sea-level. When these deposits were 
in process of formation, the whole of the Phlegraean fields would have 
been submerged. The land did not rise continuously, but remained 
stationary at the levels now indicated by the sea-worn caves high up 
on the cliffs of Capri and of the mainland. The Lithodomus borings 
observed Id the Tiber valley at heights of 276 and 268 metres (Suess) 
were probably formed about the same time. During this period of 
elevation, the sea-bottom was rent by the volcanic outbursts, which 
threw up the older craters of the Fhlegrasan Fields, and the sea carried 
the ashes far up into the valleys of the Apennines. 

Later stages in the elevation are indicated l3y the deposits of sea- 
sand older than the Roman period upon Monte Olibano, at a height of 
32 feet** The upward movement continued until the land reached 
and passed its present level by some 20 feet at least. So far as uur 
evidence goes within the historical period, the land stood at its greatest 
elevation at the time of the Greek colonization. That a slight sub- 
sidence may have been going on during the Eoman dominion is indicated 
by the repeated incursions of the sea across the ancient Via Heroulanea 
into the Lucrine lake and by the need of repairs to the Ripa, but that 
the land was still at a much higher level than it is now is certain. 
The fall of the land followed the fall of the empire. 

In the dark ages the larger part of Amalfi was carried down by the 
subsidence and lost under a waste of waters. The upper groove of 
erosion was being etched upon cliffs and buildings in the thirteenth, 
fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. The most recent elevation of the 
land occurred about the beginning of the sixteenth century, but was 
not great enough to lay dry the Eoman foreshore, which is now for a 
second time slowly sinking beneath the waves. 

Several facts, hitherto unexplained, are in accordance with the theory 
of subsidence. There is evidence that the banks of the Tiber are much 
lower at present than in ancient times, whereas the water in the river, 
depending as it dues upon the level of the sea, has remained at its 
original level,t for Pliny (xxxvi. 104) speaks of Agrippa being rowed 
into the Cloaca maxima, the mouth of which it is now impossible to 
enter. 

Further, a Eoman maDsion was discovered in the gardens of La 
Farnesina, which was decorated with magnificent paintings and stucco 
panels. The pavements of this noble mansion were only 8*20 metres 
above the level of the sea, and about 3 metres above the level of the 
Tiber. During the four months employed by Prof. Lanciani in removing 



* Babbage and Sir £dw. Head in 1828 ; 12 metres (Suess). 

t Measurements made at the marble wharf (Marmoratd) and alongside the ancient 
embankments show that since the fall of the empire, the modern bed of the river bat» 
hardly risen 3 feet with reference to its banks (Observations of I'adre Seochi in 1869 
and of the engineers, reported by Prof. Lanciani). 



EARTH-MOVEMKNTri IN THE ISAY OK NAPLES. 



■285 



Uie frescooG unil pauels, tlie Tiber enteied tbe hotiEO five times. By the 
tlieory that the IiiTid is luwer than when the hunse was bnilt, those 
fftctH are ezjilained. 

And by the earou theory we may explain the appareat rise of the 
subterraneun water-level ninler Rome. On either aide of the Via Poli 
the pavement of nn afloient street was found under 2 feet of water; 
Ibe cellars of the wine dock iu t!ie gardfina of La Famoeina wcro flooded 
up to the key of their vanlls in 1877. and many other instances arc well 
liaowii to the explorers of subterranean Home. 

On the other hand, the advance of the coast westwards at the moutlia 
of the Tiber, at u rate which has been estimated at 9-liO metres per 
annum at the Ostia mouth, and ^'10 metres at the Fiumiciuo month, 
»vt>iild at first sight seem to be in opposition to our theory nf subsidence, 
wore it not for the fact that the river brings down some 4,OUO,000 cubic 
moires of sand and mud per annum, and that the prevalent winds are 
' from the south-west. 

To return to the Phlegnean Fields, our theory explains why the Lago 
d',Agnano, a hirge sheet of water a mile in circumference in the seven- 
t^«aQth century, is not mentioned by any Roman writer, for with the 
la.K]dat a higher level, the diainage level of the country would be relatively 
Icuwereil, and the Lago d'Agnano wonld noi have been in existence. 

And, finally, we wish to attribate to the same cause of Hubeidence the 
present unhealthiQeSii of the low-lying plain of Paestum. We do not 
Ixilieve that a city containing some of the most magnificent Greek 
templet!, and one whioh had leached the state of culture implied by the 
frtssooea in the Naples Museum, would have flourished in tlie middle of 
H. xaalarious swamp, the uureery of mosquitoes, and now abandoned to 
BQipe and buffalo. 



I USBECOBIIEO S 



E SlTLPIIDKC 



When bathing \a colm weather iasiclo the modern breakwater near the Capo d! 
'*o*ilipo, W6 noticed, on tevernl occasions, the odour of aulphuretteil hydrogen very 
'•■aUnctl; at a particular spot uear thu middle of the hsibour. The existence at 
■"is spot of a mineral Bpring of the naiure of the iicqiia sol/una of Santa Lucit in 
'^ ^ples has, so far as we know, not beeo placed on record, although in a cave near 
■•.y anlphurctted irater has been pumped for many ytars. Tbu source of the spring 
"'"oold have been above the eca-lcvel in the Roman dayii, and would have l-een near 
'** ^ lino of Ihe ancient coaat rend. The exact position will bo indicated in the map 
"~* «iu arcbasological paper. 



llEFEnENCES. 

BtbbBge, R. — ' OhservatloDB oo the Temple of Serap)i>,' 184T. 

Bellori, J, F. — ' FragmentB vesligii veteiis KomiB.' 

Mocb, J.—' Ci.mpnnien.' 2ni J^dit. 1890. 

Braiuw, — . — ' Dai> Problem des Serapeums von PoEcuoli.' Sebriften dor 

Le^ipoldinischec Akademie. 188S. [Tbe auther coQBidera the Berapeum to 

imve been an aquarium for mnrlne fish !] 
No. III.— Septemukr, 1903.] i 



286 EARTH-MOVEMENTS IN THE BAT OF NAPLES— DISCUSSION. 

Breiilak, B. — ' Voyages physiques et lithologiques daos la Gampanie.' Paris. 

1801. 
OliiYariiis, P.~*< Italia antiqua.'' Lugd. Bat. 1624. 
Faiio, G. — * Discorso intomo al sistema di costruzione de PortL' Napoli. 1814. 

„ * Nuove osseryazioni.' Napoli. 1832. 
OoethSi W. Yon. — ' Architectoniscb-naturhistorisches Problem.' 1823. 
Giiiither, B. T.— ** The Phlegraean Fields." Geogr. Joum., October, 1897. 

„ '* On the Possibility of obtaining more reliable Measurements 

of the Changes of the Land-level of the PblegroBan Fields." Scottish Oeogr. 

Journal, October, 1900. 
Xopiseh, A. — ''Entdeckung der blauen Grotte auf der Insel Capri." Iteclum. 

Univ, Bibliothek, No. 2907. 
Lyell, 0.—* Principles of Geology.' London. 10th Edit. 1868. 
Maointosh, Colonel. — '* On the Ospizio dei Capaccini at Pozzuoli." Quart. 

Journ, OeoL Soc,, vol. iv., 1847. 
Maokowan, Captain. — ' Capri.' 
Mangoni, B. — ^Ricerche topografiche ed archeologiche suU' isola di Capri.' 

Napoli. 1831. 
Nioeolini, A. — * Descrizione della gran terma puteolana yolgarmente detta 

Terapio di Serapide.' Napoli. 1846. 
Faoli, Padre. — * Antiquitatum Puteolis, Cumis, Bais existentiom reliquiae.' 

Napoli. 1768. 
Both, J. — ^ Der Vesuv und Umgebang von Neapel.' Berlin. 1857. 
Sness, E.— ' Das Antlitz der Erde.' Vol. ii. 1888. 

Erratum.— T. 127, footnote : For St. Michele and St. Croce read S. Miohele and Sta. 
Croce. 



Before the reading of tbe paper, the President said: Our associate, Mr. 
Giinther, was the last of our travelling students at Oxford, and when he was 
appointed be selected, as the region that he would examine, the country round tbe 
Biy of Naples. Since then he has continued his researches, and I think you will 
find from his paper that he has done some very excellent work. I will ask Mr. 
Giinther to read his paper. 

After the reading of the paper, the following discussion took place : — 
Mr. J. J. H. Teall : I think, sir, we must all agree that we have listened to a 
very important paper on a very interesting subject. It evidently contains a large 
amount of carefully observed facts, and it is coupled with a good deal of classical 
reseaurch. Indeed, what strikes me as one of the leading features of the paper is 
the way in which the author has brought all kinds of knowledge to bear on this 
problem, and has led up to some most interesting conclusions. I regret, sir, 
that I have no personal acquaintance with the district, and the very few remarks 
that I can offer must be based on second-hand knowledge. The last general 
discussion of the phenomena of the rise and fall of land on this portion of the 
Italian coast, with which I am acquainted, is that contained in Prof. Suess' 
well-known work. He refers to the three columns of the Temple of Serapis, and 
arrives at the conclusion that the oscillations, recorded by those columns, have 
taken place in the interior of what he calls the Phlegraean crater, and are 
comparable to the rise and fall of the lava-crust in the crater of Eilauea, 
or to the rise and fall of the ice* covering of a pond in consequence of the change 
in the amount of water in that pond. In short, he arrives at the conclusion 
that tbe phenomena are strictly local. Now, the paper that we have listened 
to 8 'ems to show very clearly that the phenomena are far more general than 



EAHTH-MOVEMENTS IS THE BAY OF NAPLES- DISCUSSION. 



287 



would follow from Prof. Suesii' view ; that we bave not bimplj' to do with the 
osciliBtions of land in a crater, but that we have to do with pbenonieDa in poBt- 
Roiuan time* wliich have afiecled a very considerabts pxtcnt of cuaet. lodeed, 
I gather that Mr. Gilother would coacect the movemeiits that he b&s deaciibcd 
witb tbose that hais taken place as far north as Itome, 1 can imagine that there 
may be some doubt aa to nhether the coast along the whole line moved simultane- 
oiuly; but certainly the evideuce, as be bos preseoted it, seemE vor; atrouglf 
to point to that conclusiou, and if eo, then we bavo to deal with phenomena 
fai- more general than those contemplated by SuesB, and we are led on to coo- 
aider whether tbo raovementa along the Neapolitan coast are not movements 
BD&logouB to those in Scandinavia and mnuj other dietricla. Mr. Giinther is 
strongly of opinion that these changeu of level are to be attributed to changes in 
tba level of the land, and nut in any way to changes in the level of the water. He 
has proved quite clearly that cliangea in the Itvel of the water will certainly not 
account for all the phenomena. The tilting of the upper erosion-line in the island 
of Cnpri proves, of course, in the most conviaclng way, that some movement of the 
land mugt have taken place. I can imagine, however, that Prof. Sueaa would 
claim, at any rate, a portion of the phenomena as being due to changes in the level 
of tlie sea, and on that point I certainly do not feel competent to express auy 
definite opinion. Well, sir, the paper, as 1 said, is undoubtedly a most interesting 
coattibntioD to a must important subject. We shall all study it, 1 am sure, with 
tbe Very greatest of interest, and all future discuBsione, as to movements in relative 
level of land and sen, will have to take this communication into consideration. 

Prof. BoNMEf : My friend Mr. Teall has seized upon the salient point in this 
I'^per ; it is that Mr. Giiuther has made )ierfectly clear what was a matter of doubt 
^fore. We all have known for long — at least 150 years — that there had been 
a depression and then a rise of the land in the immediate neighbourhood of 
E*ozEuoli, but neither Lyell nor Reclus Hould venture to say positively that that 
Was more than a local change, and there was a disposition to connect the subsi- 
'^^ooes and the rise with an uruption in tbe year 1538. Now, it seenis to roe that 
Uf ■ Giinther bas brought together such a mnss of evidence of different kinds that he 
Ijaa proved this phenomenon to be not a local phenomenon, hut one which affected 
^ery large areas of that part of Italy, so that, as Mr. Teall cays, this paper takes 
'^B forward a distinct step. Tlie movements up and down in the Bay of Naples 
^^^« their place with other movements in other parts of the Earth's surface. Oce 
ix^ini b Mr. Guuther's paper was distinctly news to me. I had always supposed 
'^ possible the coast might have been a little highnr in Boman time?, but I 
'*^vu realized that the evidence was to strong as it is that the land must have 
**'*>id at least 17 feet higher in Roman times, and then have sunk to something 
^k« 18 or 20 feet below its present level, and afterwards, probably in the earlier 
^^^-n of the sixteenth century, have come up. In fact, we can fix tlie dates 
^lerably well. The so-called temple could hardly have begun to sink before 
■*« esrlier part of the fifth century, and between that data and the earlier part 
*■ the sixteenth century the submergence, the boritig intu the columns, and the 
^*ing again must have taken place. This is a part of a very much wider-spread 
^^enomenoo. It has been asserted that since the first advent of our forefathers 
^^to the district of the lowlands of Europe there have been rather marked 
changes of level, and some even think that the coast of UolUnd, the coast of the 
**^orth of France, and even the coast of stoady-gobg Scotland, have not altogether 
IX'sserved their level. It has been claimed th>it in the Firth of Forth there has 
"ceu t slight change of level since the Roman times. It would be a very good 
^lilDg if we could have a tones of marks run across England from sea to sea ; not 

X 2 



I 



288 £ARTH-M0V£I1ENTS IN TU£ BAY OF NAPLES— DISCUSSION. 

that we should get the benefit of thera, because for any one to do it for his own 
satisfaction would be something like that celebrated Greek who» when be was a Terj 
old man, having been told that a raven lived a hundred years, bought a young one for 
the purpose of making the experiment. The movements will be slow, but still we 
want some more definite evidence to see whether the level of the land ramains u 
uniform as is supposed. There have been changes in South Americ* and Nev 
Zealand, sometimes slow and sometimes quick ; but in many parts of the Earth there 
are earth-movements which cannot be explained by mere changes of sea-level; 
in some cases they must certainly be changes of land-level. I think Mr. Giiotber 
has made it clear that, although the change in the level of the sea has had toot- 
thing to do with it, here in the lUy of Naples there has been also a change in the 
level of the land, and one that has affected a very large area. 

Dr. H. WooDWAUD : I du not think I can add anything to the remarks Mr. 
Teall and Prof. Bonney have already made on this very admirable paper. 1^ 
is most int^restiDg to find that a subject which was taken up by Mr. Babbag^ 
in 1828 has now been made use of as the text for a new paper to-night, and tha^ 
around the Temple of Serapis, which was the original subject on which M^* 
Babbage founded his paper, Mr. GUuther has gathered a vast number of valn*^^ 
and new facts which all bear upon the same problem. The importance of trh^ 
Mediterranean seaboard for examinations of this kind is very apparent, beca*'^''^ 
the efiect of the tides on the coast is there less visible than on our own shores, ^^ 
iostance, where a great rise and fall take place, especially on the western sid^ ^ 
England. But in the Mediterranean, where only a few feet constitute the m^'^ 
between high and low water mark, thise lines of old erosion, which stand ^^^^ 
height of 20 feet or more above the present sea-level, and are exact replicsB of t^-^ 
marks which the sea is now producing on the sea-level, arc of the greatest value . 

the geologist as evidence of an ancient sea-margin, and furnish an admirable reco^ ^^ 
of the former height of the coast-line. On our own coast, we have not thoee reooi^' 
which mark the Bay of Naples in the fhape of historical buildings which can be tdasC^^^^"^ 
use of, but we have many indicatious ; for instance, in the submersion and erosion ' 
the Channel islands and of the western coast of the Bristol channel, and many sa^^^\ 
merged forests along the coast which indicate in pre-historic times great chang^^|\^ 
of level along our shores. But the advantage of the spot which Mr. Giinther \j^^^^ 
selected lies in the fact of so many important date-marks being found on the coas^^'^. 
which fix the exact time and period in history during which the change ^^^^S^* 
level has arisen. Of course, we have another factor in the Bay of Naples which is- ^^. 
not to be appealed to on our own coast, that of the near presence of active volcani^^ 
movements and disturbances, so that that factor has to be taken into consideratioE^^^ 
in the changes which have been indicated in the paper that we have listened to to-^ — ^,^ 
night. Still, the importance to the geologist and to the antiquarian in the work >^^ i 
which Mr. Ciiiuthcr has done cannot be overestimated, and some of the things which 
he has mentioned in his paper — all of which I do nut think he read — with regard 
to the interior of those grottoes are of very great importance, because he takes the 
line of argument that those caves have not been eroded by water-action such as we 
are familiar with in the caves of Derbyshire and other limestone caves in this 
country, where fresh water has acted upon the rooks and has eroded the caves 
before they came within reach of the sea. In this case, Mr. Giinther argues that 
the change of level of the sea has eroded the caves ; that when the sea was 
at a high level it eroded the roofs of the caves, and when at a lower level 
it eroded the floor ; and he has cited evidence of very great importance that 
in the Blue grotto there was formerly an entrance to one of the palaces above, 
which was actually accessible then, not as now by small boats, but by ordinary 



c 



EARTH-MOVKMBNTS IN THE BAY OF NAPLES— DISCUSSION. 



239 



T«ssel!i, which could havs reached tha entrance of one of the old Itoman palaces 
thAt Bland OD Capri above the care. I am only rectpLtnlating remarks which will 
be fouDd in Mr. Giinthcr's pajier, and therefore I must apologize for detaining the 
meeting by further remarks; but I hare been extremely interested both from a 
goological and a geographical point of view in the paper which Mr, GUnther bu 
read, and I cocgratulnte the Society on having received to valuable a contributioD. 

Mr. D. G. HooARTTi ; 1 do not Ihink, air, that I can do very much more than 
congratulate Mr. Ctinther upon the suoceas of bis arcfa(bological evidence. Tbis is 
not perhaps primarily an archKological question at all, and as au archaiologist, whoa 
0D« baa to deal with aubaidences of the land, I am bound to say I bavo always 
feared the verdict of the geologist. On the present occasion, I think Mr. Giinther 
bas had emphatic con6rmalion from most digtioguished geologiate. Some part of 
Nt. Gtinther's evidence, particularly that part referring to plans of bouieH taken 
by llie sea-teleecope, would not, had it stood by itself, been convincing. It is 
alwaya extremely difliciilt so to distinguish the ground-plan of the habitable part 
of a bouse from a ground-plan of foundations. When you cannot make out the walln, 
»nd itill Ibbb clearly the doors, it is almost impossible to produce conoluaivo evi- 
dence that what you havs been surveying is rrally a ground floor. I should say, 
having seen Mr. Giiother's surveys, that he did tied parts of houses once inhabited ; 
bnt there are other facts which Mr. Giinther did not dwell upon which were 
ftbaolutely conclnsive. There are flights of steps which are now a conBiderable 
depth below the water. Tou do not build flightB of steps eo that the top step is 
tl feet below the surface. There was one point which he did emphasise, and that 
was the piers which have holes now aerera! feet under water, ar.d rings to which 
■hips were once moored. Agtin I put it to the meeting, for what purpose could 
these rings have been put iu their present position except fur mooring vessels. 
These phenomena are to be found on a very large and interesting scale in 
Alexandria, where at present, an I fouod to my ccst, not only has the water-leve! 
risen on the land to such an extent that all early Alexandria is now under water 
at the spring of the jear, but there exicnds out into the tea, in what is uot now 
the harbour, bat was the old harbour, vary large remains of buildings which are 
now entirely a-waah. It was there 1 tritd to raske a little experiment in aub- 
marioe surveying. I culy wish some one who had the patience and experience 
of Mr. Giinther would go to Alexandria and examine the coast. There may be 
found, by the use of tbe submarine telescope, not only interesting ground-plans, 
but also interesting and artistic remains. I am thankful that he has brought to 
bear such a mass of evidence as to leave no doubt about the subsidences. 

Tbe Prebidest : ! am sure the meeting has listened with great interest to Mr. 
OUiitber'a paper, and I think we ought to congratulate hira on his views having 
received conSrmstion from tbe eminent geologists who have honoured us with their 
presence tl.is evening. As I listened to tbe paper, I could not help reflecting of 
what great value history, and especially arcbieology, often is in the solution of 
geological and geographical questiotis ; and, further, I reflected on the importance 
of extending our knowledge of these phenomena of the subsidence and rise of the 
land in other parts of tbe world. I do not know whether Mr. Giinther intends to 
continue these investigations elsewhere (at least in tbe Mediterranean I botie he 
does), but I do thiok that the collection of all evidence connected with this itub- 
ject in other parts of the world — and I know that there is a large amount of 
evidence — would be most useful work. I hope that some of our young geographers 
will devote themselves to research, of that kind. I am sure the meeting will wish 
roe to convey to Mr. Giinther a unanimous vote of thanks for the admirable and 
very interesting paper be has read to us this eveuing. 




( 290 ) 
ON SPHERICAL MAPS AND RELIEFS.* 

B7 Prof. ELISEE REOLUS. 

I AM very sorry to be obliged to speak in English, because it is a long 
time since I have had an opportunity of airing it, and so I am afraid 
that, having only crossed last night, I have not yet taken sufficiently to 
the English language to be perfectly well understood by you. But I 
will try to explain my models, and if I cannot explain them in English, 
then my French will come to the rescue. 

I intend to speak on geographical education. I think we are all 
agreed ihat it is only by observation that we can really understand 
nature. And what comes out of nature ? The comprehension of the 
surroundings of man, and afterwards the comprehension of man himself. 
It is not first by the use of globes or of maps or of any artificial means 
that we are to teach children, and not only children, but all other people ; 
it is by the observation of nature. It is by working especially in 
nature ; and if you work in nature you have two good things — first, 
health, and then science. And it is in this way that man commenced 
to learn. He did not know at first that the Earth was round, and it is 
only three thousand years since people commenced making maps. Not 
long ago a great scientist, a geologist and botanist, told me how thankful 
he was to his mother for teaching him to observe nature. '* My 
mother," said he, •* was very poor in science, but still she observed, and 
she made me look with wonder at the little rivulets in the gutters ; she 
showed me also the little glaciers on the roofs of the houses, and it 
is thus that I learned some very important phenomena of rivers and 
of glaciers." Well, it is in the same way that we are to learn, and it 
is the way that will make the most lasting impression, because, as I 
have already said, your scientific knowledge is not acquired by artificial 
means, but by observation of facts. The time, however, comes when you 
are obliged to use maps, but at the outset I think maps ought to be 
entirely tabooed. They must be tabooed, becauEC maps are made on 
different scales, and that being so, it is quite impossible to compare 
them ; and if you cannot compare them, it is only waste of time and 
trouble. I do not believe there is a geographer in the world — I do not 
know of one — who is quite conversant with the different scales of the 
various maps. We who have a certain reputation as geographers have 
just the same trouble as other people, because when we study distant 
countries on various maps — take, for example, Java and the Netherlands 
— the maps of Java are always small and the maps of the Netherlands 
are large, and therefore it causes a great confusion in one's mind. 
Therefore, in all well-conducted schools, globes should be used, and 
children ought to be entirely forbidden the use of maps. It is by the 

* Read at tho Royal Geographical Society, April 2, 1903. 



r 



OK SPHERICAL MAPS AND BELIEFS. 291 

^production of nature that we learn ; and as the ohild will learn sooner 
^^ later that the Earth is round, then you should show him something 
^^at is round as the Earth is. I think, in England generally, if you 
^peak of the " use of the globes," it seems to call to mind the period of 
^e Kenaissance, when people used globes for the teaching of geography 
^^nch more than we do now. In pictures of the sixteenth and seven- 
^enth centuries, for example, when a learned man is portrayed, you 
generally find he has a globe near him. Now this use of the globe is 
much less general than it was at that time, and maps and atlases have 
taken its place. Globes were usually from 1 foot to 1^ foot, and some- 
times 2 feet in diameter. Of course the scale was not accurate, because 
people did not know exactly what was the rounduess of the Earth. The 
was generally 1 : 25,000,000, or from 1 : 30,000,000 to 1 : 40,000,000. 
now we think that, as the circumference of the Earth has been 
accurately calculated, it is convenient to have globes with a 
scale, about the same size as that which was used generally by 
1 the learned men of previous centuries, because they were easy to 
je. Well, this one is 1 metro in circumference, with a scale of 
^ : 40,000,000. If you want larger proportions, then you can have the 
^portion of 1 : 20,000,000, and then the globe will be 2 metres 
circumference. If the globe is 4 metres in circumference, the scale 
ill be 1 : 10,000,000, but globes of 4 metres in circumference are too 
^^-umbersome, and you are obliged to suspend them from the ceiling, and 
they are perhaps a little difficult to manage in a school. Therefore 
is absolutely necessary to adopt some other method, but always keep- 
ng the idea of the globe in mind, because you must always keep to truth, 
''hen you make things illusory — well, at the same time you make them 
treacherous. When people do not quite understand, but imagine they 
lo, then their judgment is not reliable. And so if you want to represent 
>mething which is round, you must do so with something which is 
Tound. To show a globe of huge dimensions is impracticable, but you 
may at least show a slice of the Earth, a slice of the superficial part of 
the Earth, and the effect is the same. And so, for example, if you want 
to make a globe in the proportion of 1 : 5,000,000, it would have to be 
8 metres in circumference, dimensions which are too large for an ordinary 
room. If, however, you cannot have the whole globe, you can have slices 
of it, and then you can see places as they are. And in this way you can 
make the child understand. The world is round, and he sees it round 
as it is. And if you want to show the globe entirely, this being 
in the proportion of 1 : 5,000,000, you have nearly 150 of those slices to 
complete the whole globe ; but most of the Earth being covered with 
water, about 60 of those slices would represent all the continents of the 
world, while the remaining 100, representing the water, would be less 
useful. But you must keep this in mind, that as your slices of the 
globe are only in the proportion of 1 : 5,000,000, it is absolutely 




292 ON SPHERICAL MAPS AND RELIEFS. 

impossible to show the relief otherwise than by colours or shades ; true 
relief begins to be visible by slight asperities only when the pro- 
portion 18 from 1 : 1,000,000. If yon teach geography after this 
method of globular slices, yon can be quite sure that there will be 
no hindrance to the intelligence of the child. He will perfectly follow 
all your reasonings and understand everything, because he sees the 
roundness of the Earth. 

Now let me pass to another subject. There is in Germany a certain 
divergence of opinion among teachers of geography about what they 
call ** Einheit-Atlassen." I understand that this word applies to the 
same model being put in the hands of all pupils. But I thought to 
myself, when I first heard of them, that these atlases contained maps all 
constructed according to unity of scale, which would be indeed a splendid 
achievement. Proctor produced such an atlas about fifty years ago, but 
without great success ; people were not yet prepared to the grand idea. 
In maps which do not accord with the principles of unity, but are made 
according to thirty or forty different scales, it is quite impossible to 
compare satisfactorily the various coasts, countries, and parts of the 
world. Proctor's atlas is comparatively a very small book, bnt it is a 
treasure, and I think it ought to be considered as one of the most im- 
portant contributions to the teaching of geography that has been made. 
It was an excellent idea, and it will always have its admirers, but it 
has not made the way in education it ought to have. I think it is 
absolutely necessary to renew his idea, and we ought to have what I 
may call an isometric atlas — that is, an atlas in which all the maps are 
drawn to the same scale. With maps drawn to different scales, you 
never can say, •' Well, I know that the proportion here is ten times 
larger, and therefore, of course, it is ten times larger in longitude, and 
also ten times larger in latitude, and so altogether this map is a hundred 
times larger than the other." If you have one map drawn to a Ecale of 
1 : 30,000, and another 1 : 50,000, and another 1 : 70,000, and another 
1 : 350,000, it is impossible to get out of the tangle — quite impossible, 
and so I say the education of children is quite biased. 

Well, if we are of the same opinion on this subject, let us go further 
to an important question, that of the ** typical " reliefs. For example, 
I would reproduce Mont Blanc in relief with the proportion of 1 : 100,000. 
Then the mountains would be about 4 centimetres above the plains. 
Of course the height would not be increased more than the breadth or 
length of the country ; it would exactly conform to truth itself. This 
is a point I have contested with many relief makers. I think they are 
wrong when they show a relief which is not true in proportion. It is 
absolulely necessary to have an idea of geological shape ; it is therefore 
necessary to know the slope; but if you heighten the slope twice, thrice, 
four times, or ten times, it is impossible for you to imagine the reality — 
the thing is made false in your mind, and so no reasoning can be oonneoted 



ON SPHERICAL MAPS AND RKUEFS. 293 

on the true ehape of the oouutry repreeented. If yon want to show the 
tnitb, yon mnat give the proportions exactly as they are io nature. If 
yon want to represent Mont Blanc, in the proportion of I : 100,000, 
yon will see exactly iho shape of the iDoimtain and the valleys which 
Burround it, and abo the proportion of one part to aiiother. The same 
observatioDB might be made wilh regard to any other mountain. Yon 
might canstruot a model of the Jura, or the mountains of Wales 
and Scotland, or yon might oonatruct a model of Gibraltar or the Cape 
of Good Hope, all tme to nature. But there is a very great difficulty 
with regard to ordinary reliefs, becauBe they are cumbersome and 
difficnlt to constmct; they have to be modelled, and, being made in 
plaster, require careful handling. It would, therefore, be much better 
if you could make them of some other material, and if, instead of mould- 
ing them, which is difficult, and renders the thing exceedingly costly, 
yoD could stamp them out of sheets of metal like tbiK (^referring to 
model). For two or three years a very skilful draughtsman, Mr. 
Patteaon, the eon of an English artisan, who went over to Belgium, has 
been doing this. lie is a good craftsman, a good mechanic, and also a 
mathematician, and when he had worked at the problem for some time. 
he found out a method of producing the printed relief as it is wanted. 
This particular relief (referring lo model} represents one of the most 
precipitous parts of Belgium. We might have found more precipitona 
pUces in Switzerland or in any other country, but living in Belgium, 
we preferred to take an example near our own place. The great point 
was to discover some method of printing on an uneven surface. Ah 
joxt know, it is only possible till now to print on an even surface. 
Verj' well, this is printed on an even sheet of metal, but it has to be 
printed in such a way that when the sheet of metal has been forced 
by hydraulic power into the various forms, the different points will 
be in their true geographical position. So you see it was a very 
diffionlt task, because it was necessary to find a. geographical formula 
by means of which even,- point would finally occU|>y its correct position. 
Everjthing has to be drawn in the first instance, not in its true position, 
hut in a false position, in order that it may be forced into its correct 
place. If this model is examined carefully, it will be found that every 
point is in its true position. I am very pleased to be allowed by Mr. 
Patteson to offer this first example to the Royal Ireogniphioal Society 
of Kngland. Some metals are not suitable for this kind of work; for 
example, zinc would be torn to pieces by the great pressure, which is 
about fiO tons : this ia of the lieet red copper ; aluminium might be used 
also. I do not know very mnch about the financial part of the busi- 
nees, but I know these mo:iels will be handier and more resistant ; they 
will be a good deal cheai>er than the <.rdinary reliefs, nnd therefore I 
hope they will be used in all schools. 



294 ON SPHERICAL MAPS AND RELIEFS —DISCUSSION. 

Before the reading of the paper, the President said : We are always very glad 
to welcome so distinguished a geographer as our Gold Medalist, Monsieur Elie^e 
Reclus. We are always sure, whenever he addresses us, of having something most 
interesting and important to listen to. To-day he has promised to give us an 
account of the relief and other maps which have been lately, I believe, invented 
for the purpose chiefly of education. I will ask Monsieur Reclus to explain the 
maps to the meeting. 

After the reading of the paper, the following discussion took place: — 

Mr. Mackinder : I need hardly say that I have listened with the same pleasure 
that I am sure every one in this room has to our distinguished brother geographer 
from across the sea. M. Keclus has been at work on these new cartographical 
methods, as I happen to know, for some years past, and I may say that we already 
have at Oxford a copy of the map of the western portion of the Mediterranean, 
which I see here exhibited as a sample. I would like, if I may, to take ibis 
opportunity, when so many who have influence in the matter of geographical 
teaching are here present, to urge that in connection with our new public authori- 
ties, we should try to convince people that in order to teach geography properly, it 
is necessary to spend more than has been spent upon material. For young 
children especially, good and abundant material is very important. It is true that 
these models of M. Reclus will cost far less than the old plaster models. 
Obviously they are much superior from other points of view. I take it they cannot 
be damaged so easily, and that they can be stored much more easily. But when 
all is said and done, you will still have to pay considerably for apparatus. At the 
present time there is a great tendency to employ, in the way of maps, the cheap and 
nasty. This is partly due to the comparative rarity of critical knowledge as to 
what is a good and what a bad map, but also partly to the fact that people 
have not appreciated the damage done to the minds of the pupils if the apparatus 
is bad. 

There are only two other points I should like to put to M. Reclus. I venture 
to say that what we most want are some convex maps of larger portions of the 
surface of the globe. We want our students to grasp, for instance, the true form 
of the North Atlantic. That is an exceedingly difficult thing to drive home, and 
a false image of it early impressed on the mind has all manner of bad consequences 
later on. The relative distances across the Atlantic in different latitudes are 
obviously hard to appreciate when the map is printed on the fiat piece of paper. 
Again, take British North America. The British dominions there must on the fiat 
be either distorted or exaggerated. What we want is a map on the round of the 
whole of North America. I know M. Reclus may reply that we have globes for 
this purpose. But the globe is cumbrous and costly; it cannot be hung on a 
wall conveniently ; it has to stand on a table, and is difficult to use with a class. 
Personally, I feel that for teaching, the most valuable adaptation of these globular 
maps would be to replace for many purposes the globe itself. 

Now, with regard to reliefs, there is one point that appeals to every one who 
has to do with a plaster model : it is this — ^that you are looking at the scenery 
from the birdVeye point of view ; you are looking down upon it, whereas you look 
ordinarily at scenery from alongside — horizontally, if I may so put it. I cannot 
help feeling, therefore, that a certain exaggeration may under most circnmstances 
be allowed. Let us consider, for instance, a model of the Alps and the Plain 
of Lombardy, a very important region in historical teaching. I agree that a well- 
made map of this region on the flat will of course mean a great deal to a geographer, 
but I find from experience that most students who examine even an imperfect 
model of such an area, carry away a vivid impress' voold obtidn 



ON SPHfiBICAL MAPS AND RELIEFS— DISCUSSION. 295 

kook no map. Tet if you represented that region of the Alps and the Plain of 
Lombaidj on the tme scale, you would not get a sufficient relief to produce any 
effoot. We must beware of becoming purists in this matter of cartographical 
troth. After all, the model is rather a weapon of teaching than a means of investi- 
gttkm. In schools time is limited, and you must be content with producing an 
impiestion of relative truth and producing it quickly, and afterwards the fact of 
exaggeration can be separately impressed. Of course, I am not now speaking of 
models of quite small areas like the Cape peninsula, which can be represented on 
the same yertical and horizontal scales, but rather of relief maps. 

It is quite clear that M. Reclus with Mr. Patteson has got hold of a method 
which admits of rapid and accurate multiplication of models by means of hydraulic 
machinery and of a great reduction of cost. 

Mr. Bayxnstbih : I am sure we are all delighted to see so distinguished a 
geographer as Prof. Reclus amongst us in what apparently is perfect health and in 
sach excellent spirits. I have but little to say on the subject before us, because 
Mr. Mackinder has anticipated me in many respects. The scale of the maps of 
the continents in all our good school atlases is identical. But as, for educational 
purposes, we require maps of particular portions of the Earth, and often of certain 
towns, we must necessarily introduce other scales, which bear, however, a definite 
proportion to the scale of the general maps. Multiplicity of scales ought, of course, 
to be avoided. Now coming to relief maps, and to globes especially, I thoroughly 
agree with Prof. Beclos as to the system on which geography ought to be taught. 
Hiere is no better method than the so-called Heimatkunde, which teaches a child by 
personal observation of geographical features. We geographers claim the Earth as 
our domain. Geologists and botanists may claim a particular kingdom of the 
Earth, but we claim the whole, and therefore on our school excursions we do not 
teach our children to look only at the shape of the land ; for when a child asks the 
name of a plant, and why some plants are confined to marshy soil and others to 
the dry uplands, we cannot tell the child that this is not geography, and send it to 
some other teacher for information. Our children ought to be trained to observe 
all things. It is very curious that when I was a boy I read a good many advertise- 
ments — they were mostly from ladies' schools, and I think the ladies are sometimes 
far in advance of us in this respect — in which it was stated that '* the use of the 
globes" would form one of the subjects taught. But where are globes used now? 
I think the equipment of no school can be considered complete without a globe. 
Neman who calls himself a geographer, or who claims some knowledge of geography, 
and wants to read his newspaper intelligently, ought to be without a globe on his 
table. It is one of the most useful things ; there is no apparatus like it. You can 
measure long distances on it, and there is no map on which you can do the same 
except in a roundabout way. Now, coming to models, I may remind Prof. Keclus 
that more than sixty years ago my own father, in conjunction with Bauerkeuer, 
introduced a method of producing cheap reliefs by embossing maps printed on 
paper. More recently Major Cybulz and others produced beautiful reliefs by a 
galvanoplastic process ; these, however, had to be coloured by hand, and were 
consequently expensive. I must admit this, that the method of producing models 
recommended by Prof. Keclus yields results which are superior to anything done 
hitherto. I certainly think we ought, in every school, to have a number of typical 
relief maps, and if these typical relief maps are done on a large scale, we might in 
moat instances do without exaggerating the vertical scale, because they could be 
taken up in the hand and the relief could be studied from difierent directions. 
Bat in addition to these large-scale reliefs, we are to have those discs which 
IL BmIiis promised us on a former occasion, and which would include entire 



F 



296 ON SPHERICAL MAPS AND RELIEFS— DISCUSSION. 



1 



continenls or larger 8urraceB of tho sphere, and if thoso diBca are to gbow the relief 
of thegratiod, tben I do agree nUh Mr.MiickiQder Chat we ought Co exaggeralo the 
verticAl aoale. If you look at Miguor Pomba's bedntiful model of Italy, now at the 
South Kensington Museum, and upon which there ia no eiaggeralion of the vortical 
scale, you can certainly trace the Alp.i, and they do not impress you u oonslituting 
that formidable obstaclo between north and aoulb which they constitule in reality. 
I do think that if Signor Pomb* had exaggerated hie heights, hia relief would hare 
been more effective. And if this applies lo the Alps, how much more would it apply 
to our hills in Wales or Scotland ? They would almost disappear, and we should 
gain DO correct notion of their actual height, and the formidable labour required to 
climb some of them. We all feel grateful to M. Reclna for having once more 
brought that important subject before us. 

Dr. Herdebtson: We are all very much indebted to Prof. lieclua for bringing 
these curved maps nnd models, which Ifr. Fatesson bas constructed ander hia 
direction. A year and a half ago U. Beclua was good enough to present one of 
the curved maps to the School of Geography iu Oxford, and I have constantly used 
it. It seems to me we cannot exaggerate the importnnce of baring a collection of 
uniform maps constructed on a apherioal surface such as M. P.eclus proposes 
to make, more particularly for reference purposes. 

in eonneclion with the question of the «cale of models. It eeama to me that we 
ought, as far as possible, to have model?, not merely with the true vertical scale, but 
also with exaggerated heights ; juiC as in making a section through a country we 
draw it first of all ou a larger sccile to show details, and tbea reduce it to obtain the 
true slope. If we take the Thaoios basin, for tnstince. it is quite impossible to 
make b model on the true scale from the l-inch map. For many purposes a 
model of the Thames basin oa the 1-incb scalo is valuable, but in order to make 
one we have to exaggerate the heights considerably. In teaching the morphology 
^e land it is necessary to use every possible variety of material, especially for 
which students cannot see^maps of all scales and models of all scales, 
different way of representing the land's surface has a certain merit, and 
to show some doLail in a better way than others. It is only by comparing 
rafloufl methods of represeuting the surface of the land that wo come to have 
a true conception of ir. The typical models at a cheap rate will be a great boon 
to sll teachers of geography, and I thank M. Reclus for showing us the beautiful 
specimens of maps and models which he has brought to-day. 

Prince KnoPOTKis said he thought the models which M. Reclus had brought 
were certainly a great step in advance in the real teaching of geography, and any- 
thing which would tend to produce such models at a cheap rate would he anotbcr 
stop in helping to spread a true knowledge of geography. With regard lo ihc 
question of whether such models ought to be made true to scale, he pointed oat 
several of the drawbacks which models with an exaggeraled vertical scale were 
offering for the spreading of correct ideas concerning geological phanomona (glacia- 
tton, etc.) ; but he agreed, also, with Mr. Mocklnder and Mr. Uavenstein as to the 
necessity of having two different sorts of maps. How would it be possible to 
represent, for instance, the plateau of the great conlioeDt of Asia, -'.000 feet high 
and 200li miies wide, if they were not allowed to exa;;cerate the vertical scale to a 
certain extent or even to a great extent — oven so much as ten times? Again, in 
Kent, a difference of 100 feet in the altitudes sometimes maile all the differepce 
Iwtween the healthy ground of the plateau and the unhealthy clay of the lower 
levels ; it must be nhown on a relief map ; and if it was inteudeil to represent Rent 
whorn 100 by 300 feet would be a noticeable feature, it would K- 
fi/eof the relief-map beyonii all bounds. The vertical scale 





ON SPHERICAL MAPS AND RELIEFS— DISCUSSION. 297 

his thus to be exaggerated. But as a corrective to that, after having shown a model 
OD an exaggerated scale, they ought immediately to show one true to scale. He 
thought maps constructed both on the real scale and the exaggerated scale ought to 
he foand in erery well-appointed school. When so much money was spent on 
oaeless tbinge, such as ironclads and the like, surely they ought to be able to find 
the money for what was absolutely essential in carrying on the work of education ! 
He was also yery much in favour of the wider use of globes. Children and students 
ooght to have somethiog which would really represent the Earth. It had been 
urged that globes were expensive. Well, so Ions; as the demand was small they 
were likely to be expensive, but let the demand be great, and there would be 
hundreds of inventors ready to supply well-made globes at a comparatively small 
cost. In conclusion, he congratulated M. Ueclus on his j^erseverent efforts in 
obtaining true representations of the Earth's surface, and Mr. Patesson on having 
made the discovery of a practical method for making relief*maps. 

Mr. Andrews : There is one lesson which I think is more important than any 
other that we can draw from the excellent exposition M. Ueclus has given us, that 
is to try to get as near as possible to nature. In enrly days we were content 
merely to look at shadows, like Plato's prisoners in the cave; now by means of 
pictures and accurate representations of the Earth's surface in different forms, we 
are trying to get some idea of what countries are really like, and when we deal with 
history we try to realize the character of the passes or of the regions through 
which armies marched, and of the various difficulties and obstacles that lay in their 
paths. Now, this attempt to get near first-hand knowledge seems to me to be the 
root of the matter in geographical success. There is still a tendency to make 
geography merely a record of btatistical information. I think that we try to do a 
great deal too much — that is to say, that we make a mistake in trying to cover the 
whole area of the world. It would bo very much better if we first of all worked 
out more thoroughly certain detailed areas. We forget that what we have to 
teach is not statistics, but a method of understanding geographical information 
which will enable students to use other factors and data when they come before 
them in their after-career. Therefore I think what M. Keclus has said this after- 
noon, and what he has shown us in these most admirable maps, should be very 
valuable from this point of view, if it also enforces the lesson that to get more first- 
hand knowledge and to study in greater detail a small portion of the world, and to 
understand the relations of the different phenomena in that district — such as, to 
take an instance, mountains and forests, and their connection with life and 
history — ^is of more value, and will help more to form a habit of thought, which 
should be the aim of our geographical teaching, than to look at shadows all over 
the world. I have nothing more to aid except to emphasize this very important 
point, the treatment of some part, at any rate, of our work, the study of a small area 
in a more detailed manner. I can only thank M. Heclus for his most valuable and 
interesting exposition. 

Mr. CuBDEX Sandkksox; I only wish to intervene for one moment. The gentle- 
men who have hitherto spoken have, I think, been all geographers conversant with the 
subject and with matters of geography fully in their mind. 1 beg to speak as a 
layman in this matter, and as a layman to thank M. Reel us not only for the 
construction of these maps and for his contributions to geography proper, but as an 
inspired teacher of geography, who shall not merely communicate to us knowledge 
of the facts, but shall excite our wonder and admiration for the world itself, which 
is the subject of geography. It is for that contribution to human knowledge and 
human aspiration that 1 beg as a layman to thank M. Ueclus for his life-long con- 
tribution to the great work of humanity. 



298 ON SPHSRICAL MAPS AND REUEFS— DISCUSSION. 

Prof. Keglus : I have to thank you, and especially Mr. Mackinder and Prof. 
Ravenstein and Dr. Herbertson, for what you have said with regard to the usefulness 
of globular discs, and especially of those which would represent a large part of the 
Earth's surface. I speak here, not as a geographer, but as an artist ; and I think 
nothing would be more wonderful than to have a model of very extensive parts of 
the Earth, with the real curvature and the real proportion shown, in such a place, 
for example, as this hall of the Royal Geographical Society. You would then 
have an opportunity of seeiog the whole of the globe as well as the various parts. 
It is very difficult when you see only Spain and the South of France, and the 
western shores of the Mediterranean, for instance, to realize that it is only about 
150th part of the Earth. That is because the curvature is very small ; but with 
the curvature very large, you would immediately say this is a tenth or a twelfth or 
a fifteenth part pf the surface of the Earth, and so would get a clearer idea of the 
relative proportion of that part of the country with which you were dealing. I 
think the idea is to be realized, and I thank you for having hinted at it. But now 
another thing — the real and vertical scale. I do not agree with the remarks of all 
these gentlemen, although I think it is necessary sometimes to exaggerate in 
scientific demonstration?. For instance, if you want to show the different tracks 
for the tunnelling of the English channel between France and England, you 
would not see the mere line which is made by the sea, and so you are obliged to 
deepen that ditch between France and England, and to show that it has a certain 
depth you are obliged to exaggerate. There are occasions in teaching where 
exaggeration is absolutely necessary. But then I think it would be better to have 
the two things, to have the exaggeration which could be shown on the map, and 
the true line to show the true state of things. Now, some one referred to that 
beautiful map of M. Cesare Pomba. I am a great admirer of it, and I think it is a 
very good idea to show Italy with its true curvature and the Alps in their true 
proportion. When we see them on a model in their true proportion, we are 
generally astonished, and perhaps say, " They are not very high ; I thought they 
were higher. When I am in Milan or Verona and see them before me, they seem so 
majestic ; of course they must be higher than that.*' And so we lose our illusion. 
But I think the reason for this is because we have had a bad education. For 
example, in certain atlases we see France with its mountains, and not only 
the Pyrenees and Alps, but also the mountains of the interior, and they are shown in 
such an exaggerated way, in proportion of one to five or more, and then we say : 
" How splendid, how well-shaped that relief is ! that map is very nice.*' But it is 
false; and taught by that, you are led to think that nature has more relief 
in reality than she has. I think we ought to keep asmnch as possible to the truth, 
and if relief is not sufficient to show itself, then let us represent it by a difference 
of colour. For example, in this map of Spain we have tried to show all the heights 
from 1000 to 3000 metres and more by a difference in colour, because it is 
impossible to represent them by real relief. I think there are two schools, one of 
perfect truth, and the other with a certain condescension towards the illusions. 
Well, I think this second school is not the good one. As a descendant of the old 
Huguenots, I prefer sticking to truth. 

The Pbesidemt : I think, before I ask you to pass a vote of thanks to M. Reclus, 
I ought to say that we as a society are bound to further the views which we 
believe to be correct, and which M. Reclus has expounded to us now on 
two occasions when he has been so kind as to pay us visits here. He has 
impressed upon us the importance of the use of globes, and the importance 
of teaching by means of globes. He has reminded us that in the days of the 
Renaissance they were universally used. Sir Francis Drake and Cavendish and 



AMTARCTIC SLEDGE TRAVELLING. 



299 



FfUniher certainly took globes like that to sea with them, and puzzled out their 
pcoUttms on the globes, and it is far easier to understand problems in geography by 
uiDg a globe, than by drawing imaginary spherical triangles on a piano surface. I 
andflratand from Mr. Reeves that he has now iDtroduced the plan of teaching 
naotical astronomy and the problems of geography by means of globes. M. Reclus 
has pointed out to us the importance of these relief maps, to enable us to under- 
•tand that we are looking at a rounded and not at a plane surface. And then with 
regard to the larger-scale maps, he has, after much thought, adopted Mr. Fatteson^s 
plan of using metal and printing on it, instead of the old plan of moulding. These 
improTements are all very important for educational purposes, and as he has most 
kindly, as I understand him, presented our Society with these two models, it will be 
our endeavour to make his plan known as widely as possible amongst men engaged in 
education, and so we trust that this immense improvement — and it cartainly is an 
immense improvement — in the method of teaching geography will gradually be 
introduced into this country, and that a large demand will arise for these relief 
maps. I would ask you to pass a vote of thanks to M. lleclus for his great kind- 
ness in coming over here to address us, and for bringing with him these maps for 
onr instruction and use. I at^k you to pass a vote of thanks by acclamation to M. 
RecluF. 



ANTARCTIC SLEDGE TRAVELLING. 

By the PRESIDENT. 

The great work of the Antarctic Expedition was achieved by sledge 
travelling, and tlio clearest way of giving an idea of the extent of this 
work is by presenting it in tabulated form. The autumn travelling 
occupied from February 18 to April 3 under most rigorous conditions 
of climate. 

The spring travelling comprised two main expeditions to the south 
and inland to the west, two supporting parties, and one depot party. 

There were also ten reconnoitring parties to explore the region 
nearer the ship. Five went out in the intense cold of the early spring — 
one towards the mainland to south-west, another towards the mainland 
to west, and three t(j examine the island of the volcanoes. Of the five 
later parties, one was to (.'ape Crozier, another along the west side of 
Mount Erebus, two to the land to the south, and one to explore a smaller 
volcanic island. Altogctlier eighteen sledge parties. 

AUTl.MN TllAVKLLlNG. 



I late. 



( »nioM. 



Mtii. 



IVnip. I lays. 



UciuarkM. 



Fob. 18-22 Shackleton 
Wilson 
Ferrar 



r> 



Tu the iulund 15 miled south- 
south-west. 

Aboended peuk of island, 272(» 
feet, and found clear road to 
the south. 

iCetumed with considerahlo in- 
formation as to the lie of the 
land. 



300 



ANTARCTIC SLEDGE TRAVELLING. 



Date. 



Officers. 



Men. 



March 3-20 



Boyds 

Skelton 

KoetUiU 



March 3- 12 Bame 



: Evans 
I Quarlly 

Wild 
' Vince 

Hare 
I Wellcr 
JEIeald 
I Plumbley 



ardi 31 
to April 3 


Captain 
Wilson 


Dellbridgc 
Macfarlanc 


1 


Armitage 
Ferrar 


Walker 

Ulisset 

Feather 

Smyth 

Allen 

Williamson 



Temp. 



-42° 



Days. 



17 



liemarks. 



40° 
48° 

67° 



i) 



To go round Mount Terror. 
Captain was going, but he 
sprained his knee. Eight 
dogs. Snow very soft. March 7, 
Bame went back with men« 
the other three proceeding on 
ski ; but unable to reach Gape 
Croiier. 

Bame reached crest of hills on 
March 11. Heavy gale and 
drift. Party left the sledges 
and made fur the ship. Yince 
fell over precipice into the 
sea. Hare under snow for 
thirty-six hours. Rest found 
their way to the ship. 

I 

Loads too heavy. F«>ur sledges 
and eight dogs. Only got 
ly from ship. Cold intense. 
With twelve men and the 

I dogs. Dogs all refused duty. 

I Two sledges and nine ther- 

^ mometers loft behind. Men 
suffering severely after reach- 
ing barrier feurfuce. Too cold 

I for camping out. 

^ Object was to place a deput, 
but decided to return. 



Autnmu travelling was first undertaken, in polar work, when 
McClintook was away from October 2 to 10; Aldriohi, October 2 to 6 ; 
and Mecham 5 days, laying out depots in 1850. In 1875, in the same 
month, Markham, Parr, and May were away 21 days, Aldrich 13, and 
Egerton 4. It is excessively severe work. 

Scott considers the autumn journeys to have been useful because 
they gave experience, and when the spring came he felt that ho ** could 
not be sufficiently thankful that most of us had had an opportunity of 
spending a few days in the autumn travelling." The furious gales and 
very low temperature uade it more severe work than in the Arctic 
autumn travelling. 

Main South Journey. 
Depot Party. 



Date. 



GfHcers. 



Mcu. 



Sept. 17-19 ' The Captain 
Sept. 2:t to I Shackleton 
Oct. 4 ! Bame 



Shackleton Feather 
The Captain . {boatswain) 



Temp. 

H(!avy 

gale, 
-51° 



Days. 



10 



Remarks. 



With tlie dogs. Such a hurri- 
cane that they had to return 
on 19ih. Barne badly frost- 
bitten. 

Started again on the 23rd. To 
Depdt A, 60 miles south of 
the ship and 8 miles from 
the land, 79«> 45' S. 



ANTARCTIC SLEDGE TRAYSLLING. 



301 



Supporting Parly. 



Date. 


OflBcen 


1 


Men. 

1 

Feather ; 


Temp. Days. 
26 


Remarks. 


Oct. 29 to 


Barne 




Accompanied the main party to 


Not. 24 






Dai ley 
Grean 




Bepdt A, Nov. 11. Retani 
journey Nov. 15-23. 






Ilandalev 










Joyce 










i Kennar 












Smyth 
, Weller 










Williamson ! 










Pillbeam 










1 Baokridge j 

1 




m 






Afdt 


n Party. 

Temp. 




IMte. 


Offlceni. 


1 Snaicher, rf.Dec 


Day**. Remarks. 


Nov 2 to 


The Captain 


. 9 -30^ 


94 All the dogs, but they 


Feb. 5 


Bhaekleton 


2 Vic 


16 


began to fail on Nov. 15. 




WiUon 


3 Wolf 


19 


Nov. 16 to Dec. 16, relay 






4 Granny „ 


20 


work in soft snow ; 15 






5 Brownie „ 


26 


miles for 5 made good. 






<; Clarence ,, 


31 


Dec. 16, Depdt B, 3 weeks* 






7 Spend, d. Jan. 


1 


provisions. Went south 






8 Nell 


2 


with 4 weeks'. 80° 30' 






9GU88 


3 


8., 162° E., 7 miles from 






10 Bismarck ,, 


4 


a headland. 






1 1 Bobs „ 


5 


Dec. 30, reached 82° 17' 8., 






12 Kidd 


5 


163° E. Attempt to 






13 Birdie 


10 


reach land. 






14 Joe 


10 


Jan. 1 , dogs useless. Jan. 9, 






15 Lewis 


11 


dogs unharnessed. 






1() NigrgtT 


15 


Jan. 13, two days' pro- 






17 Jim „ 


15 


visions left. B. 






1 8 BUnco 




Arrived depot B. 






19 




Jan. 15, breakdown of 

Shackleton. 
Scott and Wilson pulling 

270 Ibi. each. 
Jan. 28, I>epdt A. 
858 geographical miles. 












973 Stat miles. 



Main West Journky. 
Supporting Party. 



Date. 


Officers. 

KoettUti 
Terrar 

1 


Men. 


Nov. 29 to 
Dec. 18 


Hubert 
' Dell 
! Whitfield 

Clark 
1 Dellbridge 

( 'roucher 

1 



Temp. 



Dtvs. 



20 



Remarks. 



To accompany the main west 

division for ten days. 
Turned back December 9. 



No. III.— September, 1903.] 



Y 



COMMANDER R..F. SCOTT, R.N. 




READY AVE REAJ3V 




LIEUT, e . SHACKLETON.R.N.R. 



l' FOR.TlTUDl'NE VIITCIMUS 




D? E.WILSON 



£l£S WON VERSA 




R.SKELTON.R.N. 




LIEUT. M.BARNE, R.N. 



I NEC 



TEMERE NEC TIMIRE 



LIEUT A.B.ARMITAGE.R.N. R. 




SEMPER FARATUS 



jw«r„«, f„.Fi^s lill 1^ ■■ r>rr? ^ia 

SLEDQE FLAQ8 OF THE 



D? R.KOETTLITZ 





XII. SrK£ JLABOIt£ 



LIEUT. C. W. R.ROYDS,R.N. 




SEMPER PARATUS 



FERItE VA FERME 



H.J .FERRAR 





L.C .BERNACCHI 



RAPUl RAPUl 




J .V. HODGSON 



DREAD GOD 



RED BLUC 



JRc^farenc«/ /br Flaxjs 



BLACK VCLLOW CRMINI. 

ELD 



DISCOVERY" EXPEDITION. 



Y 2 



304 



ANTARCTIC SLEDGE TRAVELLING. 



Main Party. 



Date. 



OfBcere. 



Nov. 29 to Armitage 
Jan. 19 I Skelton 



Men. 



E\raD8 

Maofarlaoe 
Gilbert Soott 

R.M. 

Walker 

Qaartlj 

Allen 

Handsley 

Wild 

Dnncan 

Bnckeridge 



Temp. 



Days. 



53 



Remarks. 



Dragging 240 Ibi. per man. 

29 miles over sea-ice, then 
1 9 miles np a snow-filled valley 
to the foot of mountains 
11,000 feet high. 

Had to work by relays; 4500 
feet. 

A week trying to ascend a 
mountain. 

Descended 2000 feet on to a 
glacier, then always ascend- 
ing for the next 50 miles, 
with crampons. Left six men 
at 8000 feet, sick from alti- 
tude. Beached 9000. Officers 
and four men. Jan. 6, 38 
days out; 14 days return- 
ing. 141*6 itat. miles from 
tihip (1SI8'7 geographical 
miles), 77° 21' 8., 157° 26' E. 

587 stat. miles. 



Eably Spbimo Partiss in Extreme Cold. 



Date. 



Sept. 2-7 



Officers. 



Sept. 10-19 



The Captain 

Skaokleton 

Skelton 

Wilson 

Ferrar 

Bojdi 
KoettliU 



Men. 



Feather 



Sept. 10-24 Axmitage 
Ferrar 



Sept. 24 to 
Oct. 2 

Oct. 4-25 



KoettUti 
Bemaochi 

Boyds 
Bkelton 



Lashly 
Quartly 
Wild 
Evans 

Cross 

Heald 

G. Scott, R.M. 

Walker 



Temp. 



Days. 



50° 



-52° 

Heavy 

galea 



-45 



14 



Dailey 



Evans 
Lashly 
Quartly 
Wild 



-40° 

every 

day; 

once 

-58° 

lowest 

record- 
ed while 

travel- 
ling. 

Furious 
gale 

5 days 



8 



21 



Remarks. 



With fifteen dogs : to examine 
the bay and islands, and the 
glacier north of winter qoai- 
ters. 



Attempt to reach mainland to 
south-west, and explore 
Mount Discovery. 



To reach mainland to west. 
Came to a glacier on the main- 
land, and ascended it. Came 
back in a broken-down con- 
dition : Ferrar, Cross, and 
Heald with scurvy. Ferrar's 
life was saved by Heald. 

To Brown and Black islands. 



ToCapeCroiier. Skelton, roped 
with men, made a wonderful 
descent to the sea-ice. Found 
the record. Royds suffering 
from cramp. 



ANTARCTIC SLEDGE TRAVELLING. 



306 



Exploring Pabties in the Summkr. 



Date. 



Nov. 3-20 



Not. 3-7 



Dec. 20 to 
Jan. 30 



Dec 29 to 
Jan. 8 



Jan. 14-26 



Officers. 



Boydi 



Bkelton 
KoettUti 



Bame 



Koettliti 
Hodgson 
Terrar 



Koettliti 
Ferrar 



Men. 



Temp. I Days. 



Royds ! Gales 

Plumley i7th, 8th, 
Blissett, R.1I. 1 1th, 
Merton Tith. 

Macfarlane | 
Alleo I 

Dell sup- 
Iporting*^ 
I . 

Hure 



Smyth 

Plumley 

Dell 

Handsley 

Williamson 

Crean 



17 



40 



11 



Remarks. 



I'o Cape Croner. Record left 
— ** All well, iVor. 2." Found 
hy Colbeck, Jan. 18. 1903. 
^nperor's egg found. Brought 
back many eggs. The three 
last men for a day to give a 
start. 



I 



To the glaeier snout, and Razor- 
back Ishind in the bay, to 
look for ro(^eries. On lower 
slope of Mount Xrebus. 

To depot A, two sledges, 1148 
lbs. Went beyond A, ex- 
ploiin*: the coast to 79° 60* 8. 
Turned back Jan. 14. Back 
at A Jan. 24. 



To explore Brown Island. 
Ascended 2750 feet to its 
summit. Found a volcanic 
cone and crater. 



12 To examine and explore the 
Bluff. 



ToLAR Journeys compared. 



Year. 



Name. 



DU. in 

Stat. m. 



Day; 



Remarks. 



1853 
1854 

190S 



McClintock 

Mecham 

Mecham 



I 



rSeott, Wilson, 
\ and Shackleton 



} 



1328 !()5 1629 lbs. of fresh meat. No 'logs. 
Iltj3 94 1460 lbs. of fresh meat. 

1336 70 , 1 reindeer, 3 hares, 30 ptarmigan. 20' a day! 
No dogs. 

973 ' 94 i^^* ^^^ ^^^^ fortnight. Afterwards gradually 
\ became useless. 



1853 


! Sherard Osbom 


935 


92 


No dogs. 






Richards 


840 


86 






1851 


3IcClintock 


770 


81 






1853 


Vesey Hamilton 


675 


55 






1876 


Aldrich 


630 


84 






1853 


Xares 


630 


57 






1876 


Markham 


600 


72 






1851 


Ommanney 


480 


60 






•» 


Sherard Osbom 


534 


58 






1903 


/ Armitsga and t 
\ Skelton / 


♦JOO 


52 


Over difficult mountains and glaciers. 


No dogs. 


1903 


Barne 


500 


40 


No (logs. 




1854 


Roche 


590 


39 


With dogs entirely. 












»» •« '» 





( 306 ) 

ON SOME NEW LAKES AND A LITTLE-KNOWN PART OF 

CENTRAL NEWFOUNDLAND. 

By J. G. MILLAIS, F.Z.S. 

Sometime in the eighties the well-known geographer, Mr. Howley, 
undertook to map as muoh as possible of the centre and southern part 
of Newfoundland. For this purpose, he chose a route from the east at 
Alexander bay. All the coast-dwellers and men who had been a short 
distance into the interior after furs or caribou said he would certainly 
fail, owing to the difficulties of transport. However, thanks to the 
skilful guiding of an Indian and the efficient support of his men, 
Howley succeeded in getting right up the rocky Terra Nova river, past 
Molly gojaok lake, and along the ground to the north of St. John's lake, 
where he seems to have roughly mapped the country by eye- sketching ; 
eventually he turned south, and out to the southern coast through the 
dense country of the Kaegudeck and Meddonegonnix lakes. Howley 
mapped very accurately his actual line of route and the country within 
view, and succeeded in making an excellent journey where others would 
have failed. To this day, however, a very large portion of Central 
Newfoundland is less known than Central Africa, and much work 
remains to be done in the square enclosed on the north-west by the 
Annieopsquolch mountains, on the south-west by the La Poile river, on 
the south-east by the Meddonegonnix Lake river, and the north-east by 
the Gander river. The interior of the country, too, lying immediately 
north of the southern coast is also unknown, no hunting or other parties 
ever penetrating this region. 

Some years after Howley's successful journey, another scientific 
expedition left the coast by the same route. The leader was a good 
man and a good geographer, but had little knowledge of Indians and 
their ways. He knew how to equip an expedition and how to map, but 
in this case, what was quite as important a matter, he did not possess 
tact, nor did he know that it was unwise to contradict a red man flatly, 
and differ on the subject of a country of which as yet he knew nothing. 
Arrived at St. John's lake, the leader turned to a man from the coast who 
likewise had never been so far before, and said, " Jim, how long is this 
lake ? " *• Fourteen miles, boss," replied the man. " Lake 6 miles long," 
broke in the Indian. *' Tm sure it is double that distance," unwisely 
<^ugg6sted the first white man, gazing into the hazy distance. The 
Indian gave a grunt, and half an hour afterwards the second expedition 
to St. John's lake was lamenting the loss of its guide. The whole party 
then immediately returned to the coast 

As each year drove the caribou from the coast, the men from 
Alexander bay kept following them further and further into the 
interior. It was considered impossible to work up the Terra Nova 
river, and few had ever ventured beyond Pinson's brook, where rapids 



308 ON SOME NEW LAKES AND A 

begin. The usual plan was to wait till the ice formed on the Terra 
lake, and then sledge up this and George's pond to the western end, 
and hunt the high country on the western plateaux. Every year, how- 
ever, the caribou kept moving further west, till three years ago the men 
reached the furthest point which was known to them, namely, '* Island 
pond," a beautiful sheet of water dotted with many wooded islands, and 
lying immediately to the north of St. John's lake. Here the hunters 
got all the caribou they wanted in a day, and retired to the coast again 
without penetrating further. 

It was Mr. Frederick 0. Selous, the well-known African traveller, 
who next (1900) trod these wilds after Rowley's expedition. Practically 
in the middle of winter, he made a considerable tramp right across the 
high plateau beyond George's pond, and as far as the river that comes 
into St. John's lake at the north-western end. Here food gave out, and 
he and his packers had to retreat as fast as possible to their base camp 
on George's pond. With him went one Bobert Saunders, an excelleat 
guide, who expressed the opinion to Mr. Selous that it would be possible 
to ascend the Terra Nova river in the autumn, if proper canoes were 
taken, and hunt caribou at the western end of St. John's lake, where 
the deer were expected to be numerous. This Mr. Selous did the 
following autumn (1901), taking five days to ascend the rivers and 
lakes, and enjoyed such excellent sport on Lake St. John that it was 
for him unnecessary to travel further than his base camp, which I 
have named Indian Lookout. 

Thanks to my friend Selous, I obtained his guides in the autumn of 
1902, and followed the same route up the Terra Nova. I also made a 
base camp at Indian Lookout ; but not finding caribou here, I crossed 
the lake to the north-west, and cut a road with the axe through the 
dense timber up to the high ground above, which I had previously seen 
with the telescope. There I made another camp, from which I searched 
all the unknown country to the north-east and north-west by making 
short expeditions of a night or two, a^nd sleeping out in a reindeer bag. 

It is, perhaps, necessary to go back for a little way and say a few 
words on the geographical features and general appearance of the 
country on the way up the Terra Nova river. After leaving the 
railway at Terra Nova station, the traveller passes up a river-lake 
system of about 4 miles before entering the large Terra Nova lake, 
which is some 8 miles long. On each side are dense forests sometimes 
several miles broad, and sometimes as narrow as a mile, this depending 
entirely on the elevation of the mountain plateaux, which generally 
rise gradually away from the river to an approximate elevation of 500 
feet. Where the ground is flat it is boggy, and the timber exceedingly 
dense — so dense, in fact, that in most places a man cannot get through 
without the help of an axe. As the forests rise, however, they become 
more open, and higher still they are interspersed with little opens. 



LITTLE.KSOVVN PAUT O? CESTliAL M;M"F0L*M)!.AM>. 309 




310 OX SOME NEW LAKES AND A 

locally called small " barrens/* The most common trees are white and 
red pine, dogwood, hazel, rowan, birch, and white poplar, whilst along 
tlie river-edges are often dense masses of alder. 

After leaTiDg the western end of the Terra Nova lake, the traveller 
paddles easily up the main stream of the river for 5 or 6 miles until 
uightfalL During the next two days the current is too strong for boat 
work« and the river so full of rocks and rapids that 3*ou must travel 
alottg the atoneti and boulders bj the water's edge whilst your men 
talH>ur with the caaoew now pulling it through the streams and wading 
deep t^ keep the firagtle craft from being smashed on the jagged rocks. 
Il W vvld and rough work for the men, but Newfoundlanders are used 
U} ha¥d«thi|\ and lie down at night without changing, ** to steam the 
Htik^Pt vMit v>f lheai«^ they say. If yon are lucky, you will reach the fine 
tilk^» v«f MvUlygv>jaek on tbe third day, a grand sheet of water about 12 
mUfNH rvuuuL aud dotted with a few islands, on which the great northern 
divviifk br«Mf>^K Another day of hard toil for the men and rough walking 
tW \\\p travt^Uer brtuga you to St. John's lake. This is always a difficult 
Uk^ U> traverKt\ as« lying almost due east and west, a slight breeze from 
\\\p wnut rt^iidere it almost impossible to face without getting swamped. 
VVi» ycx^vp fv»rtuuate, however, on the ingoing journey, having a fine 
ev««iitu^ i^i which to paddle over the glassy surface. A female caribou 
utiMHl paying at us in the shallows, and flocks of dusky duok (Anas 
i»ttm^HVHi» ) and (Canadian geese (^Anser canadensis) drifted out of our way 
an wn tnovod qdiokly up to the old-time battered tree of Indian Lookout. 
t tliought this would be the end of our journey, but it was really only 
th(* bn^iiining, for big stags showed no signs of coming. Consequently 
I rt^fotilvod to go and meet them, and moved camp, as I have already 
(lisMitriboil, to the high plateau on the north-west end of Lake St. John. 

W«i aro now in completely new ground, where Saunders, who is the 
lildtilifir of the hunting fraternity, asserted no white men had ever been 
in iffnvioiiM years. Everything bore promise of the numbers of caribou 
ilint frequent these woods by the abundance of deep time-worn trails 
in dvnry direction, but the weather being simply perfect, and the 
iufnpDrature that of the south of France, the large stags showed no signs 
of moving out of their summer retreats, although the does had already 
WfUttntfUOtd to travel. Consequently there was little to be done in the 
kuniing line, so I tramped the country in every direction, taking 
ipmrifm^n and making sketches for the small map here figured. Imme- 
iliai^ly to the north of the ridge above St. John's lake there is a long 
ti//ii//w sparsely covered with stunted larch and surrounded by woods 
//fi tk«» went* Taking two bearings of 45° from each end of St. John's 
lalp^f ari/1 at an apex of 2 miles from the larger sheet of water, we came 
it^ a NioalUrr lake about a mile long, which I have called Chough's pond. 
yttrtu this pcmd runs a little stream flowing due east for 2 miles, where 
ii tsmitHht itnelf into the fine lake of Island pond. Island pond is about 



LITTLE-KNOWN PART OF CENTRAL NEWFOUNDLAND. 311 

o miles in oiroumferenoe. Though Howlej must have passed close to 
the lake in his jourDey, it is not marked on his or any subsequent map. 
Except on its eastern margin, where the plateau rises somewhat abruptly 
to about 700 feet, the surrounding country is much broken and wooded, 
whilst the lake itself is dotted with numerous small islands covered with 



After spending some days to the eastward travelling and sketching, 
during which I shot two fine caribou stags, I next turned my attention 
to the north country. Passing directly north in the direction of the 
headwaters of the Gander, the traveller, after leaving the hollow with 
Chough's pond, rises gradually for several hundred feet, and finds 
himself in a wide open plateau composed of " dry ground,'* i.e, hard 
rock and stunted bushes. The general geological conditioDs are at 
once seen to be more northern from the presence of various lichens and 
arctic mosses, whilst the keen bracing air denotes a considerable altitude. 
It was from the northern edge of this high plateau that on September 
10 we first caught sight of a new lake lying in a great basin surrounded 
by the usual well-nigh impenetrable forest. Saunders, my guide, at once 
said that this must be the lake he had once heard an Indian speak of as 
being a place where he had once speared many deer, but to which he 
<x>nld give no name nor indicate its position. The following day, after 
making a forced march, we determined to reach the lake and examine 
its eastern end, where there was a broad barren that joined two great 
forests. It took us three hours* hard work to make our way in the 
descent to the lake-shore. The distance from the open ridge to the 
w^ater was only about I.^ mile, but such close forest I have nowhere 
encountered in other parts of the world where I have hunted. 

Once arrived at the Sandy Beach, at the eastern end there is a 
glorious view of the surface of the new lake, which Mr. lleid kindly 
expressed a wish to name after myself. The whole lake is not so broad 
as St. John's, but it is considerably larger, and carries a greater 
volome of water. About 3 miles from the eastern limit, two long 
points of land project into the lake, and give the whole the appearance 
of an egg-glass. Forests entirely surround the lake, whose sides are 
for the most part steep, and devoid of beaches. The circumference 
must be estimated at about 20 miles. At the eastern end there flows 
in a good-sized stream (heavily stocked with the beautiful onananiche 
or land-looked salmon), which percolates from the east, rising on the 
high ground above George's pond, and flowing west down a broad 
valley about 2 miles to tlie north of Island pond. 

A glance at any map of Central Newfoundland will show a fair- 
sized river falling into the western end of St. John's lake. It is marked 
as coming from due west, but in reality it does not come from this 
direction, but issues from the western end of Millais's lake to the north, 
where, after pursuing a southerly direction for some miles, it turns 



312 THE EIGHTH II^TERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS. 

gradually to the east till it enters St. John's lake at the point indicated. 
During the following week I packed over and made a cauip by the new 
lake, where I remained hunting and sketching for a fortnight. During 
this time I traversed all the vicinity through, not surmounting the 
high ridge to the north, which divides this country from the Triton 
brook, and which is also practically unknown. 



THE EIGHTH INTERNATIONAL GEOGRAPHICAL CONGRESS. 

The arrangemeots for the Eighth International Geographical Congresfi, which, as 
is known to readers of the Journal, will meet next year at Washingtoo, are now 
taking shape under the care of a committee (presided over by Prof. W J McOee) 
representing the ten geographical societies and mountaineering clubs of the United 
Statep, which bave united to welcome the geographers of all nations to American 
soil. According to a circular issued in June last, the Congress will meet in 
Washington on September 8, 1904, and will hold daily sessions on the 9th, 10th, 
12th, 13ih, and 14th of the month. Arrangements have been made provisionally 
for an excursion from Washington to St. Louis, viu Baltimore, Philadelphia, New 
York, Niagara falls, and Chicago, between September 15 and 20, during which the 
Congress will be entertained by the Societies having their head-quarters at places 
on this route, the foreign members and associates being, it is expected, the guests 
of the ten societies collectively. At St. Louis, the members and associates of the 
Congress will take part in the International Congress cf Arts and Scieoces con- 
nected with the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, where a geographical exhibit is 
also planned. In case any considerable number of members so desire, a general 
excursion will be arranged from St. Louis via Laredo and the Mexican railway to 
the City of Mexico, thence via the Mexican Central and El Paso to Santa Fe, and 
80 to the Grand Cation of the Colorado and on to San Francisco and the Golden 
Gate, where the Western Geographical Societies will extend special hospitality ; 
afterwards returning by way of Mount Shasta, Portland, and Mount Tacoma, ann 
through , the Northern Booky mountains and the interior plains to the eastern 
ports. It is expected that special rates, from 25 to 40 per cent, below the ordinary, 
will be secured on this excursion. 

The subjects for treatment and discussion during 'the meeting at Washington 
are classified under the following heads : — 

1. Physical Geography, including Geomorphology, Meteorology, Hydrology, etc. 

2. Mathematical Geography, including Geodesy and Geophysics. 

3. Biogeography, including Botany and Zoology in their geographical aspects. 

4. Anthropogeography, including Ethnology. 

5. Descriptive Geography, including Explorations and Surveys. 

6. Geographical Technology, including Cartography, Bibliography, Orthography 

of place-names, etc. 

7. Commercial and Industrial Geography. 

8. History of Geography. 

9. Geographical Education. 

The committee urge that early notice be given by those desirous of presenting 
communications or proposing subjects for discussion, July 1, 1904, being fixed as 
the latest date for submitting communications designed for printing in connection 
with the Congress, and August 1 in the cate of abstracts (not exceeding 1000 
words in length) designed for insertion in the daily bulletin. 



REVIEWS. 313 

Except in special cases, it is anticipated that not more than twenty minutes 
can be allotted for any communication, and in cases where no statement is made 
hj the author as to the time required, only twelve minutes will be allotted. All 
papers preaented, and subjects proposed for discussion, will be submitted for 
ftppToral to a Scientific Committee, whose decisions shall, however, be subject to 
rsiTinon by the presidency afrer the Congress meets. Communications may be 
written in French, English, German, Italian, or Spanish. 

The Committee of Arrangements extends a special invitation to geographical 
and eognate institutions to participate in the Congress through delegates, who will 
be expected to subecribe as members, though the publications of the Congress will 
be sent free to all societies represented. Membership (which entitles to the receipt 
of all publications) may be acquired by payment of $5, or £1 ; while ladies accom- 
panying members may become associates on payment of half that sum, enjoying 
all the privil<^es of members except the rights of voting and of receiving publica- 
tioDS. It is asked that those who intend to be present, or desire to receive the 
publications of the Congress, will send in their names at the earliest practicable date. 

It will be seen from the above that every effort is being made to make the 
eighth meeting of the Congress as much a success from every |X)int of view as its 
predecessors have been, and it is to be hoped that large numbers will avail them- 
•elTes of the exceptional facilities offered, not only of enjoying intercourse with the 
geographers of the United States, but of gaining an insight into the broad geo- 
graphical relations of the North American continent. 



REVIEWS- 
EUROPE. 

Botanical Extedition to Corsica. 

• Ikitanischo INisi-Btudii'ii auf cinrr FruhliiiL'sfahrt durrh Korsika.' Von Dr. M. IJikli. 

Zurich : Fiisi \- Beer. 1903. 

In company with friendp, Dr. Rikli, in the spring of I'JOO, made an excursion to 
Corsica to study the vegetation and other features of that island. The results 
obtained have been embodied in the small book above mentioned, which is 
illustrated by twenty-nine reproductions of photographs. 

Corsica is an extremely rocky and mountainous island, the scenery as a whole 
beiDg as often hopelessly monotonous as remarkably grand. The Spelunca near 
EHsa is an example of the latter. Geologically speaking, (Corsica is in structure 
very similar to Sardinia, though some peculiarities have important effect on the 
appearance of the scenery. The rocks and mountains are generally brilliantly 
coloured, red predominating. These colours are due to red porphyry and granite, 
green serpentine, and many other minerals. Many of the rocks are corroded in a 
remarkable manner, on account, no doubt, of their not being of homogeneous 
structure. 

The vegetation of Corsica is of great interest, as, owing to the restricted area 
nnder cultivation, much of the country is practically in a wild state. A few of the 
chief characteristics of the Corsican flora are recorded. Many of the species appear 
in large quantities and over large areas in almost pure formations, and not mixed 
"vrith ether species. The island has probably about two thousand different vascular 
plants — a very large number for such a small district. An explanation for thb 
may possibly be found in two peculiar features noticed by the author. Many of 



314 RKVIKWS. 

the plants have a very short season ; they soon disappear and make room for other 
species. Theo, again, numeroas local floras are found restricted to small areap, and 
dependent on some local peculiarity in the external conditions. The limestone flora 
of Bonifacio is an instance of this. The formations of the lowlands bear an essen- 
tially xerophil character, except along the watercourses. Higher up, however, in the 
hills hygrophil formations of beech forests are met with. Three regions may be 
distinguished when passing from the lowlands to the highest points on the island. 
The lowest region, which is mostly under cultivation, rises up to 900 metres. The 
vegetation is essentially of the Mediterranean sclerophyll type. The mountain 
region, 900 metres to 1800 metres, begins with the upper limit of the Spanish 
chestnut, and extends to the upper limit of the beech forests. The alpine region 
includes the remainder up to 2710 metres. Grassland with low-lying shrubs is 
found here. But this region is not covered by a continuous coat of vegetation, 
this being frequently interrupted through peculiarities in the formation of the 
substratum. 

The different formations are discussed in detail, and many other points of 
geographical, geological, botanical, and even ethnographical interest are referred to. 
The photographs bring out clearly the general character of the Fcenery, and more 
especially of the vegetation. 0. V. Darbishire. 

ASIA. 
Asiatic Russia. 

* Asiatic Russia/ By George Frederick Wright. With maps and Illustrations. 
Two vols., pp. xiii., 637. London and New York. 1903. 

This work, due to the enterpriseof an American geologist, was originally planned 
as a study in physical geography, and took its present form as a result of the 
author's journey through China, Siberia, and West Central Asia. In this journey 
his special object was to study the conditions of the Asiatic *' backbone '^ regions 
during the glacial period ; but from physical research Dr. Wright was led on to 
examine the political and social facts — past and pre8ent^K)f the country visited ; 
and thus the present volumes grew into shape. The keynote of these volumes is 
the connection of physical and human history in Asiatic Russia, and the need of 
studying both together. After the " Physical Geography," therefore (pp. 13-120), 
comes the " Russian Occupation " (pp. 123-340) ; next follow the *• Political 
Divisions" (pp. 343-116), and the " Social, Economic, and Political Conditions " 
(pp. 419-481) ; and the work ends with a study of the *' Natural History,*' the 
geology, climate, fauna, and flora (pp. 485-581). Under ** Russian Occupation " we 
have a history of the Slav conquest of Siberia, Turkestan, and Caucasia, a very 
interesting inquiry into pre-Russian colonization, largely based (for Siberia) upon 
the collections of the museums at Minusinsk and Khabarovsk, and a detailed study 
of the immigration and settlement, both penal and free, of the Russians tbemselvef. 
In this connection it may be regretted that a map in Lansdell's ' Central Asia,' show- 
ing the areas of Russian colonization, could not have been taken as a model for a 
fresh and up-to-date portrayal of the ethnological facts of Western Turkestan. 
Under "Political Divissions " we have a brief but decidedly useful "gazetteer of 
regions," afifording a digest of all the more important facts of population, produc- 
tion, inter-communication, education, and physical environment. Under "Soci^.l 
Conditions " the author gives an excellent summary of the chief lines of road rail, 
and river navigation, a carefully considered estimate of" capacity for developmen - " 
under various heads — population, agriculture, irrigation, transport of goods, manu- 
facture, and industry — and certain " grounds for confidence in the future " of Ru^- 
sian progreEs; while under "foreign relations" he touches cautiously but cheerfully 
upon the great political problems ahead of Russia in Asia. The whole aiea betwi eoa 



BEYIEWS. 315 

the Yenisei, the Ural mountains, the ranges along the southern Turkestan border, 
and the dividiDg chains from the Pamir to Lake Baikal, is considered by Dr. Wright 
to hftve been the scene of a great subsidence in recent geological time. During 
tliia aabeidenoe, as onr author believes, the fertile soil, called '* loess " in some 
ragioDSy and " black earth '* in others, was accumulated ; the waters of the 
Aietic ocean covered all North- West Siberia and extended up to the base of 
the great Asiatic plateau ; and when the ocean retired, it left the seals of the 
north behind it in the two isolated basins of Baikal and the Caspian. The 
■actiona of the present work on Bussian colonization in relation to the Church and 
the Baskolniks, to the Village Commune, to the system of compulsory migration 
^plied to " undesirables " by the village community, and to the system of free 
peasant emigration organized and controlled by the Central Government (for the 
mora reoent settlement of Siberia), are especially worthy of study ; and not less 
tM> is Dr. Wright's analysis of the criminal statistics, showing that about 50 per cent. 
of all the Siberian exiles of the past consisted of i>er8ous banished by the village 
communities, forming 01) per cent, of those reported as banished by " administra- 
tive process,'* or by order from the Minister of the Interior. The author is con- 
spicuously successful in bis endeavour to present a picture of the actual contemp9rary 
development of Asiatic Bussm. One well-established fact about existent railway, 
steamboat, industrial, or educational progress, he evidently considers, is wortb reams 
of discussion of obsolete conditions. On this side of his work he has evidently 
drawn npon that invaluable work, tbe official * Guide to the Siberian Bailway ; ' 
jnat as in the historical chapters he owes not a little to Vladimir's ' Bussia on the 
Pacific,' the best handbook yet published in tbe English language on the Slav 
oonquest of North Asia. 

In a treatise of such distinct merit it seems almost ungracious to notice defects. 

Bat it is unfortunately true that the reader is often harassed by the too frequent 

obscurity, carelessness, and ambiguity of tbe style, and that strange inaccuracies or 

inconsistencies are to be found here and there. Thus, Bering the "German,*' 

whose Danish nationality is elsewhere admitted (p. 147), Mithrii^'itep, the 

''great leader of tbe Parthian empire" (p. *J71), the ** celebrated KaraKitai . . . 

who had established hiti ca^'ital at Kulja" (p. o('»8), are puzzling; nor can we 

altogether grasp the *' urthodox " Mohammedans of the Caucasus, as distin^^uished 

from Sunnites (p. 34 r»). The author does not seem to be aware that tbe railway 

between Tashkent and Orenburg has for some time been in active construction 

(see p. 449), or that the Baikal-Kalgan railway project, over the Gobi, has been, 

for the time at least, abandoned in favour of the branch along the west slope of 

the Great Khingan range conutctiug the North Manchurian line with the Great 

Wall. Once more, he seems to write as if Timur's empire for years extended up 

to the walls of Constantinople and tbe banks of the Ganges (p. 371) ; he is rather 

loose in his references to eighteenth-century Russian history ; and his spoiling of 

names is occasionally inconsistent (ey, Yana on p. 80, Jana on p. 87). But these 

and similar matters do not impair the general value of a most conscientious and 

useful study, marked in every part by an admirable candour and an o|)en-minded 

spirit of inquiry. C. Raymond Beazley. 

SiBEllIA AXD MaNCHUUIA. 

' The Real Siberia, together with an Account of a Dash thnugli Manchuria/ By 

John Foster Fraser. London : Casse 11 iJi. Co. llJOli. 

This is a short, unpretentious, but first-band record of a journey across the 
entire length of North Asia by the Siberian-Manchurian railway ; it is also a 
record of the observations of an intelligent and practical man, who fairly claims for 



316 



REVIEWS. 



his book that, whatever its faults, it is the boaost work of n man who went out to 
see, and has writlen about what he saw. 

The result of Sir. Fraset'd inquiries was to show that the popular, or ratber 
the old, ideas about Siberia were altogether wrong. For here was a land of 
immense agricultural possibilities, great stretches of prairie waiting for the plough, 
huge forests, macniGcent watervays, and rising towui — a country that recalled 
Cacad.i and the best parts of Western Americn. The author has called his book 
' The Beal Slberin,' because in it he has tried to show that Che Siberia of coDvicti 
and prisons is paeslog away, and the Siboriit of the railvav, the reaping-machine, 
the gold-drill, the new towD, is awakening into life. He was one of th« first 
Europeans — not a Bussian — to cross Manchuria by the new railway, though he 
did not traverse the southern branch from Port Arthur to Kharbin, and the 
account of his transit is both interesting and valuable as a fiiithful account of the 
eiact state of the " Chinese Esstern Railway" in the autumn of lUOl. Occasionally 
Mr. Fraser makes miBtakes or performs strange feats with Rnssian words — cedtai 
(Tor teicluiB) on pp. 5IS. 57 may be mentiocud, whore the form represents neither 
the letters cor the sound — but as a whole ' The Real Siberia ' may be emphBtlcitly 
commended. Its atmosphere la throughout one of reality and truth. 

C. R. B. 



'Durob die Handsoliurei and Sibirlen.' Reisen nnd Studien von Uudolf Znbel. nit 
146 Abbildungen snmeist uaoh photographischen Aufnahmeu dea Verfassera. 
Leipzig: Georg Wigaud. 1302. 

This is one of the most thoughtful and valuable works we have had lately on 
East Asia — for with East Asia it ia eseentially concerned. The lands west of 
Baikal are only touched on in the last twenty pages (201-811, Im " train dt luxe "), 
while all tho remaining space ia given to Pechili, Manchuria, the Maritime Prorioce 
(Vladivostok, etc.), tho .Vmur, and the Trans-Baikal region. The author first 
takes us from Pekin t*) Shan -liai-K wan and the eastern end of the Great Wall, 
then through eoutb-vvestern Minchuria to Niuchwaog, where he stops to describe 
tiow Manchuria became Kiissian, and what precisely was the stale of Russian 
control and admtnistratiou in the occupied provinces when he paaiwd through 
(.January to June. 1901). Dr. Zabel Chen visits Che Russian leasehold in Southern 
Manchuria, describes Port Arthur and Dalnii in the Liao-Cung penioaula, the future 
Gibraltar and San Francisco of East Asia, and discusses the treaty oblifmtions 
undeiCsken by the Russian Government in respect to Manchuria (P.Lrt i., p[i. 3-90). 

In the second part of his book the writer details a wearisome stay at Vladi- 
vostok {Lehen iind Treiben am Qoldeneri Unrn), and gives a fascinating skelch 
of a wiialing voyage off the Siberian coaat ; next follows the journey by the Ussuri 
railway from Vladivostok to Khabarovsk ; we are then given an historical sketch 
of Russia's advance from the Ur^ls to Che PaciSc ; and finally we are brought back 
to Europe, by staaincr up che Amur betn'een Khabarovsk and titretensk, by rail 
through Che Trans-Baikal Co the Holy sea, over the Baikal in steamer once more, 
and home from Irkutsk by tho Siberian express. 

Two special features may be noticed in Dr. Zabel's work : firat, the admirable 
series of lllustratlona, chosen with independence and judgment, often giving novel 
and striking pictures even of Che be«C-known Cblngs and places, and always well 
finished ; second, the pbiloEopblc and historical character of certain chapters and 
of many passages of other chapters. The original diary form is preserved through- 
out, and B vary clear, animated, and amusing stylo is employed. Among the parts 
which seemed to add most conspicuously to older works we may InBtauce — the 
C of Port Arthur and Dalnii, and of the measures taken to realize a great 





REVIEWS. 317 

military and commercial future for the new Russian ice-free port?, in connectiou 
wifth which an instructive official plan of the projected town on Talienwau hay is 
given on p. 75 ; the description of the town, and especially of the Museum, of 
Khabarovsk, and its ethnological, biological, anthropological, and other collections ; 
and the description of Vladivostok. On the other hand, the author has perhaps 
not given quite enough space and attention to Blagoveshchensk ; and though one 
IB grateful for the excellent letterpress on Port Arthur (pp. 64-72), ils value would 
haTO been much enhanced by Eome views of the place. Economical and political 
refiaotions of no small value are to be found in almost every part of Dr. Zabers 
book ; in particular we may notice the concluding estimate of the Siberian railway 
on ppw 300-307. A select bibliography, useful, but omitting some of the most 
important recent studies of Siberia {e.g. those of Cotteau and Henry Norman), 
oondudes the volume. C. R. B. 



* The Great Siberian Railway.' By >I. M. Shoemaker. Now York and London, IWA 

(i.'p. Putuam*8 Sons. Pp. viii., 230. 

This is a record of a journey taken over the North Asiatic trunk line in the spring 
of 1902. It is a very condensed, note-bojk sort of a record, which everywhere 
shows an open and active intelligence, anxious to understand, to view things from 
an inside rather than an outside standpoint, but too careless, too much in a hurry, 
to produce a thoroughly satisfactory result. Distortions of names and incon- 
sistencies of statement are conhtantiy met with. Thus on p. 33 we have " Zala- 
toufe *' for Zlato-ust, the so-called " Golden-Mouth ** town of the Urals. On p. 140 
we are told that Mukden, in Manchuria, has 20,000 people ; on p. 105 the same place 
is credited with 200,000. Two ^lasos are made into one in the strange com- 
pound Bitsy-vo-Tsin-cbzou ; elsewhere these two cities of the Liao-tung peninsula 
are distinguished (see pp. 12G and 130). The forms " Czar " and « Ttar," *' Dalni " 
and *• Dalney," " Chiliabinsk " and " Cheliabinsk " are used interchangeably, and 
almofat with the freedom of an Early English book, where one never knows in what 
strange form an old friend will be next disguised. Again, while at Tomsk the 
anthor records, as the only historical event worth notice, the exile of Catherine 
Dolgoruky, he is silent as to Theodore Kuzniich, the monk, and says nothing of 
the local tradition that under this name lived and died the Emperor Alexander I. 
after his disappearance from the world at Taganrog. Lastly, both in praise and 
blame Mr. Shoemaker is hard to follow. On the one hand, we are told that 
Rossis can accomplish more and in less time than any other nation (p. 59); 
on the other, no improvement is said to be discernible in the general information 
or intelligence of the people during the last twenty years. As usual, the truth 
lies between these extremes : Russia does not perform better and quicker work 
for civilization than other great nations ; but it is idle to pretend that she does 
not accomplish a good deal. Her Held of action is so vast that any progress 
at all among her people afifects an immense area, both of space and race. 
Considering the backwardness of her development,' she has of late advanced as 
rapidly as any country ; and in education the percentage of *' literates " has risen 
from 11 to over 25 per cent, in the last twcLty years. But when all criticism has 
been made, it remains true that the general reader will find much in these pages 
to interest and inform him, especially in the copious extracts which the author 
gives from that primary source of reliable knowledge as to present-day Siberia, 
the * Guide to the Great Siberian Railway,* published by the Ministry of Ways 
and Communications. C. R. B. 

No. III.- September, 1903.] z 



318 REVIEWS. 

Sakhalin. 

* Un Bagne Russe ' (' He d3 Sakaline *). By Paul Labbe. Paris : Hacbette. 

1903. Pp. 272. 

This work coosifets of three parts — ^a study of the criminal transportation atd 
colonization in the Russian Botany Bay of the Far East; an account of the 
mines and fisheries of the island, and especially of the latter as affecting Japanese 
interests and the diplomatic questions at issue between Russia and Japan ; lastly, an 
elaborate description of the decaying native races of Sakhalin. In the first, M. Labbe, 
in sharp contrast to Mr. de Windt, criticizes and condemns with severity, though 
from his indictment it is apparent that certain important ameliorations have been 
gradually efitfcted in recent years. In the second part an interesting parallel to the 
French f^hore question in Newfoundland is discussed, and the extreme importance to 
Japan of the Sakhalin fisheries is shown. *' ' Grace k la question des harengs, nous 
avons barre sur les Japonais ' me disait un diplonate russe." At the same time it 
is contended that Russia will be only too glad to allow the Japanese to fish iu 
Sakhalin waters, in return for a friendly neutrality as to Manchuria. In the third 
part, by far the most interesting and elaborate, the author makes a contribution of 
distinct value to our knowledge of the fast-dying aborigines of North Asia — 
Tunguses, Giliaks, Oroks, Ainus — and gives us a detailed account, from a long and 
close personal observation, of their manners and customs, occupations and modes of 
life, beliefs and superstitions, legends, songs, funeral and marriage ceremonies, and 
festivals. Especially is that festival depicted which centres round the sacrifice of 
the bear, that symbolic animal *' stronger than a beast and wiser than a man" in 
whom Kirghiz, Mongols, and Tungus£s alike recognize a supernatural pDwer. 

G. R. B. 

AFRICA. 

Morocco. 
• Voyages au Maroc (1899-1901).' By the Marquis de Segonzac. Paris : Ck)lin. 1903. 

Of lecent travellers in Morocco, none perhaps has done more to increase our 
knowledge of the country by itineraries through the little-known districts than the 
Marquis de Legonzac, a young and ardent explorer who, between 1899 and 1901, 
carried out a number of venturesome journeys in the guise of a Mohammedan 
sometimes passing for a mendicant, at others for the servant of an influential 
sheriff, and yet again as a pilgrim visiting the sacred places of the country. It 
will be readily understood that, journeying under these circumstances, it was no 
easy task to bring back a harvest of scientific results. Such, however, was 
M. de Segonzac's enthusiasm for his self-imposed task, that be triumphed over 
all obstaclep, and the material which he secured in the form of route-surveys, 
astronomical observations, ethnological notep, botanical and geological collections, 
forms, as already stated, an imp3rtant contribution to our exact knowledge of the 
interesting country on which so much attention is just now focussed. 

M. de Segonzac*s explorations had to do principally with three distinct region?, 
and we may glance at their principal results for each of these in turn. The first 
is the Kif — that home of turbulent tribesmen — into the interior of which hardly a 
European had previously penetrated, though its geographical features had been to 
some extent revealed by the painstaking study of native information undertaken 
some fifty years back by Captain Beaudoin, whose conclusions are in the main 
strikingly confirmed by his countryman's labours. M. de Segonzac twice crossed 
the whole breadth of the Kif country, first making his way from Fez to Melilla on 
the coast, and afterwards returning from the bay of Alhucemas to Fes by a route 



REVIEWS. 319 

panllel to the former. His observation? show that the Kif mountain massif con- 
tuts of a series of ridges forming concentric arcs parallel to the coa^-t-line between 
the Straits of Gibraltar and Cape Trcs Forcas. The orographic core or centre of 
the region lies in about 31° 45' N., between 3° 55' and 4° 10' W. of Greenwich. 
Among other results of these journeys is the means they supply of elucidating the 
tmfeli of Roland Frejus in lOGf), the only traveller who penetrated the lUf until 
reeent years. 

The eecond main division of the country on which new light has been thrown 
by IL de Segonzac is that of the so-called Middle Atlas, and of the upper Muluya 
Talley to its south. Here his routes differed considerably from thoFe of his pre- 
decessors — Rohlfs, De Breuille, De Foucauld, and others — and besid< s crossing the 
range twic<*, towards its eastero and western extremities, he penetrated to its main 
ridge from the north at about its centre, on the upper waters of the Sbu. South 
of the Mulaya valley he likewise attacked the chain of the Great Alias, and effected 
the ascent of Jebel Aiashi, which he found to reach a height of 4250 metres, or 
almost 14,000 feet, the height which has generally been assigned to it. The Middle 
Atlas is described as formed by three chains which fall in terraces to the Sbu basin 
on the north. The principal chain i^ the southernmost, which falls some 9000 feat 
to the Muluya valley on the south, and culminates in the Jebel Mussa, 13,000 
feet above sea-level. The third district traversed by the author lay at almost the 
oppoeite extremity of the kingdom, in the oitremc south-west, where, though his 
routes were not to the same extent new, he di 1 good work in giving greater pre- 
cision to the map. His observations confirm satisfactorily the results of Joseph 
Thomson (as against the map of M. dc la Martiiiidre), as regards the position of 
the Bibawan pass over the Great Atlas and its rule in relation to the systems of 
the Teosift and Sus. Some new routes were also surveyed in the basin of the 
latter river, and in the Sahel region to the south. 

Only the first two-thirds of the volume are occupied with the author's personal 
narrative, which embodies many interesting details on the c )untiy and its in- 
habitants, the remainder consibting of reports by specialists on the ethnological, 
meteorological, geological, and other scientific material brought home. Of 130 
species of plants represented in M. de Segonzac's collection, twenty-seven are new 
to science as coming from Morocco, though found in other parts of the Mediter- 
ranean region. An excellent summary of the geographical results is supplied by 
M. de Flotte Roquevaire. 

The Congo Statk. 

New Africa. An Essay on Government Civilizition in New Countries, and on the 
Foundation, Organization, and Administration of the Congo Free State.' By 
£. Descamps. Translated from the Frcncli. London : Sampson IjOW. 1903. 

This book, whose author is Professor of International Law at the University of 
Louvain, is, in spite of its somewhat misleading title, virtually a presentment of 
the case for the Congo State in the controversy which is now engaging so much 
attention, and a favourable bias on the part cf the writer is manifest at every page. 
Still, the book should certainly be read by all who wish to examine both sides 
before reaching a final conclusion on the s abject. The services rendered by King 
Leopold and his coadjutors towards the opening up of a previously sealed region are 
put forward with much skill, while the reverse of the picture is as far as possible 
concealed, the abuses which it is allowed may exist here and there being treated 
as incidents not affecting the general issue. The writer criticizes the false views 
(as he takes them to be) prevalent respecting the international status of the state, 
showing — and with justice — that the Berlin Act was in no way responsible for its 

z 2 



320 REVIEWS. 

calliDg into being as an independent sovereignty. But like all the apologist?, and 
not a few even of the criticF, of the state's policy, be seems to overlook an impor- 
tant consideration, viz. that the claim of the £tate to nearly a million square 
miles of territory, including some of the most fertile and densely peopled regions of 
Africa, coald never have been allowed by the European Powers, several of whom 
had prior intere£ts in the region, except on the consideration of the philanthropic 
and international character of the enterprise ; and that this fact places the state in 
an entirely special position among the ranks of sovereign powers. 

As is but natural considering the standpoint of the writer, the part played by 
King Leopold in the modern awakening of Africa is greatly magnified. Many will, 
however, think that, if the merit belongs in reality to any one man, that man can 
be no other than David Livingstone. 



The Niger. 

* Le Niger : Voie ouverte k notro Empire Africain.' Par Capitaiue Lenfant. Paris 

Hachette. 1903. Pp. vii., 252. 

The primary object of Captain Lenfaot's work, and of the record of that work 
which the present volume contains, is to show that the rapids of the lower Niger 
-HUin be ascended or desceoded with sufficient ease and frequency for the purpose of 
maintaining constant communication by water between the npper river and the 
sea. In this enterprise the pioneers had been Lieut. Hourst and Captain Toutee, of 
whom the former had denied, and the latter had stoutly affirmed, the normal 
< practicability of this fluvial route between Bussa and Say. Lenfant's experience 
fully confirmed the optimistic views of Toutee. 

On February 21, 1901, a fleet of twenty boats under his command, plentifully 
stocked with supplies of all kinds, began the asceot of the Niger at its mouth, and 
on May 25 that same fleet, uninjured and with all its stores, arrived at Say ; on 
May 29 it reached Niaa^, the Niger terminus of the direct route from Zinder 
and Lake Chad. On this voyage the two enclaves leased to France upon the lower 
:Niger in the treaty of 1898— the ** Enclave Tout^a " in the Delta, on the Forcados 
channel, and the " Enclave d'Arenberg," just below the last rapids, and opposite 
Bajibo — were visited and used as bases of supply and reinforcement. Captain 
Lenfaot makes an elaborate study of the hydrography of the Niger basin, the 
causes and extent of the annual floodp, and the differences between the upper, 
middle, and lower river ; for these three sections he uses the well-known terms of 
Joliba, Issa-ber, and Kwarra respectively. While naturally proud of his achieve- 
ment, and an ardent exponent of this line of communication between the sea and 
the inner regions of the French empire in North-West Africa, the author does not 
conceal his conviction that the projected railway from the Dahome coast to Say 
(already completed as far as Abome) is the only satisfactory and final solution of 
the problem, the only adequate link between the middle Niger countries and the 
French African littoral. In the future of cotton-culture in the Western Sudan 
Captain Lenfant is a confident believer, and he devotes some of his most suggestive 
pages to an explanation of the best methods to be taken for ensuring the proper 
development of native Industry. Miss King^ley was fond of sayiog that the 
remarkable African domioion built up by the Third Republic had, along with 
many merits, one chief defect — a lack of commercial intelligence. But of late 
there have been many signs — and this book is one of them — that Frenchmen are 
Awakening to the commercial possibilities of " France noire." C. B. B. 



REVIEWS. 321 

Nigeria. 

* Letters from Nigeria of the Honourable David Wynford Carnegie, 1899-1900.* 
Privately printed. Brechin : Black & Johnstone. 1902. 

The letters here printed were written to friends at home by the promisiog young 
Ki^rian official, whose untimely death in the performance of his duty has been so 
deeply lamented by all who knew him and could duly appreciate his many fine 
qualities. They present a vivid picture of the everyday life of the European in the 
African wilds, and the fight against adverse circumstances which has to be waged by 
those who bear conscientioasly (as did David Carnegie) " the white man*s burden " 
i<^ those fever-haunted regions. But apart from their pathetic personal interest, 
they contain many graphic touches, helping to a comprehension of the nature of the 
<^uiitry, the life of its inhabitantp, and their relation to the white man who dwells 
^QcioDg them, which show that, had he been spared, their author would have been 
^ trustworthy instructor of the public at home on West African afifairs, no less 
^(^an a capable actor amid the scenes described. His exceptional talent for dealing 
^ith native races, and his kindly feeling towards them, are cDnstantly brought 
^^t, and the glimpses of his personal character which they supply enhance the 
^^^ret at his sad and untimely fate. 

AMERICA. 

The Sierra Nevada. 

Mountaineering in the Sierra Nevada.* By Clarence King. Lond<m : Unwin. 1903. 

We welcome this reprint of a work which must always remain a classic in geo- 
^apbical literature, but which, owiog to the fact that it has long been out of print 
^lld. therefore comparatively inaccessible, is perhaps not so widely kn^wn to the 
Pt'esent generation as it deserves to be. It possesses the twofold attraction of being 
^v^itt^n by a man of science, capable of drawing the proper lessons from the facts 
^l>served, who is at the sam3 time keenly alive to the glories of external nature, and 
appeals to the imagination of his readers in his descriptions of the western forests 
^nd snowy mountains with a skill which has rarely been equalled ; while the in- 
sight incidentally conveyed into his own personality is not the leaat of its charms. 
The "book is well got up, and though it may be thought by some that its attractive- 
would have been enhanced by illustrations of the striking natural scenery first 
iplored by Mr. King and his companions, it is no doubt more satisfactory on the 
vvbole that the book should reooain as it left its author's hands. It is, we 
i~epeat, one which should find a place in every geographical library, no matter of 
l^icw modest extent. 

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Evolution of Botanical Geography. 

* Botanische Forschungen des Alcxanderzuges.' Von Dr. Hugo Bretzl. Leipzig : 

Tcubner. 1903. 

Daring his daring expedition for the conquest of India, Alexander the Great 
'Was accoinpanied by a staff of officers who not only looked after military operation?. 
Out who in part were told off to make observations of scientific interest when 
visiting places which were new to the Greeks, and India, of course, was to the 
Greeks a quite new world. The records of these scientific observations made by 
the members of Alexander's military staff during their stay in India and their 
return journey were deposited in the imperial archives of Babylon. These were 



322 REVIEWS. 

unfortunately destroyed later on, but not before they had been made use of 
oxtensiyely by Theophrastus nvhen writing his ' Stories of the Plants.' Alexander the 
Great was the first to collect scientifically material for a treatise on the distribution 
of plants ; Theophrastus was the first to write a memoir on this subject. 

In the book now under review, Dr. Bretzl has succeeded in giving the reader a 
very good id^a of what the Greeks observed and noticed on their expedition to 
India. By quoting freely from the Greek text of Theophrastus, and by frequent 
reference to modern books, he has been able to establish the marvellous accuracy 
of the observations made by Alexander's officers, and the scientific value of the 
memoir which Theophrastus based on those observation!^. Though essentially 
botanical, the book before us should appeal equally in the first place to the 
geographer, the botanist, and the classical student, but in the second place to 
anybody who can appreciate the first dawning of an important branch of natural 
science — namely, the geographical distribution of plants. Dr. Bretzl's book 
contains many chapters which are hardly of sufficient general interest to be 
referred to here, but one or two are worthy of more detailed notice. These will 
serve to show the character of the whole book. 

The mangrove forestF, which the Greeks first saw from their ships, have been 
most carefully described by Theophrastus by the aid of the material supplied by 
the Greek officers ; and from the Greek text of his work, Dr. Bretzl is able to make 
out the chief components of the mangrove forest in the Persian gu^f — the large 
trees of Avicennia officinalis with their greyish leaves form the dense inner part, 
Rhizophora mucronata with its green haves the marginal portion of the forest. 
This observation is new to botanists, as far as the Persian gulf is concerned, but is 
circumstantially confirmed by researches into the mangrove of the Red sea. Rhizo- 
phora mucronata has been so well described by the Greeks as to make it possible 
to determine exactly the months during which the Greeks visited the mangrove 
swamps. They saw the flowers in November, and the mature fruit in December 
and January, but they did not observe the peculiar viviparous germination of the 
seed. This interesting phenomenon was first recorJed by the Arabs. 

Theophrastus comes to the conclusion that the brackish water favours the 
growth of the larger Avicennia^ whereas the smaller Rhizophora prefers the pure 
salt water of the sea. This view is also held by Dr. G. Karsten, and it shows that 
Theophrastus was already hunting after a physiological reason for the geographical 
distribution of plants. 

Schimper dees not record the occurrence of mangrove forest along the shores of 
the Persian gulf, nor does he admit that west of the mouth of the Indus any other 
plant but Avicennia is found as the chief constituent of the mangrove forests. On 
reference to Theophrastus, we find that the Greeks carefully noted the presence of 
the mangrove forest in the Persian gulf. From their descriptions, furthermore, it 
is clear that Rhizophora mucronata, in addition to Avicennia^ formed part of the 
swamp vegetation ; thus we are able to glean new facts from ob3ervations made 
two thousand years ago. This distribution of the Mangrove in the Persian gulf, 
as mentioned by Theophrastus, receives ample confirmation on reference to the 
excellent British Admiralty charts. The mangrove forests observed along Clarence 
strait and along the north-eastern coast of Bahrein island were carefully examined 
by Alexander's officers. These old observations are compared by Dr. Bretzl with 
modern ref earches, and in the end the reader gets a very clear idea of these remark- 
able marine forests, and their distribution and history. 

The hifctory of the banyan tree, Ficus hengalensis, is well recorded by Theo- 
phrastus; he even discusses the morphological nature of the props as root- 
structures. But he has come to grief over the description of the leaves, which 
evidently belong to Musa sapieniiumf and not to Ficus hengalensis. 



REVIEWS. 323 

The Oreeki not only made careful obaervaiions when away from home, bat they 
•Iso studied their own flora. It was due chiefly to this that they were able to 
notice ftnd appreciate the many remarkable plants they came across on their journeys. 
Thus very early they separated geographically the sunoy and dry continent of 
Asia (including Africa) from the moist and cold Europe. Theophrastus was able 
to COD firm this view from his own observations. Abies pectinataj a fir, he found to 
be an ezclusiyely European tree, not occurriug in Asia, except along the coast of 
Asia Minor, which, however, he considered to have the same climate as Greece and 
the other parts of Europe. 

The date-palm was correctly taken as the typical plant of the sub-tropical desert 
zone of Asia, the fir and ivy as two types characteristic of the Central European forest 
zone. This view was held by the Greeks till they came to the Himalayan hills. 
The four typical coniferous trees of the Himalayan forest mentioned by Schimper 
are also noticed by the Greeks, namely, Abies Wehltiana and Smithiana, Cedrus 
deodarOf and Pinus exceJsa, The latter occurs also in Macedonia. The Greeks 
ascended the hills of the Himalayan range more than 21(X) metres in search of 
wood for building ships, by which to return to < ireece. The vegetation noticed 
between 900 metres and 2ICH) metres struck the Greeks as being remarkably 
similar to the vegetation of the lowlying plains of their native country. B)th 
regions are characterized by sclcrophytos (plants with hard leaves). Bayond the 
2100 metres they got the forest ; they were thus able to obs jrve the regional division 
of the vegetation on the mountain-side, the higher regions of a tropical mountain 
being generally temperate in character. The Greeks were very much surprised 
to find coniferous trees so far away from home, and this discovery should 
have put an end to their theory that the conifers were exclusively European 
plantp. 

The Greeks returned home from India partly by sea and partly by land. The 
overland route led them through Baluchistan, where they fully appreciated the 
ever-dry sandhills and the genorally dry wadis, which are, however, occasionally 
flooded during a heavy downpour of rain. The land journr y also showed them 
that there was no connection between the needle-leaved forests of the Himalaya 
and Macedonia. For this reason — not perhaps very logically — they continued to 
uphold their view that the fir was essentially a European tree. Theophrastus had 
already come across one exception, namely, a forest in Armenia, which has 
since been admirably described by Radde. Theophrastus has made mistakes here 
and there, but in separating hin Eiiropa from his Aai>i, he was practically preparing 
the way for the separation of what we to-day call the Central European forest 
region. 

Eratosthenes was the firdt to see that Europe and Asia could not be separated 
by a north-to-south line on geobotanical eviience. A line should be drawn from 
east to west to separate a northern from a southern district. This view, which 
makes the fir wmxls of Macedonia and the Himalaya not widely separate groups, 
bit merely southerly outrunners of the large northern forest, has received ample 
confirmation from modern geobotanical research. 

The attempt has been made to give, in a few words, some idea of the scope of 
Dr. BretzPs book, which is a most valuable and interesting publication. It should 
make fascinating reading for all those who take an interest in geography in its 
widest sense. 

O. V. Daiuushire. 



324 THE MONTHLY RECORD. 

GENERAL. 

MOUNTAINKEBING. 

* Hochtonren in den Alpen, SpanieD, Nordafrika, Kalifornien und Mexiko.* Von 

Haimund Sch'afer. Leipzig : J. J. Weber. 1903. 

Dr. Scba^er U an ardent climber and a geologist as well a^ a doctor of medicine. 
His Tolnme is very various in its contents. In tbe early chapters he recounts his 
alpine adventures, which include a night in the observatory on the summit of 
Mont Blanc. These are followed by some tourist's notes. on Spain, and a glimpse 
at Morocco. The reader is then called on to leap the Atlantic, cross by the Canadian 
Pacific Railway to San Francisco, and return by Mexico To the geographer the 
most interesting portion of the volume will be the account of the great Mexican 
volcanoes. Dr. Scha''er climbed Popocatepetl, Orizabi, and Ixtaccihuati, and gives 
interesting details as to their features and geology. He calls attention to tbe 
unequal melting of the snowfields under tropical skies which produce the conditions 
known in the Andes as ^' Nieves penitente>," a term the origin of which Dr. Schafer 
misappreheidtj. Sir M. Conway's observations* do not seem to have been taken 
account of in the explanation he offers of tbe phenomenon. The volume is well 
got up, and fully illustrated ; some of the coloured plates from the author's sketches 
being exceptionally successful. 



THE MONTHLY RECORD. 

THE SOOIETT. 

French Geographers at the B.G.S. — An excnrsion to this country having 
been arranged in connection with the Annual Congress of French 
Geographical Societies, held this j'car at Rouen, an invitation was sent 
by the Society to the members of the party to a luncheon to be held 
in their honour during the course of the visit. It was at once accepted, 
and Monday, August 10, fixed for the date of the reception. On that 
day a party of some ninety members of the Congress, including several 
lidies, arrived at the Society's house at 11.30 a.m., and was received, in 
the absence in Norway of the President, by Major Darwin and other 
members of the Society's Council and staflF. Among the distinguished 
visitors were M. Zevrort, rector of the Caen Academy and president of 
the Congress ; M. Canonville Delys, president of the SocietS Normande 
de Geographie; Generals Guillet and Messonier; M. de Saint Arroman, 
representing the Ministry of Public Instruction ; M. Monbrun, repre- 
senting the Geographical Society of Gran and the Government of 
Algeria ; M. Monflier, general secretary of the Congress ; and M. Sar- 
razin, the historian of Normandy. After examining the various objects 
of interest at the Society's house, including manuscript maps by 
explorers, early editions of Ptolemy, and other old geographical works 
which had been laid out for their inspection, the visitors proceeded at 
12.30 to lunch at Limmer's Hotel, where the chair was taken by Major 



♦ * Aconcagua atid Tierra del Fucgo,* pp. 55 et eeqq. Reference may also be made 
to Dr. HauthaVa paper in the Reciita del Mmeo de la FlaiOy vol. x. (1902). 



THS MONTHLY RECORD. 325 

Daxwin, who expressed regret at the inevitable absence of the Presi- 
dent. The other representatives of the Conncil included Lord Belhaven 
and Stenton, Mr. E. L. S. Cock?, Colonel J. K. Trotter, Colonel C. M. 
Watson, Captain D. Wilson-Barker, and Mr. D. G. Hogarth. The 
chairman, in proposing in French the toast of ''His Majesty King 
Cdward VII.,*' alluded to the services recently renderei by the 
King as a messenger of good-will between the two nations; and the 
toast was dniDk with great enthusiasm, as was also the second 
toast, that of "M. Loubet, the President of the French Republic." In 
proposing the toast of the French Geographical Societies, in terms 
which again elicited a warm demonstration of good- will on the part 
of the company, M*jor Darwin spoke of the good work done through- 
out the world, largely under the inspiration of the oldest French 
society, that of Paris, by French travellers, mentioning in particular 
the names of Dumont d'Urvillo, who was exploring the southern polar 
seas at the time of the English expedition under Sir James Ross ; 
Lieut. Bellot, who lost his life as a volunteer on one of the Franklin 
search expeditions ; and the Gold Medallists of the Society, MM. Gamier, 
Reclus, Binger, and Foureau. In replying to the toast, M. Zevort 
expressed the thanks of the members of the Congress for their cordial 
reception by the Royal Geographical Society, alluding to the enhanced 
pleasure derived from the fact that they had been received by a son of 
Charles Darwin. MM. Yial and Canonville Delys having altjo spoken, 
M. Monbrun (of Gran ) proposed a toast to the closer union of the British, 
French, and African geographical societies, remarkiug that the society 
which he represented was the oldest representative of the last category. 
In conclusion, M. Sarrazin made a courteous alluaion to the services 
rendered to the Congress bv the British delegates, Mr. II. J. Mackiuder 
and Mr. J. P. Thomson. 

EUROPE. 

Basins of Subterranean Drainage in the Swiss Alps. — Messrs. Lugeoo, 

KickliQ, sDd Perriraz bave presented a note to the French Acadomie doi Sciences 
(^CompteB Jtendus, cxxxvi., No. 18, May 4, 1903), on the areas drained by rivers 
which di6apj>ear uudurgrouad as moisured on the 1 : *25,000 or 1 : 50,000 Siegfried 
sheets. Tlie follow iog is a summary of the results : — 

Pre- Alps, left bank of Kll«^no 8 

Marginal zone of Pre-Ali)9 (botwptn Rhone and 

^\l\A J ••• ••• ••• ••• ••« ••• dirt #•• 

Middle zone of Pro-Alps (between Klmn i and Aar) 40 

latomal „ 10 ... 

Hi^h Al|>8. lim" '^tono. S.ivoy t« Aur 28 

Aiir to Rensa ... ... 21 

Itous^ to lihiuo ... ... 0.) 

Alps of Viibii.s. south of Rl.«'« 10 11 

„ Ticino ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Orison.**, .suuth nf Rhiiir ... ... ... !>1 

Tntal 230 ... 



Hectares. 


Acros. 


l,()88-3 ... 2,089 2 


24-0 . 


60-8 


4,123 . 


.. 10,188 


727-7 . 


1,798-3 


11,007 8 . 


.. 27,3:)0 1 


3.4391 


8,498-5 


17,189-4 . 


.. 42,477-4 


:ir)8-5 


885-9 


(;42-7 


l,r>88-2 


3,5100 


8,090-0 


42.177-7 


.. 104 227 4 



326 THE MONTHLT RKOOBD. 

The majority of these closed basins are in the limestone, which is Upper Jurassic 
in the Pre-Alpp, Urgonian in the outer, and Malm in the inner regions of the High 
Alps. They are rare and unevenly distributed in the crystalline Alps, mainly 
where limestone occurs, while they are uncommon on the Flysch and absent in 
the folded molasse. The majority are near lines of faulting, and it is remarkable 
that high parts, such as the Wildhorn, Wildstrubel, and Zilbem, loose their melted 
snow by sinkholes, and so may be compared to pierced roofs. Few are found near 
the great valleys. Most possess little lakes of variable level, e,g. Lake Taney, 
Daubensee, Glattensee, Obersee of the Qlarner Alp?. 

Weather and Bird-migrations in Hungary. — The influence of weather 

conditions on the arrival in Hungary, in spring, of migratory species of birds, has 
been studied for some years by J. Hegyfoky, who summarizes the results of his 
observations in the Meieorologische Zeitschrift for February of this year. With 
regard to the arrival of swallows, he has found that the mean date of arriyal is 
April 5, the isotherm for which day is 9°'4 C. (53° Fahr.), which agrees well with 
the facts observed with regard to the temperature of the mean date of arrival at 
eighteen different stations in Europe. A retardation of 3*03 days was observed for 
100 metres* increase of altitude, while only 1*17 days' retardation seems occasioned 
by 1° difiference in latitude. For a proper comparison of the arrival of birds with 
the weather conditions, it is not sufficient to know the mean date of arrival, and 
Herr Hegefoky therefore attempted a comparison of the whole course of the 
phenomenon with the corresponding weather conditions. He found that in six 
different years the period cf five dajs in which the arrival of swallows culminated 
was one of low barometric pressure. This fact was most clearly marked in 1898 
and 1899, in which years the greatest number of observations wero taken, it being 
found that during a period of low pressure which prevailed from March 25 to 
April 2, 1898, 51'5 per cent, of the total arrivals were recorded, and during a 
similar period in 1899, from April 8 to April 16, 44*2 per cent. Much was found 
to depend on the directi< n from which the depression advanced, for its influence 
was so much the greater when its favourable side was turned towards Hungary, 
and mild weather with south, south-west, or south-east winds prevailed. These 
i^ncluslons were also borne out by observations of the crrival of the cuckoo and 
other species. Dividing the country into four main subdivisions — the great plain, 
the western region, with a small amount of lowland, the eastern mountains, and 
the northern mountains — the writer finds that the birds arrive first at stations 
in the first-named, an average retardation of 5*1 days being observed for the 
western region, 6*1 days for the eastern, and 10*5 for the northern. These facts 
are again explairel by the climatic conditions. Other observations show that the 
species which arrive early show a larger amount of variation in the date of arrival 
than those which arrive later, and this is of course due to the greater variations in 
the weather conditions in the earlier period. 

New Triangolation in Iceland.^The old triangulation of the coast of 
Iceland, executed by Major Scheel in 1801-15, has been found to be very defective, 
and in 1900 Captain Hammer reported that it was impossible to base a marine 
survey on the old triangulati'm between Reykjavik and the Homafjord. It appears 
from the old map that the s'jrveyors, owing to the difticulties of the country, were 
not always able to complete the network, as between Ingolfshofdhi and Elifatindr, 
about GO miles distant, which they had to connect by a polygon, and that some 
angles at the stations could not be measured. Calculations of the line Stadhfjall — 
Ingolfshofdhi from the net eastwards from Akranesskagen and by the southern 
seriep, resulted in a difi'erence of about 70 yards. Accordingly, in the summer of 
1902, an expedition was sent from Denmark to execute a new triangulation along 



TH£ MONTHLT RIOORD. 327 

the ■outhem coast, which was divided into two parties, one under Captain Lund- 
Lanaen proceeding to Horaafj >rd, and the other working eastwards from Reykjavik. 
The former measured a hase 5501'178 yards long on a landspit at the mouth of 
Hom«f]ord, from which they carried a network of triangles westwards, establishing 
■tetisDS on the steep lofty summits of Thverdrtindsegg and Bakkatindra, and includ- 
ing the islands Hrollaogseyjar and Tvisker in the survey. Being favoured by 
calm, bright weather, they were able to land and take observations on the Hrollangs- 
ejjar. This network was extended westwards to Kaldbakur and Fossntipr, and 
the Reykjavik party, which had fewer difficulties to contend with, pushed its 
triangolation to Seljaland, east of Ma^karnj6^ The woik was sitisfactorily carried 
out, and the results will no doubt be at least accurate enough for all practical 
fiurpfxu—Oeoffrafisk Tidskri/t, IT"** Bind, Hefte i.-ii. 

ASIA. 

The Sastoration of the Ancient Irrigation Works on the Tigris.— Since 

his retirement from the 8ui)erintendence of the Kgyptian re3ervuiri<, Sir William 
Willcocks has been surveying the remains of the old irrigation works in the Tigris- 
Enphrates basin, in order to ascertain how far it might be possible to repeat in the 
Mtsopotamian lands the engineeriog operations which have been attended with 
such signal success in the Nile valley, lie has embodied his views on the subject 
in a paper read tefbre the Khedivial Geographical Society, Cairo, on March 25 of the 
present year, and since printed as a panophlet. His btudies on the spot were greatly 
facilitated by the previous surveys of Commander Felix Jones, to whom all due 
acknowledgments are made, and whose two largo maps of the Nahrwan canal 
and of the Tigris north of Baghdad (1849-50) are here reproduc€d, together with 
ten plates of illustrations. The now roughly completed surveys of the remains of 
reservoirs, dams, bridges, and regulators between Dara and lUbylon show that 
there were formerly three distinct irrigation systems — one ou the left, another on 
the right bank of the Tigris, and a thinl connecting that river with the Euphrates 
on the plains of Shinar. Near Opis (later Antiochia) at the head of its inland 
delta, the Tigris is joined by the Atheim (PbyscuH),on the left, and lower down by 
the Dyala (Delas), just above Baghdad. Here were developed the two systems of 
the Tigris pro|«r, that of the Xahrwiiii cacal on the left, and the Dijeil on the 
right bank. The Xahrwan, the largest canal ever constructed out of Cnina, bad 
its original head at Dura, about midway between Nineveh and Bab>lon, where the 
intake is still marked by the mast^i^e ruins of Kaatereh-Ucsareh. From tliis point 
it was carried southwards for 240 miles along the left bank of the main stream, 
feeding all the secondary canals drawn from the Atheim and the Dyala, and supply- 
ing abundance of water to many hundred thousand acres of rich alluvial lands. In 
the section between the 100th and liiOth mile, where Nausherwan's ruined palace 
forms a striking landmark, its banks are studded with ruined citiep, and in some 
places this vast artificial artery was from 10 to 50 feet deep and over 3«J0 feet 
wide. Its sudden ruin, caused by some unexplained diversion of the upj)er waters, 
brought about that utter desolation from which the middle Tigris region has never 
recovered. The second (Dijeil) system, though smaller, was still very extensive, 
and jointly with the first must have sulViced to irrigate neariy 2,000,000 acres of 
extremely fertile but now waste lands. When to these are added about 1,500,<X)0 
acres of the third (Ti-ris-Euphrales) system, we get a total of 2,800,000 acres 
which might be profitably reclaimed and cultivated, without including perhaps 
3,000,000 acres lower down (about the Shatt-el-Arab), which have become too 
saline to bo worth reclaiming at presuit. "Summing up the figures for upper 
Chaldea, or the lands of the [inland] delta of the Tigri", and for the swamped 



328 THS IIONTHLT RIOORD. 

lands of lower Cbaldea between Babybn and Baghdad, we have a total area of 
2,800,000 acres, and expenditure of £21,000,000 (for canalization, earthworks, and 
weirs), and a return of £60,000,000. These figures may seem large, but we are in 
one of the most famous tracts of the world, a tract whose past history justifies us 
in expecting that great resilts will follow if we bring to the solution of our 
problems the same wisdom the wise men of Cbaldea brought to the problems of 
their day " (p. 25). The whole question is studied, not only on its merits from 
the purely agricultural standpoint, but also in connection with the proposed exten- 
sion of the German Anatolian railway to the Persian gulf, and on tbis question 
Sir William has some shrewd remarks. '* The Baghdad railway — that Ib what I 
ha^e called the Mesopotamian section — m\\ traverse these regions; its rails will be 
laid on the banks of a renewed and remodelled Nahrwdn canal, and life and 
prosperity will again be seen in this land of great vicissitudes. Shall the canal 
be made with British capital coming from the west ? Speaking financially, shall 
the canal bd known as the Katul-iUK^iser-i-Hind, or Eatul-il-Eaiser-il-Almaigna ; 
or, as of old, Katul-il-Kesrawia [the "Trench of the Kaisers"]? Labourers from 
India — British subjects — will dig the canals, construct the weirs and regulators, 
and then settle down in millions to reclaim and cultivate these lands potent with 
future wealth just as though they were in another Pan jab. The through traffic 
between Europe and the East will be yielding no inconsiderable income, but when 
this traffic is supplemented by the transport of the abundant harvests of Chaldea, 
the Baghdad railway will be establishing itself as a financial success capable of 
satisfying the most sanguine of its promoters " (p. 32). 

The Ancient Bed of the Oxus. — Prof. Bartold has made an interesting 
discovery relating to this vexed question, the details of which were fally discussed 
by Prince Kropotkin in vol. xii. of the Journal, p. 306. Hitherto no reliable notice 
has been found of the navigation of the lower coarse of the Amu-daria at the time 
when it flowed into the Caspian sea. Now, in the autumn of 1392 Timur con- 
quered Mazanderan and sent its Seiid rulers to Kharczm (Khiva). According to 
Zakhir-ed-din-al-Merash, a historian of Taberistan who lived at the end of the 
fifteenth century, they were taken by boat from Sari to Ogurcha (an island ofif the 
east shore of the Caspian), and thence in boats up the Jihun (Amu). Here the 
author regards the disemboguement of the Amu into the Caspian as a well-known 
fact. Prof. Bartold holds that Abulfeda and other writers simply reproduced the 
statements of geographers of the tenth century and of Yakut, - while Eazvin 
(fourteenth century) and Khafizl-Abru (early in fifteenth century) give independent 
testimony. The former states that several branches of the Jihun enter the lake of 
Kharezm, but that the main arm, passing through Eharezm, precipitates itself from 
the heights of Khulm, which in Turkish U called Yordeli (noise), for the roar can 
be heard to a distance of 2 or 3 farsakh, after which it falls into the Khazar 
(Caspian) sea at a place called Kbalijan. From Kharezm to the Eca it is six days' 
journey. Formerly flowing into the lake of Kharezm, it changed its course about 
the time the Mongols appeared in the country. Khafizi-Abru makes the same 
statement, saying that now — that is, in the year 820 (1417 of our era) — the Jihun 
had made itself an outlet to the Caspian, crossing the road from Khorasan to 
Bokhara. The Khojent (Sir-darya), he says, reaches Farab (a place on the Amu 
opposite Charjui), and, continuing on its course, unites with the Jihun in the 
Kharezm steppe. In an anonymous history written in 1582, in Turkish, for the 
sultan Murad HI., it is said that God, beiog angry with the people of Kharezm, 
turned aside the Jihun from their capital, Urgench, and that it then flawed at 
some days* journey from the city. — Zendevedeniye, 1902. 

The Water-parting between the Chitral and Gilgit Bivers.— Major G. 



THE MONTHLT RECORD. 

Leslie, n.E., who bai laCelj vUUed Clio Bources of the Kuaar or Chitral r 
finally solved the royatery of the Kirumbar lake, which baa hitherto beea supposed 
to be the source of the Yarkhun (the main afflueut of (he Chitral river) flowing 
west, and of the Karumbar (an amuont of the Gilgit river) flowiag east therefrom. 
Ae was proved in the case uf the Oxua sourcoB, the lake is not, strictly speaking, a 
source at all, but merely an inoideot io the ouree of the Karumbar stroant flowing 
»it, which baa its real or ultimate source in a glacier which sits astride of the 
ri^ dividing the Karumbar and Yarkhun valleys. Just aa the glaciarB and snow- 
fieida astride of the NicolaB range supply all the oaio sources of the Oius in the 
Pamirs by means of ladiating and diverging stream?, so does this glacier send down 
one tributary to the lake oo the course of lbs Earuuibar (the lake is locally known 
■B Zhoe Sar), acd another to the Yarkhiin. The glacier, and not the Inke, is thus 





the common origin or source of both st 
* rough sketch seat home by Major Leslie. 

ATBIOA. 



The accompanyiDg map it 



£g7pt Fifty Tean hence-— This is the title of an address delivered by 
Sit W, Willcocks to the Kbedivial Geographical Society In March, 1902, which 
ii piinted as an appendii: to the nbore-noticed paper (nee p. 327) on the restorsCion 
of the Meaopotamian irrigation work?. It deserved, perhaps, greater consideration 
at the author's hands, fir, atihough of a somewhat speculative character, this Qight 
Into the future has a busis of solid fuc', and in any case has a apeciat value as the 
forecast of stcb a skilled observer. Taking bis stand, so to say, on Iho barrage 
jut cDDBtructed at Assuau on bis own plans, Sir William looks up and down the 
gnat artery, and sees visions of ever-growing proBt)erity, not only in Egypt, the 



I 





330 THE MONTHLY RICORIX 

land immediately benefited by that great work, but also in the whole region from 
the equatorial lakes to the Mediterranean. What, he asks, will the Nile valley 
look like fifty years hence ? And he answer^?, " Green it will surely be ; but it will 
be no longer a beacon pointing to the permanent prosperity which the irrigation 
systems of the ancient world could confer on a country. It will be a beacon showing 
what modern irrigation and modern science cm do to develop agricultural wealth." 
Works will be carriei out far beyond those of the Pharaohs of the twelfth dynasty, 
works which, in all human probability, will raise Egypt to a height of splendour 
and magnificence never witnessed even by the Hamses and Thotmes of the Middle 
Empire. A chief fiictor in developing the natural resources of the land to its utmost 
capacity will be the gradual transformation now going on of the old basin irrigation 
to a perennial system, to be effected by repealing the operations at Assuan on 
a greatly enlarged Fcale at all advantageous points in the direction of Khartum and 
the great lakes. Here will be constructed the vast reservoirs by which the upper 
Nile waters are to be husbanded and brought completely under control, and here 
will be settled the millions cf industrious /e/ZaAm who "will have streamed south- 
ward into the peninsulas of Meroe and Sennaar, to begin there a new Egypt which 
may one day rival the old." Another element of prosperity will be the Suez Canal, 
a most valuable asset which reverts to the Egyptian Government in a few decades. 
Then, fifty years hence there will be communication by steam along the whole length 
of the Nile valley. By steamboat and by railway it will be possible to proceed from 
Alexandria and Port Said to Mombasa. The products of the Sudan will be finding 
an efficient outlet by means of the Khartum-Berber- Suakin railway. It may even 
be possible, by railway and by steamboat, to proceed to the Cape. In this latter 
case a colossal statue of Mr. Cecil Rhodes will greet the railway travt Her as he 
passes the equator, just as Lesseps' statue greets him on entering the Suez 
Canal. The White Nile itself will undergo great changes, when the sudd and 
other obstructions are permanently removed, and its waters, now partly lost in the 
terrible swamps about the Sobat confluence, will flow over mighty weirs and dams, 
and down well-regulated channels. " From Lado to Khartum will be one unbroken 
stream, about 500 metres in width, of pure and wholesome water, with long rows 
of willows by the water's side on either bauk. The sudd regions and the sudd 
marshes even, in great part, will have ceased to exist, and in their place will be the 
beginning of millions of acres of rice-fields and water-nuts." There is to be a huge 
regulating weir at Ripon falls, where the Nile leaves the Victoria Nyanza, and here, 
as well as at the Nile cataracts, will also spring up electric stations and factories for 
grinding plantain meal, one of the most nutritious and digestible foods in the world. 
At Tobongo, south of Wadelai, will be the great regulating weir, like those of 
Assiut and the Delta, but very much larger. *' The amount of water held up will 
be 4 metres, and the width of the weir will be some 400 metres. It will be possible 
to discharge 2500 cubic metres per second at any time of the year. This quantity 
of water will suffice for the irrigation of 8,000,000 acres of cotton or sugar-cane in 
the valley of the Nile." It is to be hoped that no untoward complications may 
arise to disappoint the author's sanguine forecast. 

The British East Africa Protectorate.— Sir Charles Eliot's recent report 
on the East Africa Protectorate (Africa, No. 6, 1903) is most interesting reading, 
and ODce more affords abundant evidence that in the Protectorate we have a 
possession which well deserves the attention of all interested in the development 
of the British Empire. The record of progress during the past year is, on the 
whole, thoroughly satisfactory, both as regards the material improvemeiits intro- 
duced and the tendency displayed by the native inhabitants to accept the control 
of the white man and live peaceably under his administration. The policy 



THU HONTHLT RECORD. 

rscommeiiiii^ by tlie High Com missio tier of avoiding for the pregent a forward 

policy in the outlying provinces, and concentrating effort on thoee already more 

or )«ss brought under cootrul, Heems thoroughly wise, for it \e evident that the 

Lattei- districts will supply work for the mjst energetic administration for some 

time to come. In the uorihero ■puU of the protectorate (Juhaland, etc.) the 

SomaJis form a disturbing eleraeat, and without greatly improved communi- 

catioDs the permanent lettleinent of Kiiropeans among them, which would no 

doubt gradually change their altitude, is quite impracticable. In the Tanaland 

proyince the fertile districts of the Lamu and lower Tann regiooH are of conaider- 

sble importaiioe, though here too the fear of Somali raids has to be reckoned with. 

la the chief ccaet centres, the commissiooer rapjrls a groat improvement as 

haviog taken place siuce he Qrst knew them. At Mombasa the streets have been 

drained, enlarged, and beautified, new roads made, a holol and bank opened, while 

a cathedral is in coatemplation, and a Hmdu temple and Mohammedan temple 

■re Dearly completed. Improveinects have alsi been made at Lamu, Malindi, 

Takaungu, and Kipini, and a pier has been built at Mtanganyiko, a grain- 

eiportiog centio at the head of the beautiful Kilifi crotk. In the interior a great 

advance ha« been made at Nairobi, where eKcellcot roads have been made in all 

directions, and a fair number of Bho;:a opened, while there is a decent hotel and 

OD0 cab. The fiatne^s of the site (chosen originally merely aa a railway centre) 

is a diaadrantage from a aanilary point uf view, but the adjoining swamp hae 

been drained and turned into market gardens, while it is intended in future to 

build principally on the healthy surroundiog hills. Sir Cbarles Eliot fully sup' 

ports Sir U. Johnston's views aa to the suitability of a large part of the interior 

plateaus for European settlement, which gives to the East Africa Protectorate 

^now embracing the whole ountrj up to the Victoria lake) its special importance 

^mong recent additions to the British Empire. As a field for colonization it is 

compared with Australia and New Zealand, while it is said to be superior to South 

^Africa, though similar in many wayr. Ten years' eiperience has now shown 

fcbat European children born in the country can live and thrive there. Among 

"the more favoured distiicts, in addition to Kikayu, Kenys, Nandi, Giias Ngishu, 

^c, the commissioner refers specially to Njoro, occupying the hrst low slopes of 

*be Mao escarpment, and to the country lying behind Naivasha and east ot the 

xift-valley, which has hitherto been little known, but which a recent visit enables 

liiffl to pronounce one of the finest districts in the Protectorate. The railway, 

Shough not pasjing through the richest diatrictp, affords a aeries of puints from 

■which they are easily acceatible. Wherever Government stations have been 

vatabliabed, the natives in the neighbonrhood have become peaceable aod friendly, 

the obief difHcul ties arising from the aclions of unscrupulous traders in outlying 

diatricts, and from the propensity of the natives to attack caravans of Bwahilii 

«Dd Indiana. In spite of rumours regarding the existence of gold-bearing reefs, 

the future of the country lies in ita great agricultural resources, derived both 

from its indigenous products and its striking capacity for growing those of other 

countries. It is satisfactory to know that the protection of the valuable forests 

has been secured by the appointment of a Conservator of Forestx. In concIuaioD, 

after pointing out that East Africa is the greatest philanthropio achievement of 

the later cloeteenth century. Sir Charles Eliot expresses the opinion that, with 

proper measures, the country is certain to piy its way in ten years, probably in a 

much thirter period. 

Sr. Hartmann'a Ezplorationt in Sontli-Weat Africa.— Dr. George 

llartroaiin, who taat year gave an account of his eiplor aliens in the region of the 
lower Kunei:e and Ovampo-lind.b^fjre the Bjrlin Geographical Society (see the Zeit- 



332 THE MONTHLY RKCORD. 

Bchrtft of that body, No. 3, 1902) has since given a somewhat fuller narrative in the 
Beitrdge zur Kolonidlpolitik, published by the German Colonial Society (1902-3, 
part 13). The journeys were made in 1900 and 1901, one of the main objects being 
to study the question of a possible railway route from the Otavi copper-mines to 
the coast. But apart from their results in this direction, they have thrown much 
new light on the physical features of the country, which, espacially in the so-called 
** Eaoko-Feld *' to the south of the Kunene, las hitherto been very iooperfectly 
known. This region was explored in 1900, great difficulties being experienced 
from the nature of the country. The chief characteristic is the terrace-formation , 
which is prolonged beyond the Eunene into Portuguese territory. The coast-plain, 
or first terrace, is bounded to the east by a line of hills and sand-dunep, beyond 
which lies the higher " Namib ^' plain, while this again leads to an exceedingly 
broken mountainous zone, consisting in great part of table mountains, which are 
the outliers of the great interior plateau which lies still further east. A vast 
number of watercourses run down between these mountains, and though dry for a 
great part of the year, the underground water is sufficient to support a considerable 
vegetation ; and as in the south their beds can be traced to the sea, they there 
form bridges, as it were, by which the otherwise waterless plain can be crossed 
with ease. In the north they all disappear in the line of sand-dunes, and the coast 
region is here particularly inhospitable and ^difficult to travel through. It was 
found that the various watercourses (one of which was discovered for the first 
time) had been placed too far north on the existing maps, and that their direction 
had also been shown inaccurately. In the mountain valleys the vegetation is 
luxuriant, becoming more and more tropical towards the north. Palms reach far to 
the s